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THE REVOLT OF 1857 THE GREAT REVOLT THE FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.

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Presentation on theme: "THE REVOLT OF 1857 THE GREAT REVOLT THE FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 THE REVOLT OF 1857

3 THE GREAT REVOLT THE FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

4

5 Mangal Pandey

6 THE OUT BURST On 9 th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled. On 9 th May 1857, on the parade ground of Meerut, 85 Indian troopers were court martialled. Their Crime: -These troopers had refused to load their rifles with the new cartridges.

7 ABOUT THE NEW CARTRIDGE A rumour had spread that the new cartridge contained the fat of cow and pig. A rumour had spread that the new cartridge contained the fat of cow and pig. HINDUS COW WAS SACRED MUSLIMS PIG MEAT WAS FOBIDDEN BY QURAN

8 SPREAD OF THE REVOLT On 10 th May 1857 men of 3 rd Light Cavalry stormed the barracks jail and released their comrades. On 10 th May 1857 men of 3 rd Light Cavalry stormed the barracks jail and released their comrades. Soon the Indian civilians joined the mutineers and killed about 50 Europeans. Soon the Indian civilians joined the mutineers and killed about 50 Europeans. The news spread like wild fire. The already simmering anger against British burst out into a violent storm. The news spread like wild fire. The already simmering anger against British burst out into a violent storm.

9 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 Political Causes Political Causes Social Causes Social Causes Religious Causes Religious Causes Economic Causes Economic Causes Administrative Causes Administrative Causes Military Causes Military Causes

10 POLITICAL CAUSES Lord Dalhousies policy of annexation and the Doctrine of lapse had made the Indian rulers angry and insecure. Lord Dalhousies policy of annexation and the Doctrine of lapse had made the Indian rulers angry and insecure.

11 The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to adopt a son. The Rani of Jhansi Laxmibai was not allowed to adopt a son. In case of disputed interpretation, the decision of the East India Company was binding & that of the court of the Directors was final. In case of disputed interpretation, the decision of the East India Company was binding & that of the court of the Directors was final. Regal titles of the Nawab of Carnatic & Tanjore were abolished. The imperial title of the Moghul Emperor was discontinued after Bahadur Shah II. Regal titles of the Nawab of Carnatic & Tanjore were abolished. The imperial title of the Moghul Emperor was discontinued after Bahadur Shah II. The pension of Nana Saheb (Peshwa Baji Rao IIs adopted son) was stopped. The pension of Nana Saheb (Peshwa Baji Rao IIs adopted son) was stopped.

12 Nana Saheb

13 Rani of Jhansi

14

15 In case of a dispute, the decision of the East India Company was binding and that of the court of the directors was final. In case of a dispute, the decision of the East India Company was binding and that of the court of the directors was final.

16 The Muslim feelings had been badly hurt when after the death of Bahadur Shah II, Lord Canning took away regal titles and Moghul palaces. The Muslim feelings had been badly hurt when after the death of Bahadur Shah II, Lord Canning took away regal titles and Moghul palaces.

17 Thousands became unemployed when the English, under Lord Dalhousie annexed Oudh. Thousands became unemployed when the English, under Lord Dalhousie annexed Oudh.

18 THE REVOLT OF 1857 Social Causes Social Causes Religious Causes Religious Causes

19 SOCIAL CAUSES The British were rude and used abusive and insultive language. The British were rude and used abusive and insultive language.

20 The practice of sati was abolished. Child marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not allowed. The practice of sati was abolished. Child marriage, infanticide and polygamy were not allowed.

21 The European juries allowed European criminals with little or no punishment. The European juries allowed European criminals with little or no punishment.

22 RELIGIOUS CAUSES Hindus and Muslims were forced into Christianity. Hindus and Muslims were forced into Christianity.

23 British Officers abused the name of Ram and Muhammad. British Officers abused the name of Ram and Muhammad.

24 Idolatry was denounced. Hindu deities were ridiculed. Idolatry was denounced. Hindu deities were ridiculed.

25 THE REVOLT OF 1857 Economic Causes Economic Causes Administrative Causes Administrative Causes Military Causes Military Causes

26 ECONOMIC CAUSES The British had drained India of all her wealth and natural resources by selfish economic policies. The British had drained India of all her wealth and natural resources by selfish economic policies.

