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How to improve your memory: Mnemonic Devices Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "How to improve your memory: Mnemonic Devices Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to improve your memory: Mnemonic Devices Chapter 8

2 Why do we need MEMORY? Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us. ~Oscar Wilde Memory is the primary and fundamental power, without which there could be no other intellectual operation. ~Samuel Johnson What if you couldnt create new memories? Amnesia patient: Clive Wearing How do you use your memory everyday? National Memory Championship – Memoriad

3 How can I improve my memory? Most popular answer: Mnemonic devices Most popular answer: Mnemonic devices

4 Mnemonics Tricks and strategies to help memory! Tricks and strategies to help memory! Repetition Repetition Chunking Chunking First letter technique First letter technique Rhyming Rhyming Visualization Visualization Keyword Keyword Link Link Method of Loci Method of Loci Pegword Pegword Self-reference effect Self-reference effect

5 Learn the following list by ONLY reading; go through list as many times as possible Horse – Table Horse – Table Island – Hat Island – Hat Door – Note Door – Note Bear – Apple Bear – Apple Clock – Moon Clock – Moon Building – Dog Building – Dog River – Table River – Table Road - Paper Road - Paper Basket – Cloud Ring – Ship Snow – Window Pencil – Hammer Bread – Car Meat – Envelope Box – Garden Book - Cup

6 Recall as many as possible Horse – Horse – Island – Island – Door – Door – Bear – Bear – Clock – Clock – Building – Building – River – River – Road - Road - Basket – Ring – Snow – Pencil – Bread – Meat – Box – Book –

7 Answers Horse – Table Horse – Table Island – Hat Island – Hat Door – Note Door – Note Bear – Apple Bear – Apple Clock – Moon Clock – Moon Building – Dog Building – Dog River – Table River – Table Road - Paper Road - Paper Basket – Cloud Ring – Ship Snow – Window Pencil – Hammer Bread – Car Meat – Envelope Box – Garden Book - Cup

8 Repetition technique Repetition Repetition Forces you to pay attention Forces you to pay attention Visual and verbal memory for material Visual and verbal memory for material Spacing effect Spacing effect Distributed practice is best for delayed test Distributed practice is best for delayed test Massed practice ok for immediate test Massed practice ok for immediate test Why? Why? Time to consolidate info Time to consolidate info Only concentrate for so long Only concentrate for so long Study under different conditions/settings Study under different conditions/settings

9 Chunking Short-term memory capacity limit Short-term memory capacity limit Magic number 7 +/- 2 Magic number 7 +/- 2 Memory span Memory span Remember: Remember: Or remember: Or remember: Remember 7 +/- 2 CHUNKS Remember 7 +/- 2 CHUNKS Why helpful? Why helpful? Increase capacity by grouping information Increase capacity by grouping information Gives meaning to random information Gives meaning to random information

10 First-letter technique Acronym: Acronym: ROY G BIV: colors of the rainbow ROY G BIV: colors of the rainbow HOMES: great lakes HOMES: great lakes PRICE: Injury PRICE: Injury Acrostic: first letter of each word of sentence is cue Acrostic: first letter of each word of sentence is cue Music notes: Every Good Boy Deserves Fun Music notes: Every Good Boy Deserves Fun 12 cranial nerves: OOO To Touch And Feel… 12 cranial nerves: OOO To Touch And Feel… Why helpful? Why helpful? Letters act as cue Letters act as cue Chunking Chunking

11 Rhyming technique When did Columbus discover America? When did Columbus discover America? In fourteen hundred ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue In fourteen hundred ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue i before e except after c; or when sounded like a, as in neighbor and weighi before e except after c; or when sounded like a, as in neighbor and weigh Thirty days has September, April, June, and November Thirty days has September, April, June, and November ABCs song (rhyming and chunking) ABCs song (rhyming and chunking) Why helpful? Why helpful?

12 Dual-coding hypothesis Dual-coding Dual-coding 2 cues: verbal and visual 2 cues: verbal and visual Visualization Visualization Picture superiority effect Picture superiority effect Effective visualization Effective visualization Interaction Interaction Vividness Vividness Bizzareness Bizzareness HOMES

13 Learn the following list by creating a mental image of two items in vivid interaction Bird – Fruit Bird – Fruit Rain – Rock Rain – Rock Dress – Money Dress – Money House – Mountain House – Mountain Cow – Flower Cow – Flower Corn – Gate Corn – Gate Roof – Nest Roof – Nest Baby – Hair Baby – Hair Ice – Train Fence – Letter Egg – Chair Book – Water Coat – Glass Candy – Sign Rabbit – Paint Hammer - Book

