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Week 12 - Professionalism, Hockey and Government Involvement in 20th Century Canadian Sport.

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Presentation on theme: "Week 12 - Professionalism, Hockey and Government Involvement in 20th Century Canadian Sport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 12 - Professionalism, Hockey and Government Involvement in 20th Century Canadian Sport

2 1900-1960+ $ Era of the Pro Prostitute status in 00 to Our Best High quality performance era of strong sport performance for Cdns

3 R Tait McKenzie 32 Ol Shield

4 Brothers of the Wind Joy of Effort


6 Hanlan & Hanlan Club to promote Paris Crew promoted themselves

7 Louis Cyr promoted himself as entertainer-strongman

8 Edouard Newsy Lalonde Best lacrosse player of ½ century Imperial tobacco company cards Issued in 1911

9 BA Scott and St Lawrence foundation to promote and invest her commercial interests

10 Burns (born Noah Brusso) and pro promotion Jimmy McLarnin ltw (1923-36) retired bec of skilful promotion

11 Lionel Pretoria Conacher Pro in Football, Hockey, Baseball, Lacrosse, Boxing, Wrestling





16 King Carl Cdn hopes


18 Say it aint so, Ben Bennies Johnson Fastest Junkie on Earth


20 Hockey History Leagues International competition The monopoly The dominant sport Marketing violence Canadas game? The Sweater

21 Shinty Hurley Shinny Bandy Montreal 1875 – 9 men per side McGill University rules Montreal City Hockey League - 1885



24 AmHA – 1886 OHA – 1890 Lord Stanley – Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley International Hockey League – 1904 National Hockey Association, 1910 Pacific Coast League: The Patricks National Hockey League 1917 Western Canadian Hockey League 1922

25 Taylors salary of $5200 in 09 made him most highly paid pro player in any sport at the time

26 Lester Patrick

27 Hockeys Popularity 1. Town boosterism 2. Commercialization 3. Popular press 4. International competition 5. American Money 6. Radio 7. Television




31 US, Czech, Sweden 28 for 1 against 1920 Winter Olympic Games (unofficial)

32 1924 Chamonix, France Toronto Granites First Round: Canada22Sweden 0 33Switz 0 20Czech 0

33 1924 Team

34 1924 Round 2 Canada 19Britain2 6US1

35 1928 St. Mortiz Toronto Grads: 3 pools Canada11Sweden 0 13Switz0 14Britain0

36 1932 Lake Placid Winnipeg

37 1936 Garmish-Partenkirken Canada-Britain

38 1948 St. Moritz Royal Canadian Air Force Flyers

39 1952 Oslo Edmonton Mercuries

40 American $$ US owners – monopoly Mobility, pay, playing rights

41 Hockey Violence The law Expansion after 1967 The Broad Street Bullies The Big Bad Bruins Don Cherry and the marketing of violence as entertainment

42 Why? Safety valve theory – letting off steam Intensity creates hair trigger tempers Puts people in the seats How boys and men learn to understand sport and its relationship to masculinity – confrontation is a test Respect from opponents – stick work

43 Canada Cup 1976; 1 st time pro hockey players included in all national teams for best in the world

44 Summary Small town, big city identification International success = expectation + national identity Stars – icons of Canadian culture Monopoly

45 American Gothic ?

46 Canadian Gothic ?

47 Hockey has left the river and will never return. But like the street, like an ivory tower, the river is less a physical place than an attitude, a metaphor for unstructured, unorganized time alone. And if the game no longer needs the place, it needs the attitude



50 Government Involvement in 20 th Century Sport Megan Popovic UWO Doctoral Candidate Kin 263: Canadian Sport History

51 Denis Coderre Secretary of State- Amateur Sport Sport…heart of Canadian life…benefits for each and every Canadian, for our communities, and our country…qualities we value as Canadians – fairness, team spirit, hard work, dedication, and commitment…hard-working, dedicated and committed high performance athletes are role models for our children…physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health and well- being…develops character…discipline and perseverance…way for Canadians to get to know each other.