27 ADMINISTRATIVE CAUSES Unrest spread among the landlords of Bengal when William Bentinck took away rent free estates from them. Unrest spread among the landlords of Bengal when William Bentinck took away rent free estates from them.

28 Lord Dalhousie confiscated thousands of jagirs in the Deccan. Lord Dalhousie confiscated thousands of jagirs in the Deccan.

29 After Oudh was annexed, the estates of Zamindars and Taluqdars were confiscated. After Oudh was annexed, the estates of Zamindars and Taluqdars were confiscated.

30 High posts and handsome salaries were given to the British. This caused frustration amongst Indians. High posts and handsome salaries were given to the British. This caused frustration amongst Indians.

31 MILITARY CAUSES Immense discrimination between the Indians and the British. Immense discrimination between the Indians and the British.

32 The Indian sepoys were deprived of high salaries and promotions. The highest post for an Indian was that of the Subedar. The Indian sepoys were deprived of high salaries and promotions. The highest post for an Indian was that of the Subedar.

33 New recruits had to travel across the sea. It was forbidden as per Hindu belief. New recruits had to travel across the sea. It was forbidden as per Hindu belief.

34 The British army exposed its vulnerability in the First Afghan war, the Sikh war and the Crimean war. The British army exposed its vulnerability in the First Afghan war, the Sikh war and the Crimean war.

35 The Indian sepoys were required to work far off without extra Bhatta or payment. The Indian sepoys were required to work far off without extra Bhatta or payment.

36 The privilege of free postage enjoyed by the sepoys was withdrawn with the passing of the Post Office Act The privilege of free postage enjoyed by the sepoys was withdrawn with the passing of the Post Office Act 1854.

37 IMPORTANT CENTRES OF REVOLT MEERUT MEERUT DELHI DELHI OUDH OUDH KANPUR KANPUR JHANSI & GWALIOR JHANSI & GWALIOR

38 MEERUT 9 May 1857, 85 Sepoys were court martialled. 9 May 1857, 85 Sepoys were court martialled. They had refused to use new cartridges. They had refused to use new cartridges. Next day their companions attacked the jail. Next day their companions attacked the jail. Sepoys were freed. Sepoys were freed. Officers & Europeans were killed. Officers & Europeans were killed. Revolters headed towards Delhi. Revolters headed towards Delhi.

39 On 12 th May 1857, Delhi was seized by rebels. On 12 th May 1857, Delhi was seized by rebels. Some Europeans were shot dead. Some Europeans were shot dead. Bhahadur Shah II was persuaded to support. Bhahadur Shah II was persuaded to support. Loss of Delhi was a prestige loss for British. Loss of Delhi was a prestige loss for British. On 14 th September 1857, British attacked. On 14 th September 1857, British attacked. On 20 th September 1857, British regained Delhi. On 20 th September 1857, British regained Delhi. Bahadur Shah & Zeenat Mahal fled to Humayuns tomb. Bahadur Shah & Zeenat Mahal fled to Humayuns tomb. But were followed & captured by General Hudson. But were followed & captured by General Hudson. 3 sons killed & the king & queen exiled to Rangoon. 3 sons killed & the king & queen exiled to Rangoon. The king died in The king died in DELHI

40 RED FORT, DELHI

41 ZEENAT MAHAL & BAHADUR SHAH II

42 GENERAL HUDSON

43 Oudh annexed by Lord Dalhousie. Oudh annexed by Lord Dalhousie. The Nawab of Oudh exiled to Calcutta. The Nawab of Oudh exiled to Calcutta. But his wife Begum Hazrat Mahal and 11 year old son continued to live in Oudh but in very poor condition. But his wife Begum Hazrat Mahal and 11 year old son continued to live in Oudh but in very poor condition. So people of Oudh were angry. So people of Oudh were angry. The revolt broke out on 4 th June The revolt broke out on 4 th June Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, with some Europeans with some hundred sepoys took refuge in a Residency. Henry Lawrence, the British Resident, with some Europeans with some hundred sepoys took refuge in a Residency. Begum seized Residency and killed Henry & some others. Begum seized Residency and killed Henry & some others. In November, Sir Colin Campbell (Commander-in-Chief) attacked with Gorkha regiment. In November, Sir Colin Campbell (Commander-in-Chief) attacked with Gorkha regiment. In March 1858, the city was finally recaptured. In March 1858, the city was finally recaptured. The rebels driven to Nepal border to die in bad climate or captured by Gorkhas. The rebels driven to Nepal border to die in bad climate or captured by Gorkhas. OUDH (LUCKNOW)

