Presentation on theme: "World Cultures Chapter 23. Chapter 23-1 The British East India Company."— Presentation transcript:
World Cultures Chapter 23
Chapter 23-1 The British East India Company
Vocabulary Agent Impose Indirectly Cartridge Rajas: local rulers in India. Sepoys: Indian soldiers that worked for the British Cast System: the ranks of Indian citizens. A strict class system.
Hinduism What: the main religion of India. Hindus believe in a universal soul or God called Brahman that takes on many forms, and there is a part of Brahman in everyone. Hindus believe the cow is a sacred animal.
Islam What: Founded by the prophet Muhammad, Muslims believe that there is only one God, whose name is Allah. Muslims believe that pigs are unclean and they cannot eat pork.
Video Questions What other religions does Islam share many beliefs? What is the holy book of Islam?
The Mogul Empire Who: Muslim Empire who harshly ruled India before the British, in decline by the 1700s. Downfall: Last ruler angered Hindus because he destroyed many Hindu temples and forced conversion to Islam. Importance: Western powers moved in when they were weakened
Notes Question Where is India? (use a map) – It is between Bangladesh and Pakistan, on the Indian Ocean, next to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. It also borders China.
The British East India Company What: Private trading company that had traded with India since 1600. Competed with the French and the Moguls for control of India.
How the British East India Company Ruled India British employees of the East India Company called agents controlled local rulers called rajas. Local Indian rulers obeyed the agents. The East India Company used Indian soldiers called Sepoys to keep control.
Notes Question Why do you think the East India Company used Sepoy soldiers?
Class Quesiton What was the difference between agents and rajas?
Imposing British culture The British built Christian Churches and spoke out against Indian traditions such as the Hindu Cast-system and sati (wives throwing themselves onto their husbands funeral fire).
Result of British Rule
Notes Question What was the cast system?
Indirect Rule What: Local Indian rulers got to keep their positions and wealth if they obeyed the British. The British East India Company ruled indirectly for 100 years.
Notes Question Why do you think the East India Company used indirect rule?
Sepoy Rebellion What: In 1857 Sepoy soldiers rebelled against the British. Causes: In 1857 rumors that a new bullet cartridge made with beef and or pig fat were being given to Sepoy soldiers. Result: British put it down in 1858, the British government took over control of India.
The Big Idea How did Great Britain gain control of India?
Chapter 23 Section 2 British Rule
Rule in India Mogul Rule The British East India Company British Rule Self Governance
Class Question Why do Empires colonize weaker nations?
Colonization of India In 1858 the British Parliament took over control of India from the East India Company because of the Sepoy Rebellion. Parliament renamed India the British Raj. British rule of India lasted from 1858 to 1947. Queen Victoria was named empress of India
Reasons for Colonial Rule Raw materials were shipped to factories in Great Britain. India was a large market for British manufactured goods. Competition with other colonial powers for territory, power, and prestige.
Question Why did the British need cotton from India?
Downsides to colonization Local industry was put out of business because the British could sell cheaper machine made goods. The British banned the Indians from making certain goods like salt. Top jobs in India went to British citizens. British superiority: Indians had less rights than the British, and many British felt that they were superior.
Question Why did the British ban Indians from producing goods themselves?
Indian National Congress What: A group that formed to fight for Indian independence from Britain. Members: Educated Indians, many who had been educated in England.
Questions Why do you think educated Indians lead the revolution? Why do you think that uneducated Indians did not lead the revolution?
Amritsar Massacre Where: In Amristsar India When: 1919 What happened: The British fired on a crowd of un-armed Indians killing 400, and injuring 1200 Importance: The massacre convinced many more Indians to fight for their independence.
Chapter 23 Section 3 Mahatma Gandhi
Early life Born: 1869 Religion: Hinduism Studied law in London. Worked as a lawyer in South Africa, working on behalf of Indians living there. Became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920.
Non-Violent Resistance What: Gandhi taught his people to oppose the British without using force or violence. Why: When the British responded to Indian non-violent resistance with violence the world saw how cruel colonial rule of India was. Why: The British colonized India to make money by getting resources and selling goods; non-violent resistance made India un-profitable.
Question Quote: you must be the change you want to see in the world- Gandhi What do you think Gandhi meant?
Civil Disobedience What: refusing to obey rules, orders or laws that are unjust. An un-just law is one that violates higher law, like human rights, or social justice.
Question What is an example of an un-just law the Indians had to follow? (you can use a textbook)
Gandhis Beliefs Gandhi opposed the caste system, and showed it by living with and dressing like the untouchable caste. Gandhi also supported widows, who traditionally were outcasts.
Question Why do you think Gandhi was against treating people differently in Indian society?
Famous Protests Gandhi led several protest to gain support for independence and draw attention to Indias cause. He led thousands of Indian women to block British train tracks by laying down on the tracks. Salt March: He and followers marched 250 miles to the ocean to collect salt, violating the British monopoly on salt.
Famous Protests Home spun movement: Gandhi encouraged Indians to only buy homemade cloth made by Indians and not British factory made cloth. He often fasted; didnt eat until his demands were met.
Question Why did Gandhi encourage Indians to only wear homespun?
British Arrests of Gandhi Gandhi spent a total of 7 years in jail. His time in jail help build support for his cause by fasting and writing. Why: For his activities like the salt march, and non-violent resistance.
Indian Independence Gandhi wanted a united, free India with both Muslims and Hindus living side by side. In 1947 British India was split into 2 nations India which was Hindu, and Pakistan which was Muslim.
Death of Gandhi Because of fighting between Hindus and Muslims Gandhi fasted to try and stop the fighting. On January 30 th, 1948 Gandhi was shot by a Hindu gunman. Hindu and Muslims both mourned their loss.
Big ideas Why did Gandhi believe civil disobedience was stronger than British guns?