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Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Chapter 1 Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Chapter 1 Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Chapter 1 Introduction to Strength Training and Conditioning

2 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Modalities of Strength Training and Conditioning (S&C) Resistance (Weight) Training (RT) Plyometrics Sprint/Agility Training Flexibility Exercises Aerobic Training

3 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Health- and Skill-Related Components of Fitness Enhanced by S&C Strength Power Speed Jumping Ability

4 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: Early Origins 2500 BC: art of strength contests on tomb walls in Egypt 1800 BC: weight-throwing contests in Ireland BC: strength tests in military in China 6 th century BC: rigorous military training in Greece –Spartan boys sent to military school at 6-7 years of age –Gymnastics, run, jump, javelin, discus, swim, & hunt –Olympic games –Greek strongman Milo of Crotona

5 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: Science & Medicine AD: Greek physician Galen –Recommended RT –Promoted use of handheld weights –Worked with gladiators Renaissance –French writer Montaigne described benefits of RT –Camerarius (1544): wrote on RT health & performance benefit –Vesalius ( ): wrote book on A&P –Albinus ( ): wrote book on A&P

6 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: 19 th Century S&C gained in popularity Physical educators brought ideas to U.S. from Europe Rigorous training programs established in: –Gymnastics, manual RT, calisthenics, flexibility exercises, games/sports, dance Use of ropes, medicine balls, dumbbells, clubs Dudley Sargent ( ): invented exercise machines & developed assessments of muscle strength

7 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Dudley Sargent

8 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: 19 th Century (contd) Era of the Strongmen (mid-1800s to early 1900s) –George Barker Windship: health lift –Louis Cyr ( ): 4,337-lb back lift & horse pull –Louis Uni ( ): juggled 20-kg weights –Ludwig Durlacher ( ): invented Roman Chair –George Hackenschmidt ( ): wrestling champion –Henry Milo Steinborn ( ): developed barbell –Sigmund Klein ( ): wrote articles on weight training –Thomas Inch ( ): Britains Strongest Youth –Eugen Sandow ( ): model for Mr. Olympia trophy

9 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Louis Cyr

10 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine George Hackenschmidt

11 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Eugen Sandow

12 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: 20 th Century RT myths & misconceptions escalated Strongmen marketed alternative RT equipment –Angelo Sicliano ( ) aka Charles Atlas Developed training philosophy: Dynamic Tension –1899: first issue of Physical Culture magazine –1902: Strength Magazine published – : publication of many weight training books

13 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Charles Atlas

14 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: Competitive Lifting Sports Weightlifting –1891: First weightlifting championship –1896: Weightlifting first entered Olympics –Bob Hoffman ( ): Father of American Weightlifting Bodybuilding –Begun in early 1900s –Mr. America competitions in 1930s & 1940s –Joe Weider: legendary bodybuilder

15 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Bob Hoffman

16 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Naim Suleymanoglu

17 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Joe Weider

18 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: Competitive Lifting Sports (contd) Powerlifting –Evolved in late 1950s –Composed of squat, bench press, & deadlift –First championships in 1964 in York, PA –International Powerlifting Federation formed in 1972 –Powerlifting USA magazine published in 1980s Strength Competitions –1977: Worlds Strongest Man competition begun –Involves athletes from multiple sports

19 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Brief History of S&C: Strength & Conditioning Today RT Recommended for Virtually Everyone Shown to Enhance: –Health –Well-being –Performance in clinical, fitness, & athletic populations Increase in Scientific Study of RT since 1970s Adopted by ACSM

20 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Why Do Individuals Resistance Train? General fitness & recreation Strength training Power training Muscular endurance training Muscle hypertrophy Rehabilitation & prehabilitation Competitive lifting sports Athletics Maintenance training Physiological adaptations Integration training

21 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Health Benefits of RT risk factors for disease percent body fat dynamic, isometric, & isokinetic muscle strength muscle hypertrophy muscular endurance basal metabolic rate blood pressure blood lipids, LDL cholesterol resting heart rate cardiovascular demand to exercise bone mineral density glucose tolerance & insulin sensitivity age-related muscle atrophy risk of colon cancer & osteoporosis V O 2max flexibility risk/symptoms low back pain

22 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Performance Benefits of RT muscle power balance & coordination speed capacity to perform activities of daily living vertical jump ability throwing velocity kicking performance running economy baseball bat swinging velocity tennis serve velocity wrestling performance cycling power & performance

23 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Fitness Components Health-Related Fitness Components –Muscular strength –Muscular endurance –Cardiovascular endurance –Flexibility –Body composition

24 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Fitness Components (contd) Skill-Related Fitness Components –Power –Speed –Agility –Balance & coordination –Reaction time

25 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Keys to Success: The RT Program Muscle Action –Eccentric –Concentric –Isometric Repetition Set Volume Intensity Frequency Exercise Selection Exercise Order Rest Periods or Intervals Repetition Velocity

26 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Competitive Forms of RT Bodybuilding –Physique contest judged subjectively by panel –RT is essential component of training –Presentation of physique is critical –Compulsory poses –Choreographed posing routine –Training aimed at hypertrophy, symmetry, shape, & definition

27 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine A Bodybuilder

28 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Competitive Forms of RT (contd) Weightlifting –Only lifting sport in Olympics –Competition on amount of weight lifted relative to weight class –Two competitive lifts: The snatch The clean & jerk –Requires total body coordination, power, & speed

29 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine A Weightlifter

30 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Competitive Forms of RT (contd) Powerlifting –Maximal performance of three competition lifts: Squat Bench press Deadlift –Placing is based on maximum lifting performance over 3 trials –Weight classes –Specialized equipment: bench press shirts, squat suits, erector shirts, wraps

31 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine A Powerlifter

32 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine Competitive Forms of RT (contd) Strength Competitions –Involve: Max dynamic & ISOM strength Grip strength/endurance Power Strength endurance Pain tolerance Determination –Common events: Farmers walk Tire flipping Various loading Medleys Barrel loading Various deadlifts Car walk Duck walk

33 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine A Strength Competitor

34 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine The S&C Profession Education and Proficiencies –Scholarly study BS or BA degree in an exercise-related field Masters required in higher-level jobs –Personal experience Playing sports Training Observations of other athletes & coaches –Professional practice

35 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine The S&C Profession (contd) Memberships and Certifications: Benefits –Access to educational resources –Dissemination of current knowledge –Networking –Career resources & job advertisements –Conferences & seminars –Certification information –Scholarships & grants –Merchandise –Liability insurance

36 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine The S&C Profession (contd) Memberships and Certifications: Organizations –National Strength & Conditioning Association (NSCA) –American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) –Collegiate Strength & Conditioning Coaches Association (CSCCa) –USA Weightlifting –International Sport Sciences Association (ISSA)

37 Copyright © 2012 American College of Sports Medicine The S&C Profession (contd) Duties, Roles, and Responsibilities –Assess, motivate, educate, & train athletes to improve sport performance –Conduct sport-specific testing sessions –Design & implement safe & effective S&C programs –Provide guidance for athletes in nutrition & injury prevention


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