Presentation on theme: "A Grammar Boot Camp for Sophomores. Bad sentences are worse than a GTS to the face !"— Presentation transcript:
A Grammar Boot Camp for Sophomores
Bad sentences are worse than a GTS to the face !
A.Parts of a Sentence 1.Clauses a)Independent Clause: has a subject and a verb and can stand on its own b)Subordinate Clause: has a subject and a verb but cannot stand on its own 2.Phrases 1.Always missing either a noun or a verb 2.Can be prepositional, participial, gerund, infinitive, appositive
After he spent the majority of his career battling in the developmental territories of ECW and FCW, often playing to small audiences in flea market warehouses and trailer parks, making little money and living in the back seat of cars during extended tours while rarely seeing his family or friends and simultaneously dealing with painful injuries he could not afford to have treated. OR He won.
B. A sentence must be an independent clause. A fragment is not an independent clause. Length is irrelevant. Since CM Punk spent nearly 500 days as WWE Champion. CM Punk dedicates his life to drug-free living. He has a tattoo of a Pepsi logo on his arm. After he grew weary of his friends getting beer logos tattooed on them. Sentence or fragment?
During the summer of 2012, CM Punk shocked the world when he dropped his now iconic pipe bomb, during which he cruelly slandered Vince McMahaon and the entire WWE leadership in a series of caustic insults and observations until his microphone was cut off, yet he earned vindication only a short month later when he beat John Cena, claimed his WWE championship, and then promptly quit the company carrying the belt out of the building with him. OR He won, it was amazing.
C. A run-on sentence consists of two independent clauses inappropriately combined. Length is irrelevant. CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era, he is a skillful performer and athlete. Fix A Run-On in One of Three Ways: CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era; he is a skillful performer and athlete. CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era, and he is a skillful performer and athlete. CM Punk is the most successful wrestler of the modern era. He is a skillful performer and athlete.
If you want to learn how to use a comma, give me a Hell Yeah !
A.A Comma is NOT used for pauses in sentences B.A Comma is NOT used in place of periods C.A Comma is NOT the same thing as a semicolon People who make these mistakes deserve a Stone Cold Stunner. And thats the bottom line because Stone Cold said so.
A.Use a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (known as compound sentences) 1.The coordinating conjunctions are FOR, AND, NOR, BUT, OR, YET, SO. 2.Be careful not to confuse compound sentences with sentences with compound predicates. Stone Cold Steve Austin was a prominent wrestler of late 90s, but a series of leg injuries shortened his career. Stone Cold involved himself in numerous feuds with Vince McMahon and fought in two Wrestlemania main events against the Rock.
B. When a subordinate clause begins a sentence, it must be followed by a comma. After Stone Cold won his matches, he generally celebrated by drinking beers in the ring. Because Stone Cold had a propensity for cussing and drinking on television, the WWE used to be rated for mature audiences only. Since Stone Cold retired and WWE inked a deal with Hasbro, the television show has become more kid-friendly than in the past.
C. When a prepositional phrase begins a sentence, it is always followed by a comma. In the ring, Stone Cold was known for his rough and brawling style. During his matches, he won using a finishing move called the Stunner. After his retirement from wrestling, Stone Cold became a reality TV host and hunting advocate. Important Note: Some English textbooks will say you only need the comma if there are two or more prepositional phrases. Others will say only when needed. A good rule of thumb: when the rule is optional, always use it.
D. Use commas to offset nonessential subordinate adjective clauses and participial phrases in sentences. 1. Nonessential means that the information is not necessary for the remainder of the independent clause to make sense – it is not related to the main idea of the sentence. The wrestler who hated Stone Cold the most was HHH. Stone Cold, enraged by corporate nepotism, refused to do advertisements for Wrestlemani a events. HHH, who is married to Vince McMahons daughter, had several main event matches against Stone Cold. The two icons had many feuds which fans still remember to this day.
E. Use commas to separate adjectives of equal importance when they are used beside one another in a sentence. 1. The test to see if they are of equal importance is to reverse their order. If the sentence still makes sense, their importance is equal.