52 Intentions of Lecture Examine the larger social structure and cultural environment in which sport and physical activity function Look at the potential contribution of sport policy in strengthening citizenship and social cohesion Ask: –Forces and events caused govt action? –Key Actors? –Consequences of Actions?

53 Citizenship On one hand, citizenship is a legal, political, and social reality, a distinct way to organize and experience membership in a social and political community. On the other hand, it is both an idea and an ideal: the particular way in which we reflect upon evaluate this membership

54 Contribution of Sport Policy to Citizenship 1. Promotion of national identity and minority identities 2. Attainment of social rights and cultural rights: sport as common good 3. Participation in the life of the political community (volunteer involvement) 4. Set of moral qualities (civic virtues)

55 Question to Consider: Have Canadian sport policies contributed to the development of citizenship?

56 Stakeholders Athletes Coaches Administrators Educational systems Canadian public Sport organizations Federal government Provinces/ municipalities/ territories Canadian media

57 Sport and Rec and the Welfare State Welfare State: the state has direct economic stake in the provision of public education, public health care, the setting of minimum wage, the regulation of profits, pollution and environmental degradation, and the development of legislation aimed at fair employment practices and equal opportunities for all citizens

58 Citizenship Regime -a specific form of recognition of certain rights that is association with a dominant form of legitimate state action and the states relationship with society -each citizenship regime links to: - a specific type of rights (R), and -a legitimate form of state action (A)

59 Period: 1930-1945 Role of state: Emergence of welfare state Citizenship regime: Liberal –R: Civic rights –A: Responsibility for self Policy objectives: Specific intervention, moral reform, employability

60 1930-1945 Pro-Rec program –B.C. in 1934 Strathcona Trust Charitable organizations: YMCA, YWCA, Boys and Girls Club, Rec committees Liberal –specific state interventions to support citizens, specifically youth, to enable them to take control of their lives to became responsible and productive citizens

61 Period: 1945-1975 Role of state: Consolidation of welfare state Citizenship regime: Social –R: Social rights –A: Social justice Policy objectives: Right to sports, disease prevention

62 1945-1975 5 BX/ 10 BX RCAF Programs –5 Basic eXercises for Men –10 Basic eXercises for Women –Graduated callisthenic exercises –Very widely distributed and sold –Indirectly government since RCAF –Note: Militarism of Strath Trust, NFP Act, and 5BX/XBX

63 CBC Archives 5 Basic eXercises –Broadcasted Aug. 16, 1961 –RCAF exercises performed for 11 minutes a day are ideal for both the champion athlete and the modern housewife 5 Basic eXercises - Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness Movement - CBC Archives5 Basic eXercises - Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness Movement - CBC Archives





68 1945-1975 Bill C-131 Fitness and Amateur Sport Act –Larger forces and events: Post-war internationalism in sport Impact of television Urbanization and industrialization Socio-economic changes Growth of government

69 CBC Archives Armchair Suicide –Broadcast July 16, 1968 –The sudden death rate climbs as lazy Canadians sit in front of the boob tube, experts say Committing armchair suicide - Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness Movement - CBC ArchivesCommitting armchair suicide - Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness Movement - CBC Archives

70 PM John Diefenbaker Believed success in sport by Canadians would have positive effect on national pride: In the field of sport today there are tremendous dividends in national price from some degree of success in athletics. The uncommitted countries of the world are now using these athletic contests as measurements of the evidence of the strength and power of nations participating.