14 Recall Bird – Bird – Rain – Rain – Dress – Dress – House – House – Cow – Cow – Corn – Corn – Roof – Roof – Baby – Baby – Ice – Fence – Egg – Book – Coat – Candy – Rabbit – Hammer -

15 Answers Bird – Fruit Bird – Fruit Rain – Rock Rain – Rock Dress – Money Dress – Money House – Mountain House – Mountain Cow – Flower Cow – Flower Corn – Gate Corn – Gate Roof – Nest Roof – Nest Baby – Hair Baby – Hair Ice – Train Fence – Letter Egg – Chair Book – Water Coat – Glass Candy – Sign Rabbit – Paint Hammer - Book

16 Keyword mnemonic Use to learn foreign language vocabulary Use to learn foreign language vocabulary Spanish example: Pato = Duck Spanish example: Pato = Duck First step: First step: Concrete keyword that sounds like foreign word = Pot Concrete keyword that sounds like foreign word = Pot Second step: Second step: Form visual image connecting keyword with meaning Form visual image connecting keyword with meaning Picture: Duck wearing a pot on its head Picture: Duck wearing a pot on its head Use for any vocabulary words Use for any vocabulary words Try: Skulk: To hide or sneak around for evil reasons Try: Skulk: To hide or sneak around for evil reasons

17 Image–name mnemonic Use to remember name with face Think of vivid word that sounds like name Link word with persons appearance Example Rodney Flanery Image: Football player with rod in his knee, so benched and wearing flannel to stay warm Create one for your own name!

18 Link mnemonic Chaining or Link system Chaining or Link system First: form visual image for each item First: form visual image for each item Second: associate image with next image Second: associate image with next image Important to SEE associations Important to SEE associations Narrative technique Narrative technique Form a story using items you want to remember Form a story using items you want to remember Appropriate for serial learning Appropriate for serial learning Problem: if forget one item then next items may be inaccessible too Problem: if forget one item then next items may be inaccessible too

19 Method of Loci In the first place In the first place 1. Memorize familiar locations in natural order 1. Memorize familiar locations in natural order 2. Create visual image of word with each location 2. Create visual image of word with each location 3. Recall: take a mental walk 3. Recall: take a mental walk

20 Method of Loci: Campus Map

21 Begin to write only after I have given the signal, Go. ApplePianoHammerCakePlanetPizzaKiteBusButterflyScissors Olin, DuPre, Main, Snyder, Library, Carlisle, Daniel, Milliken, Burwell

22 Method of Loci: Answers Apple Apple Piano Piano Hammer Hammer Cake Cake Planet Planet Pizza Pizza Kite Kite Bus Bus Butterfly Butterfly Scissors Scissors Locations serve as a cue Helpful for serial learning Locations should be distinct Need strong association between location and item Problem: using same locations over again can lead to confusion

23 Peg-word technique First: use memorized concrete nouns First: use memorized concrete nouns Rhyming words with numbers helps to remember words Rhyming words with numbers helps to remember words Second: create visual image of target word with peg-word Second: create visual image of target word with peg-word Similar to Loci: objects instead of locations Similar to Loci: objects instead of locations Problem: limited # peg-words Problem: limited # peg-words

24 Self-Reference Effect Memory for information connected to ourselves Memory for information connected to ourselves Why? Why?

25 Questions What tricks and strategies do you use to memorize information? What tricks and strategies do you use to memorize information? You go to a party and meet lots of new people. You would like to be able to remember their face and name. How do you do it? You go to a party and meet lots of new people. You would like to be able to remember their face and name. How do you do it?

26 Questions, continued… Why do these techniques work to improve memory? What do they share in common? Which of these techniques could you realistically use to help you study for exams? Why wouldnt you use some of them?

27 Why mnemonics work Attention Attention Ensure encoding Ensure encoding Repetition Repetition Retrieval cues Retrieval cues Dual-coding cues Dual-coding cues Verbal and visual representations Verbal and visual representations Organization Organization chunks chunks Notice relationships and differences Notice relationships and differences Use existing knowledge Use existing knowledge Elaboration Elaboration Think about meaning and make distinctive Think about meaning and make distinctive Generation Generation Your ideas makes it personal Your ideas makes it personal

28 Limitations of Mnemonics Time Time How to deal with abstract material? How to deal with abstract material? Learning vs. retention Learning vs. retention Creative ability Creative ability Interference Interference Doesnt help memory in general Doesnt help memory in general Does not help understanding of material Does not help understanding of material Need to practice mnemonics! Need to practice mnemonics!


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