Stone Cold was an important, influential part of the WWEs history. Stone Cold was an influential, important part of the WWEs history. Stone Cold was the first prominent wrestler to achieve mainstream success since Hulk Hogan. Stone Cold was the prominent first wrestler to achieve mainstream success since Hulk Hogan. When you reverse the order, the sentence still makes sense. Thus, equal importance. Thus, use a comma. When you reverse the order, the sentence does NOT make sense. Thus, NOT equal importance. Thus, do NOT use a comma.
Use commas for items in a series Stone Colds greatest matches were against The Rock, HHH, and Kurt Angle. Use commas for items that interrupt a sentence Kurt Angle is, I think, now dealing with some drug problems. Use commas after direct address Vince McMahon, will you let me become a professional wrestler? Use commas when identifying some geographical locations Monday Night Raw is visiting Baltimore, Maryland, in February. Use commas to set off appositive phrases. Many fans suspect that Brock Lesnar, another attitude-era legend, will return by that time.
I can t be seen by you… …I mean… You can t see me
A.Verbs have many tenses. Present ActivePlayEat Present ProgressiveIs PlayingIs Eating Present Perfect activeHave PlayedHave Eaten Present Perfect PassiveHas Been PlayedHas Been Eaten Present Perfect ProgressiveHave Been PlayingHave Been Eating Past ActivePlayedAte Past ProgressiveWas PlayingWas Eating Past Perfect ActiveHad playedHad Eaten Past Perfect PassiveHad been playedHad Been Eaten Past Perfect ProgressiveHad been playingHad Been Eating Future ActiveWill PlayWill Eat Future ProgressiveWill Be PlayingWill Be Eating Future Perfect ActiveWill Have PlayedWill Have Eaten Future Perfect PassiveWill Have Been PlayedWill Have Been Eaten Future Perfect ProgressiveWill Have Been PlayingWill Have Been Eating
B. When writing about literature (such as summarizing plot or analyzing significance), you are ALWAYS to use verb forms in the present tense. C. When writing about the life of an author or summarizing historical information, you are always to use verb forms in the past tense. The champ wants you to look at the paragraph on the following slide.
Holden established himself as an unreliable narrator early in The Catcher in the Rye. As Holden, the first person narrator and protagonist, introduced himself to his reader, he described his situation as one wherein he was institutionalized. He refused to talk about his childhood and simply said that he was run down. He proceeded to admit that he was someplace to take it easy and that his brother visits [him] practically every week end (Salinger 3). Holdens avoidance of truth and vague description of his circumstances suggested that, from the start, he was unwilling to be honest with his reader. The author established a sense of distance between the audience and speaker that pervaded the entire novel. Salinger, who also struggled with psychological problems, likely related to Holdens disillusionment and paranoia.
Holden establishes himself as an unreliable narrator early in The Catcher in the Rye. As Holden, the first person narrator and protagonist, introduces himself to his reader, he describes his situation as one wherein he is institutionalized. He refuses to talk about his childhood and simply says that he is run down. He proceeds to admit that he is someplace to take it easy and that his brother visits [him] practically every week end (Salinger 3). Holdens avoidance of truth and vague description of his circumstances suggest that, from the start, he is unwilling to be honest with his reader. The author establishes a sense of distance between the audience and speaker that pervades the entire novel. Salinger, who also struggled with psychological problems, likely related to Holdens disillusionment and paranoia.
A.Sentences using action verbs can be constructed in the ACTIVE or PASSIVE voice. B.In the active voice, the performer of the action appears prior to the verb, and the passive voice, the order is reversed. John Cena defeated Alberto Del Rio. (active) Alberto Del Rio was defeated by John Cena. (passive)
C.ALWAYS USE THE ACTIVE VOICE in academic writing. D.Whenever possible, ALWAYS USE ACTION VERBS in academic writing. The championship was won by John Cena, and he was cheered by the fans. John Cena won the championship, and the fans cheered for him.
