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Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq

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Presentation on theme: "Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq"— Presentation transcript:

1 Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq
A Central Asian Mancala Game I'm not really an expert, but I know more about it than most people in Europe :-)‏ And it is a pity, because, as we'll see, togyzqumalaq is a very interesting game I'll talk about: Historical and cultural data organization, institutional support, tournaments... rules similitudes with other games board questions and answers let's play! Víktor Bautista i Roca

2 Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq is a traditional mancala game played in Central Asia: Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan parts of Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Tuva, Karachay-Cherkessia)‏ Western Mongolia in China in regions close to the aforementioned countries Often people think manqala games are only played by African people or people of African descent. Some will also think about Southern India, Indonesia or the Philipines. Very few, when talking about manqala games, thinks about turk and mongol people.

3 Where is it played This is the area where it is played. In Russian, maybe also the border area. Darker, the more traditional places, where there is Kazakh and Kirghiz people. Clearer, not so traditional. The small point in the Caucasus is Karachai-Cherkessia. The Karachai – Balkars (from Kabardino – balkaria) are Turk people, as Kazakhs and Kirghizs. Even more, Karachais deported to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan desert by Stalin

4 Names Тоғызқұмалақ (Kazakh)‏ Toguz korgool (Kyrgyz)‏
Toğızqumalaq, toghyzqumalaq or togyzqumalaq (Kazakh, different transliterations)‏ Togus kumalak (German sources)‏ Тогуз кумалак (Russian)‏ Toguz kumalak, togyz kumalak (English sources)‏ Dokuz kumalak (Turkish)‏ Toguz korgool (Kyrgyz)‏ Тогуз коргоол (Kyrgyz, cyrillic script)‏ Dokuz korgol (Turkish)‏ Basic names, in Kazakh and Kirghiz. Kirghiz is now written in Latin script, and Kazakh probably will, but there are different transliterations. Pronounce. Meaning.

5 Origin Some Kazakh people say: The book Laws of Togyzkumalak My guess:
Mongol origin, from the Golden Horde The book Laws of Togyzkumalak “According to archaeologists the game was invented about 4000 years ago by our ancestors who highlighted the intellectual development of a growing generation along with a physical training.” My guess: through silk road and / or with Islam (8th century, central Asia, 14th century, Golden Horde)‏ 1 Maksat told me 2 Manqala games or just Togyzqumalaq? 3 Just my intuition, of course!

6 Golden Horde I really didn't know:
It was a Mongol country, heir of Genghis Khan, founded in 1240, after conquering Kievan Rus', what would become Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, plus Caucasus and Kazakhstan.

7 Old stone board This board is said to be older than 500 years
This is a stone board, said to be older than 500 years. It could be from the Golden Horde age, or Nogai Horde (the next horde)‏ This board is said to be older than 500 years

8 Prestige In Kazakhstan it is considered the national game
It is promoted by the Ministry of Tourism and Sports (Comitee of Sports Affairs)‏ There is an official Togyzqumalaq Federation Unlike other manqala games, this one has a lot of prestige.

9 Tournaments Kazakhstan: Kyrgyzstan:
Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Arys, Astana, Kostanai, Kyzylorda, Pavlodar, Shymkent, Stepnogorsk, Taldyqorgan, Taraz, Türkistan Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Cholpan-Ata Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Chelyabinsk, Tuva, Tatarstan) Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) Mongolia China As we can see, there are lots of competitions. In Kazakhstan... (next slide)‏

10 Kazakhstan tournaments
From 1974, individual championship of the Republic of Kazakhstan The ministry of Tourism and Sports holds yearly individual, team, junior and senior championships of the Republic of Kazakhstan From 1998, Cup of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. International competition, with participants from Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan Festival Middle Asia and Kazakhstan aside of local tournaments, there are:

11 Tournaments - Images Lots of contenders. Flags and general view.
As you can see, lots of people. And they use chess clocks. They have even clubs and tournaments for blind people. In fact, they also play in tournaments for non-blind, but with special metallic qumalaq (balls)‏ They write down every movement.

12 Titles and degrees 5 sports degrees 2 titles Elo system
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and candidate Master of Sports 2 titles Master of Sports of International class Master of Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan Elo system There is eve an Elo system. For example, for the higher title, the one Maksat has, men need to have a 2450 Elo points during 30 games, and women 2350 Elo points.

13 Rules – The “orda” board
2 rows, 9 holes (otau) per row Each player owns a row 2 deposits (kazan)‏ Each player owns one 9 balls (qumalaq) per hole “Orda” means “Horde”, or “army”, I don't know why they call it this way, but in English books they call it this way. otau means “section” kazan means “boiler” qumalaq means “balls” art, tekturmas, at otpes, at surtar, bel, belbasar, kandykakpan, kokmoin and mandai

14 Rules - Moving The player takes all the balls of a hole on his side, and distribute them anticlockwise, one per hole, on the following holes, starting from the very same hole he took them from. You can say you take all but one.

