Presentation on theme: "The Afro-American Community in the USA. 77% of NBA PLAYERS: African-American in 2009 23% (7) of GENERAL MANAGERS: African-American 23% (7) of TOP EXECUTIVES."— Presentation transcript:
77% of NBA PLAYERS: African-American in 2009 23% (7) of GENERAL MANAGERS: African-American 23% (7) of TOP EXECUTIVES in 2008, highest in history of all major pro sports 39% of REFEREES and 1 woman, Violet Palmer (1 of 2 women as 1st ever in NBA in 1997) Diversity of Pro Basketball Billy Knight, Grizzlies GM 2001-02
40% (11 of 30) HEAD COACHES: African-American, at start of 08-09 NBA season, highest ever in pro sports OVER 60 Head Coaches in history of NBA, all-time high total in any pro sports league Diversity of Pro Basketball (clockwise) Grizzlies Lionel Hollins, Cavs Byron Scott, Suns Alvin Gentry, and Blazers Nate McMillan
Black History of Basketball 1904: ED HENDERSON, father of Black basketball, (PE coach) brought game to Howard University ( the country's first black law school) and school kids in Washington, DC area 1910: popular at YMCAs in black neighborhoods Dozens of all-black teams emerged in New York City, DC, Philly, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Cleveland, and other cities 12th Street YMCA (1910) Ed Henderson
1870 An amendment to the US Constitution is ratified, giving blacks the right to vote. HIRAM RAVELS of Mississippi is elected the country's first African-American senator. 1882 The AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY, founded by Presbyterian minister Robert Finley, establishes the colony of Monrovia (which would eventually become the country of LIBERIA) in western Africa. The society contends that the immigration of blacks to Africa is an answer to the problem of slavery as well as to what it feels is the incompatibility of the races. Over the course of the next forty years, about 12,000 slaves are voluntarily relocated. 1920 The HARLEM RENAISSANCE flourishes in the 1920s and 1930s. a flowering of African-American literature and art in the 1920s, mainly in the Harlem district of New York City. During the mass migration of African Americans from the rural agricultural South to the urban industrial North (1914–18), many who came to New York settled in Harlem, as did a good number of black New Yorkers moved from other areas of the city. Meanwhile, Southern black musicians brought jazz with them to the North and to Harlem. The area soon became a sophisticated literary and artistic center.
1947 JACKIE ROBINSON breaks Major League Baseball's color barrier when he is signed to the Brooklyn Dodgers 1952 MALCOM X becomes a minister of the Nation of Islam. Over the next several years his influence increases until he is one of the two most powerful members of the Black Muslims. A black nationalist and separatist movement, the Nation of Islam contends that only blacks can resolve the problems of blacks. 1955 A young black boy, Emmet Till, is brutally murdered for allegedly whistling at a white woman in Mississippi. Two white men charged with the crime are acquitted by an all-white jury. They later boast about committing the murder. The public outrage generated by the case helps spur the civil rights movement. ROSA PARKS refuses to give up her seat at the front of the "colored section" of a bus to a white passenger (Dec.1). In response to her arrest Montgomery's black community launch a successful year-long bus boycott. Montgomery's buses are desegregated on Dec. 21, 1956. Nine black students are blocked from entering the school on the orders of Governor. (Sept. 24). Federal troops and the National Guard are called to intervene on behalf of the students, who become known as the Little Rock Nine" Despite a year of violent threats, several of the Little Rock Nine" manage to graduate from Central High.
1963 MARTIN LUTHER KING is arrested and jailed during anti-segregation protests in Birmingham, Ala. He advocated nonviolent civil disobedience. The MARCH ON WASHINGTON for Jobs and Freedom is attended by about 250,000 people, the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation's capital. Martin Luther King delivers his famous I have a Dream" speech. The march builds momentum for civil rights legislation (Aug. 28). 1965 Assassination of Malcom X 1968 Assassination of Martin Luther King President Johnson signs the CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing (April 11).
