2RegulationsFebruary 1994 CAL-OSHA enacted their final rule for confined space relationsTitle 8, California Code of Regulations (CCR), General Industry Safety Orders (GISO), Sections 5156, 5157, 5158Outside California FED-OSHA has a near identical documentAmerican National Science Institute (A.N.S.I.) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and health (N.I.O.S.H.) guidelines are also used.*
3Fatality StatisticsStudies reveal that every year approximately 67 preventable deaths occur in confined spacesAs many as 60% of the deaths to occur would be rescuers*Research reveals interesting facts regarding the causes of deaths in confined spaces65% hazardous atmospheres *13% engulfment7% struck by falling objects6% heat stress/exposure4% others
6Injury and Illness Prevention Safety responsibilityCompliance/recognitionEmployee-employer communicationWorkplace inspections/evaluationCorrection of hazardsInjury/illness investigationTrainingRecordkeeping
7Definitions of Confined Space Confined spaces are subdivided into two groups1. Confined SpaceIs large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; andHas limited or restricted means for entry or exit; andIs not designed for continuousemployee occupancy
8Permit Required Confined Space A permit required space must meet the definition of a confined space plus one of the following:*Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphereContains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrantHas an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls, or a floor which slopes and tapers to a smaller cross section orContains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard
9Typical Permit Required Confined Spaces Storage tanksPump wet wellsDegreasersDigestersSewersPerson holesTunnelsUnderground vaultsBoilersSilosVesselsGrain elevatorsMixersOpen topped water tanksWater towersEnclosures with bottom accessRail car tanks
17Dangers of Confined Spaces Oxygen deficiencyBy-products of previously stored materialsStorage tanks retain residueProduct is absorbed into tank wallsAccidental leaks or spillsLeaks of substances give off vapors or cause reactionsSlip, trip or fall hazardChemical ReactionsAccidental mixing of chemicalsDrying paintMultiple use tanks
19Dangers of Confined Spaces OxidationRusting of metalsRotting or decomposing organic materialsMechanical OperationsWeldingPaintingCleaningScraping or sandblastingMissing/stirring operationsRecharging of batteriesInerting ActivitiesCarbon dioxide (CO2)Helium (HE)Nitrogen (N2)
20Types of Confined Space Hazards Confined space hazards are basically grouped into six groupsAtmospheric hazardsPhysical hazardsEngulfment hazardsCorrosive hazardsBiological hazardsOther hazards
21Confined space Awareness (SFD Web Site) VIDEOSConfined space Awareness (SFD Web Site)
22Effects of Hazardous Atmospheres Suffocation*65% of fatalities occurring in confined spaces are a result of hazardous atmospheres *Poisoning *Explosion/Fire *
23Hazardous AtmosphereAn atmosphere which exposes employees to a risk or death, incapacitation, injury or acute illness from one or more of the following causesO2 level below 19.5% or above 23.5%Flammable gas or vapor in excess of 10% of L.E.L.Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that obscures vision at 5 feet or lessAny immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) atmosphere
24Target Gases and Effects Oxygen*Must be between 19.5% and 23.5% by volume for atmosphere to be considered safe*Above 23.5% by volume the environment becomes unstable and prone to flash fires or explosionBelow 16% physical effects will become apparentMethaneColorlessOdorlessNon-toxicAsphyxiate (displaces O2)Lighter than air*Explosive range (5% to 15%)
25Target Gases and Effects Carbon Monoxide*ColorlessOdorlessToxicAsphyxiant (displaces O2)Vapor density = to airExplosive range (12.5% to 74.2%)
26Target Gases and Effects Hydrogen Sulfide*ColorlessSmell like rotten eggsToxicVapor density is 1.89Explosive range (4% to 44%)Common in sewage facilitiesDiminishes your sensitivity to smellSulfur dioxidePungentIrritating gas1-10 ppm exposure causes respiratory and pulse rate increase and decrease in depth of respirationVapor density is 2.26Non-flammable
27Target Gases and Effects Carbon dioxideColorlessOdorlessNon-combustible gasToxicExposure symptomsHeadacheDizzinessRestlessnessVapor density is 1.53
28Atmospheric Monitors Types of air monitors/alarms Single gas monitors Will monitor only one preset gasMultiple gas monitorsWill monitor multiple preset gases1) Monitors that sense four (4) gases at once are commonly used in confined space operations referred to as four (4) in one (1) monitors
29Monitoring Operations Monitoring should be done in the following order every timeOxygen content (first)*Flammable gases/vapors (second)*Potential toxic contaminants (third)*Testing should be done prior to lifting person hole coversTo get the most accurate readingTo eliminate potential explosionsTesting should be done at all levels of the confined spaceStratification of gases may occur due to vapor density of gases varyTesting must continue periodicallyResults of monitoring must be loggedAn entry permit as well as data log of monitor if equipped
