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Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq A Central Asian Mancala Game Víktor Bautista i Roca.

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Presentation on theme: "Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq A Central Asian Mancala Game Víktor Bautista i Roca."— Presentation transcript:

1 Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq A Central Asian Mancala Game Víktor Bautista i Roca

2 Тоғызқұмалақ Togyzqumalaq is a traditional mancala game played in Central Asia: Togyzqumalaq is a traditional mancala game played in Central Asia: Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Turkmenistan parts of Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Tuva, Karachay-Cherkessia) parts of Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Tuva, Karachay-Cherkessia) Western Mongolia Western Mongolia in China in regions close to the aforementioned countries in China in regions close to the aforementioned countries

3 Where is it played

4 Names Тоғызқұмалақ (Kazakh) Тоғызқұмалақ (Kazakh) Toğızqumalaq, toghyzqumalaq or togyzqumalaq (Kazakh, different transliterations) Toğızqumalaq, toghyzqumalaq or togyzqumalaq (Kazakh, different transliterations) Togus kumalak (German sources) Togus kumalak (German sources) Тогуз кумалак (Russian) Тогуз кумалак (Russian) Toguz kumalak, togyz kumalak (English sources) Toguz kumalak, togyz kumalak (English sources) Dokuz kumalak (Turkish) Dokuz kumalak (Turkish) Toguz korgool (Kyrgyz) Toguz korgool (Kyrgyz) Тогуз коргоол (Kyrgyz, cyrillic script) Тогуз коргоол (Kyrgyz, cyrillic script) Dokuz korgol (Turkish) Dokuz korgol (Turkish)

5 Origin Some Kazakh people say: Some Kazakh people say: Mongol origin, from the Golden Horde Mongol origin, from the Golden Horde The book Laws of Togyzkumalak The book Laws of Togyzkumalak According to archaeologists the game was invented about 4000 years ago by our ancestors who highlighted the intellectual development of a growing generation along with a physical training. According to archaeologists the game was invented about 4000 years ago by our ancestors who highlighted the intellectual development of a growing generation along with a physical training. My guess: My guess: through silk road and / or through silk road and / or with Islam (8 th century, central Asia, 14 th century, Golden Horde) with Islam (8 th century, central Asia, 14 th century, Golden Horde)

6 Golden Horde

7 Old stone board This board is said to be older than 500 years

8 Prestige In Kazakhstan it is considered the national game In Kazakhstan it is considered the national game It is promoted by the Ministry of Tourism and Sports (Comitee of Sports Affairs) It is promoted by the Ministry of Tourism and Sports (Comitee of Sports Affairs) There is an official Togyzqumalaq Federation There is an official Togyzqumalaq Federation

9 Tournaments Kazakhstan: Kazakhstan: Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Arys, Astana, Kostanai, Kyzylorda, Pavlodar, Shymkent, Stepnogorsk, Taldyqorgan, Taraz, Türkistan Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Arys, Astana, Kostanai, Kyzylorda, Pavlodar, Shymkent, Stepnogorsk, Taldyqorgan, Taraz, Türkistan Kyrgyzstan: Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Cholpan-Ata Bishkek, Cholpan-Ata Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Chelyabinsk, Tuva, Tatarstan) Russia (Altay, Khakassia, Chelyabinsk, Tuva, Tatarstan) Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) Mongolia Mongolia China China

10 Kazakhstan tournaments From 1974, individual championship of the Republic of Kazakhstan From 1974, individual championship of the Republic of Kazakhstan The ministry of Tourism and Sports holds yearly individual, team, junior and senior championships of the Republic of Kazakhstan The ministry of Tourism and Sports holds yearly individual, team, junior and senior championships of the Republic of Kazakhstan From 1998, Cup of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. From 1998, Cup of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. International competition, with participants from Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan International competition, with participants from Mongolia, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan Festival Middle Asia and Kazakhstan Festival Middle Asia and Kazakhstan

11 Tournaments - Images

12 Titles and degrees 5 sports degrees 5 sports degrees 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th and candidate Master of Sports 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th and candidate Master of Sports 2 titles 2 titles Master of Sports of International class Master of Sports of International class Master of Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan Master of Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan Elo system Elo system

13 Rules – The orda board 2 rows, 9 holes (otau) per row 2 rows, 9 holes (otau) per row Each player owns a row Each player owns a row 2 deposits (kazan) 2 deposits (kazan) Each player owns one Each player owns one 9 balls (qumalaq) per hole 9 balls (qumalaq) per hole

14 Rules - Moving The player takes all the balls of a hole on his side, and distribute them anticlockwise, one per hole, on the following holes, starting from the very same hole he took them from.