Black FIVES Teams with ALL 5 BLACK STARTERS: 1904-1950 era Sponsored by churches, athletic clubs, social-clubs, black-owned businesses, and YMCAs BEST TEAMS: Howard Big Five, Monticello Athletic Association (Pittsburgh), New York Girls (women) 1908: Smart Set Athletic Club (Brooklyn), named 1st Colored World Champions by NY media 1910: 1st pro team: New York All-Stars Smart Set Athletic Club (Brooklyn)
New York Renaissance: RENS All-Black pro team founded in New York City (1923) Also named Renaissance Big Five or simply Rens Can NOT join pro leagues due to race discrimination Barnstormed across USA: 112-8 RECORD in 1932-33, 88 STRAIGHT WINS, longest streak in history of pro ball 1939: Won World Tournament over NBL/NBA champs 1963: Hall-of-Fame
Harlem Globetrotters 1926: Organized in Chicago by Abe Saperstein Began as serious barnstormers in early years, clowning around only after gaining big lead Won World Tournament in 1940, beating Rens in semifinals OVER 22,000 WINS since 1920s Beat NBAs Minneapolis Lakers in 1948 and 49, filmed by Fox Movietone helped spark end to color line Lakers George Mikan vs. Trotters
Black History of PRO Hoops 1898-1949: All-White pro leagues for first 53 years 1947: Jackie Robinson joins Brooklyn Dodgers 1949: (BAA) Basketball Association of America and (NBL) National Basketball League merge to form new NBA 1950: NBA INTEGRATED by African-American players at start of 1950-51 season: 3 years after Jackie/baseball
Earl Lloyd, 1st to play game, October 31, 1950 Nate Clifton, 1st to sign NBA contract (50) Chuck Cooper, 1st draft pick 1st Black Players In NBA
1st African-American TO PLAY IN NBA GAME: October 31, 1950 with Washington Capitols 9th-round pick; 6 5 forward at West Virginia State Played 10 seasons for Capitols, Syracuse, and Detroit Pistons Plus: Lloyd and Jim Tucker were 1st African-Americans on NBA championship team: Syracuse Nationals in 1955 1972-73: named Head Coach for Pistons, and later as scout Earl Lloyd The Big Cat
1st African-American DRAFTED BY NBA TEAM: 2nd-round pick (12th overall) in 1950 NBA draft 6 5 shooting guard/forward for Duquesne University and West Virginia State Picked by Boston Celtics Coach Red Auerbach Played 7 years for Celtics, Milwaukee Hawks, and Fort Wayne Pistons Chuck Cooper
Nate Sweetwater Clifton 1st African-American to SIGN NBA CONTRACT Born in Little Rock, joined New York Renaissance as 6 8 forward/center after fighting in WW II Played 4 years: 1947-50 with Globetrotters and Negro League baseball Debut for Knicks: age 27 in 1950 season Played 8 years, oldest All-Star player: age 34
Before World War II: Few stars at major colleges, most played at Black colleges 1963: Loyolas George Ireland broke unwritten agreement, ONLY up to 3 Blacks may start; 4-of-5 started, won NCAA title 1966: Texas Western, 5 Black starters, beat Kentucky, coach Adolph Rupp to win NCAA title 1966: 1st African-American head coach in NBA chosen: Bill Russell, champion Celtics Black History of Basketball
1970: 1st Black head coach of NCAA Div. 1 team: Will Robinson, at Illinois State 1970: 1st Black player to be MVP: NBA, Finals, and All-Star Game, Willis Reed (New York Knicks) 1984: 1st Black coaches to win NCAA titles: John Thompson, Georgetown; Nolan Richardson, Arkansas, 94; Tubby Smith, 98 1986: Larry Finch, U-of-M Tigers 1st Black head coach: Elite 8 and 10 winning seasons Black History of Basketball
Worldwide Diversity 1st player to break color barrier in NBA? Wataru Wat Misaka (Japanese-American), 5-7 guard, Utah, played 3 games for Knicks in 1947 NBA stars found worldwide now: Manute Bol, Hakeem Olajuwon, Pau Gasol, Manu Ginobili, Dirk Nowitzki, Yao Ming… World Championships: Last 4 won by Serbia, Yugoslavia, Spain, and USA (2010)