30Physical Hazards Grinding equipment* Agitators Mulching equipment* Drive shaftsGears and other moving equipmentSteam or steam fittingsElectrocutionFalling objects*
31Engulfment Hazards Material involved in engulfment incidents* GrainsSandGravelCementClaySawdustLiquidsCauses of engulfment incidentsWalking on unstable material that has void spaces belowBridging*Improper or lack of use of safety/retrieval linesOverhead flow of particulate matter or liquids activated inadvertently
32Case StudyOn June 6, 1998, a 56 year-old worker died when he was engulfed by sand in a hopper at a concrete pipe manufacturing company. His job as a "material man" was to direct the flow of sand and gravel from storage bins to hoppers housed in a shed on top of the plant. Since there was only one conveyor that moved sand and gravel from storage bins to the shed, the material man had to enter the shed and manually operate a lever that controlled the flow of sand or gravel into the correct hopper. He entered the 17 foot deep hopper filled with sand, perhaps by falling, was engulfed, and suffocated.
33Case StudyA 23-year-old mill operator and a 20-year-old maintenance technician were killed when they were engulfed in corn in a 6,000 bushel cone bottom gravity feed bin at a feedlot. The two individuals had been "knocking down" soy bean meal in a gravity feed bin next to the corn bin prior to the incident. For some reason, after their work in the soy bean meal bin they went to the corn bin and both individuals became engulfed in cracked corn. Both of these bins were active, flowing soy bean meal and cracked corn into a "clam" approximately once every five to ten minutes. The "clam" was then emptied into feed trucks. When the corn flowed from the bin, this pulled the victims under the corn. When others at the feedlot realized the two were trapped in the corn, they cut openings in the bottom of the bin to release the corn and rescue the victims. Both individuals died from suffocation.
34Target Industries Physical and engulfment hazards Industry with mechanized assembly equipmentSpaces with electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic equipment supplied to it, or within itGrain or particulate matter production or processingIndustries that have spaces with top load applicationsIndustries that have spaces with bottom dump applications
35Lock-Out/Tag-Out Procedures Procedures performed to isolate any potential energy source to the spaceElectricityHydraulicSteamDrive mechanismsPneumaticGravity flow of productMust be Performed by an authorized employee*Printed tags and locks are used to warn other employees of isolated energy source
36Lock-Out/Tag-Out Procedures Examples of lock-out/tag-out*Electrical switches locked-outHydraulic lines blocked and bledSteam line blind flangedDrive mechanisms disconnectedDrive belts removedLiquid valves locked-outOverhead dumps locked-out
38Entry PermitsA form or tactical worksheet required by CAL-OSHA that must be completed for confined space entriesComponents of an entry permitList of special hazardsResults of initial and periodic atmosphere testsMeasures to isolate the space and control hazards prior to entryLock-put/tag-outListing of rescue and emergency servicesCommunications proceduresAdditionalLocationPurpose of entryDate of entry and authorized durationList of authorized entrantsList of attendantsEntry supervisor signatureList of necessary tools and equipment
40Entry Permits Prior to entry to entry supervisor must Approve the permit *Upon completion of entryPermit must be signed and cancelled by the entry supervisor *Permit must be filed and retained at least one (1) year *
41OSHA Exemptions to Permit Regulations Selected construction operationsDefined by section 1502Selected agriculture operationsDefined by Section 3437Marine terminal operationsDefined by Section 3460Shipyard operationsRegulated by Section 8437Telecommunications people holes and vaultsRegulated by Section 8616Grain handling facilitiesDefined by Section 5158Electric utility operations within underground vaults
42OSHA Exemptions to Permit Regulations Exemptions based on employer proof of atmospheric hazard onlyMust not contain any other hazards except atmospheric condition onlyHazard can be eliminated by ventilation aloneWhen exemptions are granted components of the normal entry program may or may not be presentEntry permit may not be providedAttendant my not be presentEntrant lowering and retrieval equipment may not be presentExemptions are only valid when entry is for the prescribed purposeTo evacuate an injured worker out of an exempted space would nullify the exemption, and Sections 5156, 5157 and 5158 would prevail.
