Presentation on theme: "Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq"— Presentation transcript:
1 Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq A Central Asian Mancala GameI'm not really an expert, but I know more about it than most people in Europe :-)And it is a pity, because, as we'll see, togyzqumalaq is a very interesting gameI'll talk about:Historical and cultural dataorganization, institutional support, tournaments...rulessimilitudes with other gamesboardquestions and answerslet's play!Víktor Bautista i Roca
2 ТоғызқұмалақTogyzqumalaq is a traditional mancala game played in Central Asia:KazakhstanKyrgyzstanTajikistanUzbekistanTurkmenistanparts of Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Tuva, Karachay-Cherkessia)Western Mongoliain China in regions close to the aforementioned countriesOften people think manqala games are only played by African people or people of African descent. Some will also think about Southern India, Indonesia or the Philipines. Very few, when talking about manqala games, thinks about turk and mongol people.
3 Where is it playedThis is the area where it is played. In Russian, maybe also the border area. Darker, the more traditional places, where there is Kazakh and Kirghiz people. Clearer, not so traditional. The small point in the Caucasus is Karachai-Cherkessia. The Karachai – Balkars (from Kabardino – balkaria) are Turk people, as Kazakhs and Kirghizs. Even more, Karachais deported to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan desert by Stalin
4 Names Тоғызқұмалақ (Kazakh) Toguz korgool (Kyrgyz) Toğızqumalaq, toghyzqumalaq or togyzqumalaq (Kazakh, different transliterations)Togus kumalak (German sources)Тогуз кумалак (Russian)Toguz kumalak, togyz kumalak (English sources)Dokuz kumalak (Turkish)Toguz korgool (Kyrgyz)Тогуз коргоол (Kyrgyz, cyrillic script)Dokuz korgol (Turkish)Basic names, in Kazakh and Kirghiz. Kirghiz is now written in Latin script, and Kazakh probably will, but there are different transliterations.Pronounce.Meaning.
5 Origin Some Kazakh people say: The book Laws of Togyzkumalak My guess: Mongol origin, from the Golden HordeThe book Laws of Togyzkumalak“According to archaeologists the game was invented about 4000 years ago by our ancestors who highlighted the intellectual development of a growing generation along with a physical training.”My guess:through silk road and / orwith Islam (8th century, central Asia, 14th century, Golden Horde)1 Maksat told me2 Manqala games or just Togyzqumalaq?3 Just my intuition, of course!
6 Golden Horde I really didn't know: It was a Mongol country, heir of Genghis Khan, founded in 1240, after conquering Kievan Rus', what would become Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, plus Caucasus and Kazakhstan.
7 Old stone board This board is said to be older than 500 years This is a stone board, said to be older than 500 years. It could be from the Golden Horde age, or Nogai Horde (the next horde)This board is said to be older than 500 years
8 Prestige In Kazakhstan it is considered the national game It is promoted by the Ministry of Tourism and Sports (Comitee of Sports Affairs)There is an official Togyzqumalaq FederationUnlike other manqala games, this one has a lot of prestige.
9 Tournaments Kazakhstan: Kyrgyzstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Arys, Astana, Kostanai, Kyzylorda, Pavlodar, Shymkent, Stepnogorsk, Taldyqorgan, Taraz, TürkistanKyrgyzstan:Bishkek, Cholpan-AtaRussia (Altay, Khakassia, Chelyabinsk, Tuva, Tatarstan)Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan)MongoliaChinaAs we can see, there are lots of competitions. In Kazakhstan... (next slide)
10 Kazakhstan tournaments From 1974, individual championship of the Republic of KazakhstanThe ministry of Tourism and Sports holds yearly individual, team, junior and senior championships of the Republic of KazakhstanFrom 1998, Cup of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.International competition, with participants from Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and UzbekistanFestival Middle Asia and Kazakhstanaside of local tournaments, there are:
11 Tournaments - Images Lots of contenders. Flags and general view. As you can see, lots of people. And they use chess clocks.They have even clubs and tournaments for blind people. In fact, they also play in tournaments for non-blind, but with special metallic qumalaq (balls)They write down every movement.
12 Titles and degrees 5 sports degrees 2 titles Elo system 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and candidate Master of Sports2 titlesMaster of Sports of International classMaster of Sports of the Republic of KazakhstanElo systemThere is eve an Elo system.For example, for the higher title, the one Maksat has, men need to have a 2450 Elo points during 30 games, and women 2350 Elo points.