15 Rules – Moving a singleton
If the movement is done from a hole with just a single ball, it is moved to the next hole. It is the only case the starting hole becomes empty. If you play you'll see this makes a big difference with other games. After moving from a hole, you can move it again! it is also interesting to count moves in hand.

16 Rules – Capturing If the last ball falls into a hole on the other side, and the contents of this hole become an even number of balls, these are captured and stored on the player's kazan. Even capture.

17 Rules - Tuzdyq If the last ball falls into a hole on the opponent's side, and the contents of this hole number then three balls, the hole becomes your тұздық (tuzdyq) and it is marked as such. As in many other games, as ajwa from Eastern Africa, or some Maghrib games (um laarais) or Somali games (selus, sadéqa, qelat, layly goobalay, but these with multiple lap sowing)‏ The name means “sacred place”. In Kirghiz it is called “tuz”, “salt”. In books, it is called tuzdyq, by mail Maksat told me “tüz üi”.

18 Rules – About the tuzdyq
Only a tuzdyq per player can be made A tuzdyq cannot be done on the opponent's last hole (9th, the one on his right). A tuzdyq cannot be done if it is symmetrical to the opponent's one When a tuzdyq cannot be done, we can finish a movement there, but the hole does not become a tuzdyq A movement cannot begin from a tuzdyq The balls that fall into a tuzdyq are captured by its owner. Symmetrical to a point: second on the left, second on the left...

19 Rules – End of the game The game ends when a player cannot move at his turn (atsyrau)‏ Both players add the contents of their tuzdyq to their kazan The player who has still balls on his side gets them and adds them to his kazan The winner is the player with more balls at the end of the game. If both players have captured 81 balls, the game is a draw The game can also end if a player has captured more than 81 balls Usually the endgame consists in not allowing the balls to go to the opponent's side. It is exactly as the move in hand in oware.

20 Related games Бестемщі (bestemshe or bestemshshi) Қоздату (kozdatu)‏
togyzqumalaq played in a 2x5 board, with 5 balls per hole Қоздату (kozdatu)‏ togyzqumalaq played in a 2x7 board, with 7 balls per hole They are (or were) children games, played by Kazakh people. bes means 5

21 Similar games Adji-boto (Surinam, Herskovits 1929, 1932)‏
Same sowing Tihbat (Morocco, Kinast 2007)‏ Same sowing; capturing 2, 4, 6 or 8 on any side Um dyar (Western Sahara, Mauritania, Béart 1955, Pinto Cebrián 1999)‏ Same sowing; capturing even numbers, not greater than the initial ammount, any side. Zacoc / Hefari (Morocco, Bautista i Roca)‏ Same sowing; capturing even numbers, any side Pıç (Turkey, Metin And 1979)‏ Same sowing; capturing holes by 3s Not the first one, but the next three ones maybe could be related. They are opposite extrems of the Umma... In Morocco capture is also made in consecutive holes. In none of them holes are captured. Pıç, not even capture, for several players... probably related.

22 Board design Section numbers Ten balls mark Odd / even
Ugly, but functional. otaus have numbers (used for notation)‏ If 10 balls (reaches the mark), last ball will be on the same number on the other side of the board. Si one more than 10, one otau further. If one less, one otau before.

23 The board – Initial position
It is very easy to count. Up to the mark, menus one. Also, it is evident what is odd and what is even. This way, Rita, who is less than 5 years old, and doesn't know this mathematical concept, learned how to play, thanks to the board design. Initial position

24 The board – Possible moves
South: 12 23 36x (13)‏ 42 52 89 91 (12)‏ North: 12 28 (27)‏ 31 (27)‏ 46 54 67 79 81 92 Let's see, who did follow the explanation! What possible moves for North and South? From what otaus do we reach what otaus? Click 1 Click 2 nomenclature Let's look the mark... from 3 to 6, and in otau 3 there are 10+3 balls, and 6 = 3 +3!!! Or from 5 to 4, in 5 there are 10-1balls, and 4 = 5 – 1!!!

25 Thanks I'd like to thank Maksat Shotayev (Максат Шотаев)‏
Aynur Jhakapbayeva Khakimjan Eleusinov Asel Dalyeva Just to end, I'd like to thank some Kazakh people I met first on line, and then in person, in Prague, who made me love this game. And thanks to all of you for attending this speech.

26 That's all, foks! Any question? Let's play!
If the organizers consider there is enough time, we could play some tames. With just 10 or 15 minutes we can learn a little bit.

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