45Ventilation Equipment & Technique Industrial fans/ventilators*Smoke ejector fans*Duct work*Person hole saddle vents*Ventilations PlansVentilations plans are predominantly carried out in one of three waysForced supply ventilation*Force exhaust ventilation*Force supply and exhaust ventilation*
46Ventilation Equipment & Technique Ventilation Plan ConsiderationsConfiguration of the spaceNumber of openings in the spaceLocation of the openingsVertical (top)*Horizontal (side)BottomVapor density of suspected vapors*Wind direction *Equipment available
47Ventilation Equipment & Technique Ventilation Plan HazardsDirecting exhausted explosive vapors toward ignition sourcesDirecting vehicle exhaust (or other hazardous vapors) into the supply fansChanging a non-explosive atmosphere into an explosive atmosphere*Diluting an atmosphere that is above its UEL down below its explosive range would require passing through the explosive range
49Respiratory Equipment and Techniques Respiratory Protection RequirementsRespiratory protection must be provided and personnel trained if the following conditions existTesting demonstrates the existence of dangerous or deficient conditions and additional ventilation cannot reduce concentrations to safe levelsThe atmosphere tests as safe but unsafe conditions can reasonably be expected to developIt is not feasible to provide for ready exit from spaces equipped with automatic fire suppression systems and it is not practical or safe to deactivate such systemsAn emergency exists and it is not feasible to wait for pre-entry procedures to take effect
50Respiratory Equipment and Techniques Respiratory Protection ClassificationsSelf-contained breathing apparatusConsidered highest level of protectionSupply / duration is carried with entrant*No air hoses to outside to restrict movement*Cylinder size can cause difficulty in tight spaces*Combination/dual purpose SCBASame as simple SCBA with addition of high press inlet hose
51Respiratory Equipment and Techniques Supplied air respirator with escape cylinderAir is supplied to entrants mask from outside the spaceCapable of endless air supplyMust include escape cylinder *Normally five (5) to ten (10) minute durationAir line not to exceed 300’ from source *Air purifying respiratorsMust not be oxygen deficient atmosphereCartridge must be specific to vapor, mist, fumes, dusts, et.Not recommended unless conditions are known and can be maintained *
57Communications Equipment Battery operated portable radiosPush to talk operationsVoice activated operations *Ear mike optionTwo way – multiple usersReception/transmission interferenceElectronic equipment must be intrinsically safeHard wire systemsPush to talk operationConference operation – multiple usersHard wire can restrict movement *
58Communications Equipment Hand signalsBasic signalsMust be committed to memoryMust have visual contactRope signalsRestricts movementTapping or rapping codes on tanksBasic codesLimited application
59CAL-OSHA Regulations Permit required confined spaces Communication equipment and procedures to maintain contact between entrants and attendants must be provided *Permit required confined spaces with any of the following conditionsTesting demonstrates the existence of dangerous or deficient conditions and additional ventilation cannot reduce concentrations to safe levels.The atmosphere tests as safe but unsafe conditions can reasonably be expected to developIt is no feasible to provide for ready exit from spaces equipped with automatic fire suppression systems and it is not practical or safe to deactivate such systemsAn emergency exists and it is not feasible to wait for pre-entry procedures to take effect
60OSHA Requirements: Retrieval Equipment OSHA requires retrieval line and fall restraint when vertical entry of five feet or more below grade is made *Retrieval lines must be attached to a mechanical device (mechanical advantage) outside the spaceEntrants are to stay “on line” unless this would increase entrant risk of injury, or is impossible *Staying on line allows for non-entry rescue
61Lifting, Lowering and Fall Restraint Equipment Anchoring devices (high point anchor)TripodManufacturedFabricatedLaddersTimberLadder ginDavit mounted systemsTruck mounted boomsBeam trolley
64Mechanical Advantage System Z-Rig 3 to 1 pulley system
65Lifting, Lowering and Fall Restraint Equipment Mechanical advantage systemsHand cranked mechanical winches with cableRope and pulley systemsFall restraint systemsInertia or centrifugal systemsMaximum 2’ drop allowedCam systemsGibbs ascenderRescue ascenders
