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Math Pacing Statistics - Analyzing Data by Using Tables and Graphs If the graph indicates the speed of a car on a test track, what does the horizontal portion of the graph indicate? The car is moving at a constant speed

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Statistics - Analyzing Data by Using Tables and Graphs A bar graph compares different categories of numerical information, or data, by showing each category as a bar whose length is related to the frequency. Bar graphs can also be used to display multiple sets of data in different categories at the same time. Graphs with multiple sets of data always have a key to denote which bars represent each set of data.

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Example 9-1a The table shows the number of men and women participating in the NCAA championship sports programs from 1995 to 1999. These same data are displayed in a bar graph. 125,268 206,366 95- 96 145,832 207,592 98- 99 129,295 199,375 96- 97 133,376 97- 98 200,031 Women Men Year NCAA Championship Sports Participation 1995-1999 Describe how you can tell from the graph that the number of men in NCAA sports remained about the same, while the number of women increased. Answer:Each bar for men is either just above or just below 200,000. The bars for the women increase each year from about 125,000 to 150,000. Analyze a Bar Graph

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Example 9-1b The table shows the number of men and women participating in the NCAA championship sports programs from 1995 to 1999. These same data are displayed in a bar graph. To determine approximately how many more men than women participated in sports during the 1997- 1998 school year, is it better to use the table or the bar graph? 125,268 206,366 95- 96 145,832 207,592 98- 99 129,295 199,375 96- 97 133,376 97- 98 200,031 Women Men Year NCAA Championship Sports Participation 1995-1999 Answer: Bar graph; the number desired is approximate. Analyze a Bar Graph

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Example 9-1c The table shows the number of men and women participating in the NCAA championship sports programs from 1995 to 1999. These same data are displayed in a bar graph. To determine the total participation among men and women in the 1998-1999 academic year, why should you use the table? 125,268 206,366 95- 96 145,832 207,592 98- 99 129,295 199,375 96- 97 133,376 97- 98 200,031 Women Men Year NCAA Championship Sports Participation 1995-1999 Answer: The question asks for an exact answer, not an approximate number. Analyze a Bar Graph

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Example 9-1d The table shows the number of men and women participating in the NCAA championship sports programs from 1995 to 1999. These same data are displayed in a bar graph. 125,268 206,366 95- 96 145,832 207,592 98- 99 129,295 199,375 96- 97 133,376 97- 98 200,031 Women Men Year NCAA Championship Sports Participation 1995-1999 a.Has the general trend of the difference between the number of men and the number of women participating in NCAA sports increased, decreased, or remained fairly constant from 1995 to 1999? Answer: decreased Analyze a Bar Graph

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Example 9-1d The table shows the number of men and women participating in the NCAA championship sports programs from 1995 to 1999. These same data are displayed in a bar graph. 125,268 206,366 95- 96 145,832 207,592 98- 99 129,295 199,375 96- 97 133,376 97- 98 200,031 Women Men Year NCAA Championship Sports Participation 1995-1999 b.Approximately how many more men than women participated in sports during the 1996-1997 school year? Answer: about 70,000 Analyze a Bar Graph

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Example 9-1d The table shows the number of men and women participating in the NCAA championship sports programs from 1995 to 1999. These same data are displayed in a bar graph. 125,268 206,366 95- 96 145,832 207,592 98- 99 129,295 199,375 96- 97 133,376 97- 98 200,031 Women Men Year NCAA Championship Sports Participation 1995-1999 c.What was the total participation among men and women in the 1995-1996 academic year? Answer: 331,634 Analyze a Bar Graph

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Statistics - Analyzing Data by Using Tables and Graphs Another type of graph used to display data is a circle graph. A circle graph compares parts of a set of data as a percent of the whole set. The percents in a circle graph should always have a sum of 100%.

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Example 9-2a A recent poll in New York asked residents whether cell phone use while driving should be banned. The results are shown in the circle graph. If 250 people in New York were surveyed, about how many thought that cell phone use while driving should be banned? The section of the graph representing people who said cell phone use should be banned while driving is 87% of the circle, so find 87% of 250. Analyze a Circle Graph

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Example 9-2a 87% of 250 equals 217.5. 0.87250217.5 Answer: About 218 people said cell phone use while driving should be banned. Analyze a Circle Graph

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Example 9-2b A recent poll in New York asked residents whether cell phone use while driving should be banned. The results are shown in the circle graph. If a city of 516,000 is representative of those surveyed, how many people could be expected not to know whether cell phone use while driving should be banned? 3% of those surveyed said they didnt know if cell phone use while driving should be banned, so find 3% of 516,000. Answer: 15,480 people dont know if cell phone use while driving should be banned. Analyze a Circle Graph

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Example 9-2c A recent survey asked high school students if they thought their courses were challenging. The results are shown in the circle graph. a.If 500 students were surveyed, how many felt that their courses were challenging? b.If a school of 2350 is representative of those surveyed, how many had no opinion about whether their courses were challenging? Answer: 335 Answer: 94 Analyze a Circle Graph

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Statistics - Analyzing Data by Using Tables and Graphs Another type of graph used to display data is a line graph. Line graphs are useful when showing how a set of data changes over time. They can also be helpful when making predictions.

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Example 9-3a Refer to the line graph below. How would the change in enrollment between 1997 and 1999 compare to the change in enrollment between 1995 and 1999? Answer: Since enrollment changed little between 1995 and 1997, the differences in enrollment would be about the same. Analyze a Line Graph

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Example 9-3b Refer to the line graph below. Why couldnt you simply extend the line on the graph beyond 1999 to predict the number of students enrolled in 2005? Answer: The graph is not large enough. The line would extend beyond the edge of the graph. Analyze a Line Graph

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a.Estimate the change in enrollment between 1996 and 1998. b.If the rate of growth between 1999 and 2000 continues, predict the number of people who will be enrolled in higher education in the year 2003. Refer to the line graph below. Example 9-3c Answer: 0.3 million Sample answer: about 15.4 million Analyze a Line Graph

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Statistics - Analyzing Data by Using Tables and Graphs Type of GraphBar graphCircle graphLine graph When to Use To compare different categories of data To show data as parts of a whole set of data To show the change in data over time Copy this table into your notes, PLEASE!

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Statistics - Analyzing Data by Using Tables and Graphs Some ways a graph can be misleading: Numbers are omitted on an axis, but no break is shown. The tick marks on an axis are not the same distance apart or do not have the same-sized intervals. The percents on a circle graph do not have a sum of 100.

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Example 9-4a Joel used the graph below to show his Algebra grade for the first four reporting periods of the year. Does the graph misrepresent the data? Explain. Answer: Yes, the scale on the x-axis is too large and minimizes the amount that Joels grade dropped. Misleading Graphs

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Example 9-4b Explain how you could draw a graph that better represents this data. Answer: The intervals on the horizontal axis should be the same size as the intervals on the vertical axis. You could also include a break on the vertical axis, start the intervals at 50 and increase the intervals by 10 to represent the drop in Joels grade more clearly. Misleading Graphs

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