15 Rules – Moving a singleton If the movement is done from a hole with just a single ball, it is moved to the next hole. It is the only case the starting hole becomes empty.

16 Rules – Capturing If the last ball falls into a hole on the other side, and the contents of this hole become an even number of balls, these are captured and stored on the player's kazan.

17 Rules - Tuzdyq If the last ball falls into a hole on the opponent's side, and the contents of this hole number then three balls, the hole becomes your тұздық (tuzdyq) and it is marked as such.

18 Rules – About the tuzdyq Only a tuzdyq per player can be made Only a tuzdyq per player can be made A tuzdyq cannot be done on the opponent's last hole (9 th, the one on his right). A tuzdyq cannot be done on the opponent's last hole (9 th, the one on his right). A tuzdyq cannot be done if it is symmetrical to the opponent's one A tuzdyq cannot be done if it is symmetrical to the opponent's one When a tuzdyq cannot be done, we can finish a movement there, but the hole does not become a tuzdyq When a tuzdyq cannot be done, we can finish a movement there, but the hole does not become a tuzdyq A movement cannot begin from a tuzdyq A movement cannot begin from a tuzdyq The balls that fall into a tuzdyq are captured by its owner. The balls that fall into a tuzdyq are captured by its owner.

19 Rules – End of the game The game ends when a player cannot move at his turn (atsyrau) The game ends when a player cannot move at his turn (atsyrau) Both players add the contents of their tuzdyq to their kazan Both players add the contents of their tuzdyq to their kazan The player who has still balls on his side gets them and adds them to his kazan The player who has still balls on his side gets them and adds them to his kazan The winner is the player with more balls at the end of the game. If both players have captured 81 balls, the game is a draw The winner is the player with more balls at the end of the game. If both players have captured 81 balls, the game is a draw The game can also end if a player has captured more than 81 balls The game can also end if a player has captured more than 81 balls

20 Related games Бестемщі (bestemshe or bestemshshi) Бестемщі (bestemshe or bestemshshi) togyzqumalaq played in a 2x5 board, with 5 balls per hole togyzqumalaq played in a 2x5 board, with 5 balls per hole Қоздату (kozdatu) Қоздату (kozdatu) togyzqumalaq played in a 2x7 board, with 7 balls per hole togyzqumalaq played in a 2x7 board, with 7 balls per hole

21 Similar games Adji-boto (Surinam, Herskovits 1929, 1932) Same sowing Same sowing Tihbat (Morocco, Kinast 2007) Same sowing; capturing 2, 4, 6 or 8 on any side Same sowing; capturing 2, 4, 6 or 8 on any side Um dyar (Western Sahara, Mauritania, Béart 1955, Pinto Cebrián 1999) Same sowing; capturing even numbers, not greater than the initial ammount, any side. Same sowing; capturing even numbers, not greater than the initial ammount, any side. Zacoc / Hefari (Morocco, Bautista i Roca) Same sowing; capturing even numbers, any side Same sowing; capturing even numbers, any side Pıç (Turkey, Metin And 1979) Same sowing; capturing holes by 3s Same sowing; capturing holes by 3s

22 Board design Section numbers Section numbers Ten balls mark Ten balls mark Odd / even Odd / even

23 The board – Initial position Initial position

24 The board – Possible moves South: x (13) 36x (13) (12) 91 (12) North: (27) 28 (27) 31 (27) 31 (27)

25 Thanks I'd like to thank Maksat Shotayev (Максат Шотаев) Maksat Shotayev (Максат Шотаев) Aynur Jhakapbayeva Aynur Jhakapbayeva Khakimjan Eleusinov Khakimjan Eleusinov Asel Dalyeva Asel Dalyeva

26 That's all, foks! Any question? Let's play!


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