66Lifting, Lowering and Fall Restraint Equipment Entrant/victim harnessesFull body harnesses (Class III)*Wristlets *Upper body immobilization devicesLSP halfbackOregon Spine SplintFull body immobilization devicesStokes litterSked sledMiscellaneous hardwarePulleysCarabiners
68Operational Positions and Responsibilities Attendant Duties *Knows hazards faced during entry, including mode, signs/symptoms and consequences of exposureUnderstand behavioral effects of exposure on entrantsMaintains count and identities of personnel in the space*Remains outside the space until relieved, may also perform rescue if trainedCommunicates with entrants as needed *Monitors activities inside and outside the space and orders evacuation if conditions dictateInitiates on-site rescue procedures and summons additional rescue services if neededSecures a safe perimeter and takes action if unauthorized persons approach *Performs non-entry rescues or other rescue services as designated by the on-site rescue procedurePerforms no duties that might interfere with primary duty to protect the entrant
69Operational Positions and Responsibilities Authorized Entrants Duties *Knows hazards during entry, including mode, signs/symptoms and consequences of exposureProperly uses all equipment required to make safe entryCommunicates with attendant as necessary for attendant to monitor entrant status and activate evacuationAlerts attendant if situations warrantExits the space immediately if situations warrant
70Operational Positions and Responsibilities Duties of Entry Supervisors *Knows hazards during entry, including mode, signs/symptoms and consequences of exposureVerifies that entry permit is completed, tests have been conducted, and needed equipment is present before endorsing the permit and approving entry*Terminates the entry and cancels the permit *Verifies that additional equipment and services are presentConfirms that entry operations remain consistent with entry permit, that acceptable entry conditions are maintained, and consistent transfer of responsibility take place *
72ProcedureI. PURPOSEA. To provide guidelines for the minimum requirements for entry into and rescue operations within Confined Spaces, in compliance with Federal Regulation 29, CFR , Title 8 of CCR Article 108, and NIOSH PublicationII. RESPONSIBILITYA. It will be the responsibility of each member to exercise appropriate command and control dictated by their rank in the implementation of this operational procedure.III. CONFINED SPACE CLASSIFICATIONS:A. NIOSH has three (3) classifications for confined spaces, based on life threatening characteristics.1. CLASS A: An environment which is Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. (IDLH) Entry by permit only shall be posted.2. CLASS B: An environment that has the POTENTIAL for causing injury or illness, if preventative measures are not use, but Not Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. (IDLH).3. CLASS C: An environment that has potential hazards which would not require any special modifications of the work procedures.
73Procedure B. OSHA/CAL-OSHA: defines Confined Spaces as: 1. Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and2. has a limited or restricted means of entry or exit; and3. is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.C. OSHA/CAL-OSHA: defines a Permit Required Confined Space as a confined space with any of the following characteristics:1. Contains or has the Potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; or2. Contains a material that has the Potential for engulfing an entrant: or3. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or4. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.D. OSHA/CAL-OSHA: defines a Non Permit Confined Space as;1. A confined Space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazards capable of causing death or serious physical harm.
74ProcedureIV. CONFINED SPACE HAZARDSA. It shall be the responsibility of all Qualified Persons at the incident to identify any realized or potential hazard.B. HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES1. An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of the ability to self rescue (escape unaided from the space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:a. An atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5% or above 23.5% by volume.b. An atmosphere containing greater than 10% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) of a flammable gas.c. An atmosphere containing a concentration greater than the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for the material involved.d. An airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its Lower Flammable Limit (LFL). This concentration may be approximated, as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of five (5) feet or less.