44 BEGUM HAZRAT MAHAL

45 COLIN CAMPBELL

46 Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao was proclaimed the Peshwa. Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao was proclaimed the Peshwa. He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia Tope, his assistant. He led the revolt in Kanpur with Tantia Tope, his assistant. After a fierce battle, General Sir Hugh Wheeler surrendered on 27 th June After a fierce battle, General Sir Hugh Wheeler surrendered on 27 th June Nana Saheb assured safe passage of British to Allahabad. Nana Saheb assured safe passage of British to Allahabad. General James ONeil (At Allahabad & Banaras) inhumanly ill- treated Indians. General James ONeil (At Allahabad & Banaras) inhumanly ill- treated Indians. Angry Indians killed the passing British citizens. Angry Indians killed the passing British citizens. In June 1857, The General defeated Nana Sahib. In June 1857, The General defeated Nana Sahib. In November 1857, Nana Sahib & Tantia Tope recaptured Kanpur back. In November 1857, Nana Sahib & Tantia Tope recaptured Kanpur back. On 6 th December 1857 General Campbell reoccupied Kanpur. On 6 th December 1857 General Campbell reoccupied Kanpur. Nana fled to Nepal (died there) and Tantia joined Rani Laxmibai. Nana fled to Nepal (died there) and Tantia joined Rani Laxmibai. KANPUR

47 NANA SAHIB

48 TANTIA TOPE

49 In June 1857, the troops at Jhansi revolted. In June 1857, the troops at Jhansi revolted. Rani Laxmibai (widow of Raja Gangadhar Rao) declared ruler. Rani Laxmibai (widow of Raja Gangadhar Rao) declared ruler. Tantia Tope joined her after Kanpur was lost. Tantia Tope joined her after Kanpur was lost. On 3 rd April 1858, Sir Hugh Rose recaptured Jhansi. On 3 rd April 1858, Sir Hugh Rose recaptured Jhansi. Laxmibai escaped to Kalpi (near Gwalior) where Tantia joined her. Laxmibai escaped to Kalpi (near Gwalior) where Tantia joined her. Both marched to Gwalior. Both marched to Gwalior. Sir Hugh Rose also marched to Gwalior and captured in June Sir Hugh Rose also marched to Gwalior and captured in June Rani died fighting bravely. Rani died fighting bravely. Tantia escaped southward but was betrayed by his friend Man Singh. Tantia escaped southward but was betrayed by his friend Man Singh. Tantia was finally hanged. Tantia was finally hanged. JHANSI & GWALIOR

50 RANI LAXMIBAI

51 TANTIA TOPE

52 HANGED RUTHLESSLY

53 OTHER CENTRES OF REVOLT Bareilly: Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed himself the ruler. Bihar: Bihar: Zamindar Kunwar Singh raised the revolt Banaras: Banaras: Banarasis organised a rebellion. (All were subsequently suppressed by British)

54 OUTCOME The revolt was completely suppressed and crushed by July The revolt was completely suppressed and crushed by July 1858.

55 CAUSES OF FAILURE OF THE REVOLT The revolt was localized and was poorly organized. The revolt was localized and was poorly organized. The British had better resources than the rebels. The British had better resources than the rebels. The revolt was feudal in character. The revolt was feudal in character. The leaders lacked military skills. The leaders lacked military skills. The native princes did not join the revolt. The native princes did not join the revolt.

56 MAJOR IMPACT OF THE REVOLT … the revolt was considered to be an awakener and the first effort towards the freedom and independence. …the British just considered it to be a mere military revolt.

57 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 1) The control of Indian administration was transferred form the company to the crown by the GOI Act 1858

58 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 2) The Queen promised to respect Rights & dignity. General amnesty to all offenders except murders.

59 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 3) The Indian army was reorganised. Included Sikhs, Gurkhas & Pathans.

60 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 4) The Mughal dynasty ended with the extinction of Bahadur Shah II & was replaced by British Crown.

61 The Last Mughal Emperor

62 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 5) Freedom of religion granted.

63 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 6) As per Queens Proclamation, more Indians joined the administration.

64 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 7) Racial animosity increased.

65 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 8) The British introduced the policy of Divide & Rule that led to the partition of India in 1947.

66 IMPACT OF THE REVOLT 9) The British exploited the economy further.


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