13 Rules – The “orda” board 2 rows, 9 holes (otau) per rowEach player owns a row2 deposits (kazan)Each player owns one9 balls (qumalaq) per hole“Orda” means “Horde”, or “army”, I don't know why they call it this way, but in English books they call it this way.otau means “section”kazan means “boiler”qumalaq means “balls”art, tekturmas, at otpes, at surtar, bel, belbasar, kandykakpan, kokmoinand mandai
14 Rules - MovingThe player takes all the balls of a hole on his side, and distribute them anticlockwise, one per hole, on the following holes, starting from the very same hole he took them from.You can say you take all but one.
15 Rules – Moving a singleton If the movement is done from a hole with just a single ball, it is moved to the next hole. It is the only case the starting hole becomes empty.If you play you'll see this makes a big difference with other games. After moving from a hole, you can move it again! it is also interesting to count moves in hand.
16 Rules – CapturingIf the last ball falls into a hole on the other side, and the contents of this hole become an even number of balls, these are captured and stored on the player's kazan.Even capture.
17 Rules - TuzdyqIf the last ball falls into a hole on the opponent's side, and the contents of this hole number then three balls, the hole becomes your тұздық (tuzdyq) and it is marked as such.As in many other games, as ajwa from Eastern Africa, or some Maghrib games (um laarais) or Somali games (selus, sadéqa, qelat, layly goobalay, but these with multiple lap sowing)The name means “sacred place”. In Kirghiz it is called “tuz”, “salt”.In books, it is called tuzdyq, by mail Maksat told me “tüz üi”.
18 Rules – About the tuzdyq Only a tuzdyq per player can be madeA tuzdyq cannot be done on the opponent's last hole (9th, the one on his right).A tuzdyq cannot be done if it is symmetrical to the opponent's oneWhen a tuzdyq cannot be done, we can finish a movement there, but the hole does not become a tuzdyqA movement cannot begin from a tuzdyqThe balls that fall into a tuzdyq are captured by its owner.Symmetrical to a point: second on the left, second on the left...
19 Rules – End of the gameThe game ends when a player cannot move at his turn (atsyrau)Both players add the contents of their tuzdyq to their kazanThe player who has still balls on his side gets them and adds them to his kazanThe winner is the player with more balls at the end of the game. If both players have captured 81 balls, the game is a drawThe game can also end if a player has captured more than 81 ballsUsually the endgame consists in not allowing the balls to go to the opponent's side. It is exactly as the move in hand in oware.
20 Related games Бестемщі (bestemshe or bestemshshi) Қоздату (kozdatu) togyzqumalaq played in a 2x5 board, with 5 balls per holeҚоздату (kozdatu)togyzqumalaq played in a 2x7 board, with 7 balls per holeThey are (or were) children games, played by Kazakh people.bes means 5
21 Similar games Adji-boto (Surinam, Herskovits 1929, 1932) Same sowingTihbat (Morocco, Kinast 2007)Same sowing; capturing 2, 4, 6 or 8 on any sideUm dyar (Western Sahara, Mauritania, Béart 1955, Pinto Cebrián 1999)Same sowing; capturing even numbers, not greater than the initial ammount, any side.Zacoc / Hefari (Morocco, Bautista i Roca)Same sowing; capturing even numbers, any sidePıç (Turkey, Metin And 1979)Same sowing; capturing holes by 3sNot the first one, but the next three ones maybe could be related. They are opposite extrems of the Umma...In Morocco capture is also made in consecutive holes. In none of them holes are captured.Pıç, not even capture, for several players... probably related.
22 Board design Section numbers Ten balls mark Odd / even Ugly, but functional.otaus have numbers (used for notation)If 10 balls (reaches the mark), last ball will be on the same number on the other side of the board. Si one more than 10, one otau further. If one less, one otau before.
23 The board – Initial position It is very easy to count. Up to the mark, menus one. Also, it is evident what is odd and what is even. This way, Rita, who is less than 5 years old, and doesn't know this mathematical concept, learned how to play, thanks to the board design.Initial position
24 The board – Possible moves South:122336x (13)42528991 (12)North:1228 (27)31 (27)465467798192Let's see, who did follow the explanation!What possible moves for North and South?From what otaus do we reach what otaus?Click 1Click 2nomenclatureLet's look the mark... from 3 to 6, and in otau 3 there are 10+3 balls, and 6 = 3 +3!!! Or from 5 to 4, in 5 there are 10-1balls, and 4 = 5 – 1!!!
25 Thanks I'd like to thank Maksat Shotayev (Максат Шотаев) Aynur JhakapbayevaKhakimjan EleusinovAsel DalyevaJust to end, I'd like to thank some Kazakh people I met first on line, and then in person, in Prague, who made me love this game.And thanks to all of you for attending this speech.
26 That's all, foks! Any question? Let's play! If the organizers consider there is enough time, we could play some tames. With just 10 or 15 minutes we can learn a little bit.