75Procedure C. MECHANICAL HAZARDS 1. Mechanical devices and equipment capable of causing death or injury within the Confined Space.D. ELECTRICAL HAZARDS1. Any electrical equipment or lines in or passing through the Confined Space which are not in rigid conduit.E. ENGULFMENT HAZARDS1. Any material in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state that is present in or may flow into the Confined Space.F. HEAT HAZARDS1. All Confined Spaces have the potential for elevated temperatures. Monitoring the temperature of the Confined Space and Personnel working inside is needed to prevent heat exhaustion/stroke and to alert personnel to possible atmospheric condition changes.
76Procedure B. OSHA/CAL-OSHA: defines Confined Spaces as: 1. Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and2. has a limited or restricted means of entry or exit; and3. is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.C. OSHA/CAL-OSHA: defines a Permit Required Confined Space as a confined space with any of the following characteristics:1. Contains or has the Potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere; or2. Contains a material that has the Potential for engulfing an entrant: or3. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or4. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.D. OSHA/CAL-OSHA: defines a Non Permit Confined Space as;1. A confined Space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazards capable of causing death or serious physical harm.
77Procedure V. HAZARD CONTROL A. ATMOSPHERIC 1. Prior to entering a Confined Space, the atmosphere shall be monitored in the following order:a. Oxygenb. Flammabilityc. Toxicity2. If atmospheric monitoring indicates an unsafe entry condition, entry into the Confined Space shall not be permitted until the hazard has been eliminated by ventilation.3. After entry has been made, monitoring shall continue and all personnel shall exit the space when conditions become unsafe Before re-entry into the space, the ventilation program shall be re- evaluated.4. When using forced air ventilation, consider where the hazardous atmosphere is being vented to and take proper precautions in that area.5. Eliminate all potential ignition sources.a. Lockout/Tagoutb. Secure fuelsB. MECHANICAL1. Lockout/Tagout2. All mechanical equipment/devices capable of causing injury are to be placed in a zero mechanical state.A
78Procedure C. ELECTRICAL 1. Lockout/Tagout a. All electrical equipment in the Confined Space.b. Secure at sub panel if possible; if not, secure at main panel even if it means a sub-area or plant shutdown.c. Be aware of stored energy.D. ENGULFMENT2. Blanking/BlindingE. HEAT1. Ventilation2. Rotation of Personnel3. Medical monitoring.VI. DEFINITIONSA. QUALIFIED PERSON(S)1. One who is capable of identifying hazards in the work area, or working conditions that are hazardous or dangerous to personnel and is authorized to take corrective measures to eliminate them.2. One who is trained and familiar with accepted Confined Space standards and requirements.
79Procedure VI. DEFINITIONS (cont.) B. AUTHORIZED ENTRANTS 1. An employee who is designated by the employer to enter a Confined/Permit Required Confined Space.a. It is the employers responsibility to ensure that all authorized entrants receive the appropriate training and perform their duties properly under the permit space program.C. ATTENDANTS1. An employee stationed outside the Confined Space who is trained as required.a. Monitors condition and location of entrants.b. Maintains control of entry area.D. ENTRY SUPERVISOR1. An employee trained to the levels of entrant and attendant.a. Responsible for the issuing of and canceling of the entry permit.b. Maintains entry conditions consistent with the entry permit and the Standard Operating Procedure.
80Procedure E. LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURE 1. All mechanical equipment and devices shall be placed in a zero mechanical state and controllers locked and tagged.2. All electrical equipment (excluding lights) shall be locked in the open/off position and tagged.3. In cases where it’s locking is not possible, equipment shall be properly tagged with a non-reusable, self-locking device in the open/off position.4. If the equipment is not capable of being locked out, then it is to be tagged in the open/off position and physical security provided.5. All valves are to be locked in the closed position with a wheel cover or chain and tagged.6. All product lines are to be blanked, blinded, or disconnected and tagged.7. Padlocks are to be of the key type and not keyed alike. The key is to remain with the entry team.8. The key to a successful lockout is to retain someone intimately familiar with the systems in the work area, allowing them to brief and guide YOU through THEIR systems.9. Remember backup, redundant, and override systems.