71 Fitness and Amateur Sport Act 1961 to encourage, promote, and develop fitness and amateur sport in Canada (Canada 1961: Chapter 59, Section 3) that a national fitness, recreation, and amateur athletic program be established that an Advisory Council be established that provision be made through grants and training courses for training of personnel and for research and surveys that federal assistance be given in the preparation of informational and educational material on fitness, recreation, and athletics, that $5 million be made available that a cabinet committee be established to consider the manner of presentation of the national fitness program

72 F & AS Money Spent On: Federal-provincial cost-sharing programs Grants to sport governing bodies Hockey Coaching leadership and training programs Bursary programs for elite athletes Canada Games (Unity through sport) Scholarship and research programs

73 F & AS Act Few grants to grass roots level House of commons debates through 1960s clear –quest was for international sport prestige they watered the flowers instead of the fields

74 Administration of F & AS Act Administered by National Advisory Council NAC interested in mass participation and fitness Govt interested in gold medals NAC advisory only and always in conflict with Ministry of Health and Welfare

75 Task Forces Trudeau government set up dual study commissions in 1968 There are a certain number of symptoms which worry me –the fact that hockey is our national sport and yet in the world championship we have not been able, as amateurs, to perform as well as we know we can.

76 Task Forces 1969 Report on the Task Force on Sport in Canada –Task Force Report –Looked at sport in Canada –Nancy Green + 2 non-sport admins –Concern: hockey and international sport

77 Task Forces 1969 A Report on Physical Recreation, Fitness and Amateur Sport in Canada –The PS Ross Report –Look at fitness of Canadians and resulted in ParticipACTION

78 1969 Task Force Report Report heavy emphasis on revitalizing sport in Canada re performance Most comprehensive on Hockey Canada and ways to WIN!! (not since 1961 had won world championship) Best result: Sport Canada, Recreation Canada

79 1969 Task Force Report Noted how Pro sport had destroyed regional competition Problems unique to Canada –huge geographical mass; 1000s of $$ rinks; apathetic public; lack of athletic development programs Significant and comprehensive report

80 F & AS Act Contributions? Systematized sport organization Created a bureaucracy of sport including large administration center in Ottawa Creation of National Coaching Assoc; Canada Fitness Awards program; set up grants-in-aid to athletes program; founded Cdn Academy of Sports Medicine; grants to international sport groups and games (ie Olympics)

81 F & AS Act Contributions? Set precedents for provincial government programs/services Best Ever programs like Best Ever 88 Became THE control agency for sport in Canada at all levels Bureaucratized sport; one more step in its institutionalization

82 Period: 1975-2000 Role of state: State-Province Restructuring Citizenship Regime: Neo-liberal –R: Rights based on proven needs –A: Citizen responsibility Policy Objectives: Promotion of healthy lifestyle

83 ParticipACTION From 1969 study commissioned by NAC for Fitness and Amateur Sport –concluded Cdns in terrible shape, future of well-beings of Cdns in jeopardy, and most Cdns couldnt care less

84 ParticipACTION: 3 Objectives 1. Create a national awareness and educational campaign regarding the health and social benefits of an active lifestyle, with practical advie on getting started 2. leverage the public funds invested by generating private sector support to at least match the public funds 3. cooperate with and support the efforts of community-based health, sport and p.a. leaders and their programs

85 ParticipACTION Mass Media Campaigns 3 decades: 533 television messages and 549 radio messages Assessed value: $280 million Supported by: 350 TV stations, 110 daily newspapers, 950 weekly newspapers, 1100 magazines, 1100 corporate publications and associations newsletters Also part of ParticipACTION: –Community-based initiatives –Education programs –Creation of resources (healthy eating, work- place health and activity, etc)

86 Early Years 1973-79



89 Theme for 1983-64

90 Vitality 1990-95

91 Sharing a healthier future 1996- 2000 All in the family video clip

92 PARTICIPaction ParticipACTION packing it in? - Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness Movement - CBC ArchivesParticipACTION packing it in? - Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness Movement - CBC Archives

93 Period: 2000+ Role of state: Post-welfare state Citizenship regime: Inclusive state –R: Social and cultural rights –Inclusive governance Policy obligations: Access to sport

94 2000+ The Canadian Sport Policy (2002) Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for Collaborative Action in Sport (2002) Bill C-54 Physical Activity and Sport Act (replace Fitness and Amateur Sport Act of 1961) (2003)

95 Final thought… Funding Canadian athletes: An opposing view - Funding of Amateur Sports - CBC ArchivesFunding Canadian athletes: An opposing view - Funding of Amateur Sports - CBC Archives

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