John Cena is the most popular wrestler of the modern era. John Cena earns the adulation of more fans than any other performer in the modern era. John Cenas motto is Hustle, Loyalty, Respect. John Cenas personifies his motto of Hustle, Loyalty, Respect. After being beaten by the Rock at Wrestlemania last year, revenge will be Cenas after the Royal Rumble is won by him this year. After the Rock beat John Cena at Wrestlemania last year, John Cena vowed revenge and will earn another opportunity after winning the Royal Rumble this year.
The WWE Championship has been won by John Cena 10 times, but he was not a champion at all this year. John Cena is a supporter of the US military, and his participation in the annual Tribute to the Troops is admired by many fans. More Make-A-Wish opportunities have been granted by John Cena than by any one else in history, and many suffering young peoples lives were touched by Cenas dedication.
The TAG TEAM CHAMPIONS of grammar. Teamwork matters in grammar too.
A.Within a sentence, a writer must be certain to maintain what is called parallel structure. B.Parallel structure refers to a writers obligation to make sure words, phrases, and clauses within a sentence are all in the same form. Look at this sentence: what is the problem? Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the Rock N Sock Connection, were famous for incredible skills on the microphone, having worked matches of legendary quality, and they were always willing to put their bodies on the line.
Notice how the list in the sentences predicate consists first of a prepositional phrase, then of a participial phrase, and then is finally an independent clause.
Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the Rock N Sock Connection, were famous for their incredible skills on the microphone, their matches of legendary quality, and their reckless lack of self-concern. Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the Rock N Sock Connection, earned renown for dazzling audiences on the microphone, putting on matches of legendary quality, and putting their bodies on the line. Mick Foley and the Rock, known as the Rock N Sock Connection, are regarded because they were unmatched on the microphone, they put on matches of legendary quality, and they consistently put their bodies on the line.
The talented Mick Foley has been hit with barbed wire, lit on fire, and the Undertaker threw him from a cage. After losing an ear, the rock hitting him with a chair 30 times, and inhaling a tooth, Mick Foley retired in 2005.
The Rock, whose career lasted much longer, often found success by cheating, lying, and he often betrayed his friends. He later turned face, meaning good, and created incredible moments such as his epic match with Hulk Hogan at Wrestlemania, his long feud with HHH, and making frequent use of sexually lewd innuendos.
Hulkamania is going to run wild on your writing!
A.In academic writing, a quote must ALWAYS be tagged, meaning it is introduced in some way and not merely dropped into a paragraph. Hulk Hogans early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. Drink your milk and take your vitamins. Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing.
Hulk Hogans early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. He is known for frequently saying, Drink your milk and take your vitamins. Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing. Hulk Hogans early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. Drink your milk and take your vitamins, he frequently said. Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing. Hulk Hogans early success came primarily from his status as a role model for younger viewers. Drink your milk, he frequently said, and take your vitamins. Children found his positive attitude and seeming super strength appealing.
B.Commas appear prior to a quote unless the quote is functioning as part of a sentence. Notice the difference: Hulk Hogan often said, What are you gonna do, brother, when these 24-inch pythons run wild on you? Hulk Hogan often referred to his opponents as brother and warned that his 24-inch pythons might run wild on them.
C. Punctuation appears inside of quotation marks unless a parenthetical citation is provided; the punctuation appears after a citation. In 1995, Hogan left the WWE and remarked, It was the money that really got to me. In 1995, Hogan left the WWE and remarked, It was the money that really got to me (LaBar 13).
D. A final note: when using quotations as part of dialogue in creative writing, you must start a new paragraph every time the speaker changes. As the big event arrived, Hulk and Rock found themselves standing eye to eye as bitter enemies. Months of verbal jabbing, media scrutiny, and physical confrontations culminated in one epic match. Staring into Hulks eyes, the Rock said, Know your role, and shut your mouth. Listen brother, Hulkamanias about to run wild on you, Hulk replied. Time to retire, Jabroni, the Rock responded. Well see about that, Hulk said. The bell rang, and the match promptly began with a series of jabs and chops.