81Procedure VII. PERSONNEL PROTECTION A. CONFINED SPACES 1. Appropriate safety gear.B. PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACES1. Flash protection (brush gear, nomex coveralls), helmet, gloves, Class III full body harness.2. Respiratory protection.a. SARb. Type C SCBAc. SCBA3. Communication system.a. Voice over power systems.(1) TELEX systemVIII. CONFINED SPACE RESCUEA. All rescues in Confined Spaces will be considered PERMIT REQUIRED. (2) Portable radios (must be intrinsically safe)
82ProcedureIX. RESPONSEA. Initial dispatch will be the standard “Rescue” response.B. Additional trained resources are subject to special request.C. A complete Confined Space Rescue Team will include:1. First Arriving engine (size up/overhead)2. MO71 (extraction team)3. MO75 (entry team)4. MO21 (entry/extraction)5. MO35 (entry/extraction)6. Battalion Chief (I/C)D. If the incident becomes an extended operation, additional response shall be:1. A Level I Overhead Team.2. Recall additional CSRT personnel as needed.
83Procedure PHASE ONE (size up) A. Secure witness/foreman/supervisor. B. Identify immediate hazards.C. Secure permit information.D. Location, number, condition of victims.E. Type of space.F. Present and past uses of the space.G. Space hazards.H. Diagram of the space.I. Structural stability of the space.J. Evacuate if Necessary.K. Crowd/Traffic control.
84Procedure XI. PHASE II (pre-entry operations) A. Establish a Unified Command (Fire, Site Management, Medical, Police)B. Assign a Safety Officer.C. Establish a perimeter.D. Secure permit information.E. Test work area atmosphere.F. Establish a work area perimeter and clear it of unauthorized personnel.G. Test Confined Space atmosphere.H. Secure hazards.I. Effect ventilation plan.J. Confirm Lockout/Tagout.K. Assess if to be Rescue or Recovery.L. Establish Action Plan (RESCUE permit) with Back-up plan.
85Procedure XII. PHASE III (rescue) A. Execute Action Plan. B. Confirm entry conditions.C. Confirm all teams in place and properly outfitted.D. Confirm all support systems.1. Entry/retrieval.2. Air.3. Records.4. Lighting.5. Rescue/removal equipment.E. Confirm Medical Plan.F. Assess Ventilation Plan.G. Confirm/check Communication Plan.H. MAKE ENTRY.
86Procedure I. Monitor ALL conditions. 1. Confined Space. a. Atmosphere. b. Personnel2. Work Area.b. Personnel.3. Ventilation plana. Atmosphere downwind.J. Establish a work period based on conditions.1. Rotate Entry teams for rehab and medical evaluation.2. Rotate other teams as necessary.K. Effect rescue/recovery.L. EXIT SPACE.M. Account for ALL personnel and victims.N. Account for all equipment.O. Secure Space.P. Cancel RESCUE Permit.
87Procedure XIII. PHASE IV (termination) A. Remove tools and equipment. B. All personnel to Rehab and receive medical monitoring at scene.C. Consider C.I.S. debriefing.D. Secure scene.E. Release all personnel.F. Secure Unified Command.G. File Entry Permit and all logsXIV. HAZ-MAT:A. IF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS are involved, and Level A or Level B entry protection is required, a Haz-Mat Team shall be dispatched and entry will be made by cross trained personnel (Fire or Civilian Contractor) or,B. Haz-Mat Team can mitigate the scene and recovery can be made by Fire CSRT.
88Procedure XV. CONFINED SPACE ENTRY (NON RESCUE) A. Secure PERMIT process.B. Confirm LOCKOUT/TAGOUT.C. MONITOR atmosphere.D. EVALUATE permit process.E. Make APPROPRIATE entry.XVI. PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE ENTRY (NON RESCUE)A. Secure PERMIT.D. VENTILATE.F. CANCEL permit.G. FILE permit.
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