5THE OUT BURSTOn 9th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled.Their Crime: -These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges.
6ABOUT THE NEW CARTRIDGE A rumour had spread that the new cartridge contained the fat of cow and pig.HINDUS COW WAS SACREDMUSLIMS PIG MEAT WAS FOBIDDEN BY QURAN
7SPREAD OF THE REVOLTOn 10th May 1857 men of 3rd Light Cavalry stormed the barracks jail and released their comrades.Soon the Indian civilians joined the mutineers and killed about 50 Europeans.The news spread like wild fire. The already simmering anger against British burst out into a violent storm.
8Administrative Causes Military Causes Causes of the Revolt of 1857Political CausesSocial CausesReligious CausesEconomic CausesAdministrative CausesMilitary Causes
9POLITICAL CAUSESLord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation and the Doctrine of lapse had made the Indian rulers angry and insecure.
10The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to adopt a son. In case of disputed interpretation, the decision of the East India Company was binding & that of the court of the Directors was final.Regal titles of the Nawab of Carnatic & Tanjore were abolished. The imperial title of the Moghul Emperor was discontinued after Bahadur Shah II.The pension of Nana Saheb (Peshwa Baji Rao II’s adopted son) was stopped.
18The British were rude and used abusive and insultive language. SOCIAL CAUSESThe British were rude and used abusive and insultive language.
19The practice of sati was abolished The practice of sati was abolished. Child marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not allowed.
20The European juries allowed European criminals with little or no punishment.
21Hindus and Muslims were forced into Christianity. RELIGIOUS CAUSESHindus and Muslims were forced into Christianity.
22British Officers abused the name of Ram and Muhammad.
23Idolatry was denounced. Hindu deities were ridiculed.
24THE REVOLT OF 1857 Economic Causes Administrative Causes Military Causes
25ECONOMIC CAUSESThe British had drained India of all her wealth and natural resources by selfish economic policies.
26ADMINISTRATIVE CAUSES Unrest spread among the landlords of Bengal when William Bentinck took away rent free estates from them.
27Lord Dalhousie confiscated thousands of jagirs in the Deccan.
28After Oudh was annexed, the estates of Zamindars and Taluqdars were confiscated.
29High posts and handsome salaries were given to the British High posts and handsome salaries were given to the British. This caused frustration amongst Indians.
30Immense discrimination between the Indians and the British. MILITARY CAUSESImmense discrimination between the Indians and the British.
31The Indian sepoys were deprived of high salaries and promotions The Indian sepoys were deprived of high salaries and promotions. The highest post for an Indian was that of the Subedar.
32New recruits had to travel across the sea New recruits had to travel across the sea. It was forbidden as per Hindu belief.
33The British army exposed its vulnerability in the First Afghan war, the Sikh war and the Crimean war.
34The Indian sepoys were required to work far off without extra Bhatta or payment.
35The privilege of free postage enjoyed by the sepoys was withdrawn with the passing of the Post Office Act 1854.
36IMPORTANT CENTRES OF REVOLT MEERUTDELHIOUDHKANPURJHANSI & GWALIOR
37MEERUT 9 May 1857, 85 Sepoys were court martialled. They had refused to use new cartridges.Next day their companions attacked the jail.Sepoys were freed.Officers & Europeans were killed.Revolters headed towards Delhi.
38DELHI On 12th May 1857, Delhi was seized by rebels. Some Europeans were shot dead.Bhahadur Shah II was persuaded to support.Loss of Delhi was a prestige loss for British.On 14th September 1857, British attacked.On 20th September 1857, British regained Delhi.Bahadur Shah & Zeenat Mahal fled to Humayun’s tomb.But were followed & captured by General Hudson.3 sons killed & the king & queen exiled to Rangoon.The king died in 1862.
42OUDH (LUCKNOW) Oudh annexed by Lord Dalhousie. The Nawab of Oudh exiled to Calcutta.But his wife Begum Hazrat Mahal and 11 year old son continued to live in Oudh but in very poor condition.So people of Oudh were angry.The revolt broke out on 4th June 1857.Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, with some Europeans with some hundred sepoys took refuge in a Residency.Begum seized Residency and killed Henry & some others.In November, Sir Colin Campbell (Commander-in-Chief) attacked with Gorkha regiment.In March 1858, the city was finally recaptured.The rebels driven to Nepal border to die in bad climate or captured by Gorkhas.
45KANPURNana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao was proclaimed the Peshwa.He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia Tope, his assistant.After a fierce battle, General Sir Hugh Wheeler surrendered on 27th June 1857.Nana Saheb assured safe passage of British to Allahabad.General James O’Neil (At Allahabad & Banaras) inhumanly ill-treated Indians.Angry Indians killed the passing British citizens.In June 1857, The General defeated Nana Sahib.In November 1857, Nana Sahib & Tantia Tope recaptured Kanpur back.On 6th December 1857 General Campbell reoccupied Kanpur.Nana fled to Nepal (died there) and Tantia joined Rani Laxmibai.
48JHANSI & GWALIOR In June 1857, the troops at Jhansi revolted. Rani Laxmibai (widow of Raja Gangadhar Rao) declared ruler.Tantia Tope joined her after Kanpur was lost.On 3rd April 1858, Sir Hugh Rose recaptured Jhansi.Laxmibai escaped to Kalpi (near Gwalior) where Tantia joined her.Both marched to Gwalior.Sir Hugh Rose also marched to Gwalior and captured in June 1858.Rani died fighting bravely.Tantia escaped southward but was betrayed by his friend Man Singh.Tantia was finally hanged.
52OTHER CENTRES OF REVOLT Bareilly:Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself the ruler.Bihar:Zamindar Kunwar Singh raised the revoltBanaras:Banarasis organised a rebellion.(All were subsequently suppressed by British)
53The revolt was completely suppressed and crushed by July 1858. OUTCOMEThe revolt was completely suppressed and crushed by July 1858.
54CAUSES OF FAILURE OF THE REVOLT The revolt was localized and was poorly organized.The British had better resources than the rebels.The revolt was feudal in character.The leaders lacked military skills.The native princes did not join the revolt.
55MAJOR IMPACT OF THE REVOLT … the revolt was considered to be an awakener and the first effort towards the freedom and independence.…the British just considered it to be a mere military revolt.
56IMPACT OF THE REVOLT1) The control of Indian administration was transferred form the company to the crown by the GOI Act 1858
57IMPACT OF THE REVOLT2) The Queen promised to respect Rights & dignity. General amnesty to all offenders except murders.
58IMPACT OF THE REVOLT3) The Indian army was reorganised. Included Sikhs, Gurkhas & Pathans.
59IMPACT OF THE REVOLT4) The Mughal dynasty ended with the extinction of Bahadur Shah II & was replaced by British Crown.