5 The martial that is used for painting the vehicles is a solvent borne material which is extremely flammable. The paint is stored and pumped from a paint mix room. MIX ROOMS ARE CLASS 1 DIVISION 1 AREAS – NO ELECTRIC ITEMS ARE ALLOWED IN THIS ROOM INCLUDING – (CELL PHONES, FLASH LIGHTS, RADIOS, ETC). UNLESS APPROVED BY FORD SAFETY PAINT MIX ROOM Typical paint mix room Typical circulation system Bulk Storage Tank for Solvent and Waste Tote stand for loading material Tote storage rack
Typical Paint Circulation System Components Tote Tank Transfer Pump Day TankBPRPump Surge Chamber Supply Line Return Line Booth Heat ExchangerDrops
7 The paint is pumped from the paint circulation module to the spray booths in what is called a header system. The headers system is constructed from stainless steel pipe/tubing and delivers paint to each robot or manual spray station. At each robot or manual station, a line tees off the header to feed this station. This is called a drop/paint station. PAINT CIRCULATION HEADER Typical paint circulation header
8 The paint must be applied to the vehicle at the correct temperature. A paint heat exchanger system is used to maintain a temperature of +/- 2 degrees F PAINT HEATEXCHAGNER SYSTEM Tube and shell heat exchanger Water conditioning skid Water supply and return lines
9 Recirculation of the header and drop legs are very important Utilize (1) Pump for Recirculation and (1) Pump for Empting of the Tank Special Cage Inside Tank to Capture 2K Waste Debris From Clogging Pumps Special Waste Collection Funnel Under Cap Cleaner to Flush Drop Legs and Prevent Debris from Entering Waste Header Note: Containment Pan Not Shown Ball Valves Added to Header to Have the Ability to Power Flush Header for Preventative Maintenance Gravity Waste Header Fabricated from 2 S.S. Tubing Utilizing Sanitary Fittings for Smooth ID and Ease of Maintenance. Line Installed at ¼ – 3/8 per foot to maintain proper drain velocity Purge Solvent Piped to Tank so Virgin Solvent Can be Added for Cleaning. A Catalyst Stop can be Substituted to Prevent the Catalyst from Curing (paint supplier can recommend material) WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM Each time the robot or manual station changes color a certain amount of waste is generated. This waste is collected at the paint booth in a waste collection system.
Supply Material Fluid Pressure? Generally between 80-100 PSI at the drop and 20- 60 PSI at the point of atomization.
Circulating systems must provide minimum required fluid pressure at all drops. As material flows through piping friction causes a pressure loss. This pressure loss must be calculated in order to ensure the last drop meets the minimum pressure requirement. Pressure calculations are done via the Delta P Formula. Supply Material Fluid Pressure?
DELTA P FORMULA ~ Change FORMULA ~ P =.0273 Q V L ID 4 P ~ Pressure (Pounds per Square Inch) Q ~ Quantity of Flow (Gallons Per Minute) V ~ Viscosity (Poise) L ~ Length (Feet) ID ~ Inside Diameter (Inches)
DELTA P FORMULA Example: Calculate Pressure Lost Between Drop 1 & Drop 2? Viscosity = 1 Poise Quantity = 1.84 GPM (1 foot per sec) Length = 50 Feet I.D. =.87 Inches (1 x.065 Wall S.S. Tubing) Drop 2 Drop 1 50 Feet 1 x.065 WALL - 18 GAUGE S.S. TUBING
DELTA P FORMULA Substitute numbers into formula Substitute numbers into formula FORMULA ~ P =.0273 Q V L ID 4 FORMULA ~ =.0273 1.84 * 1 * 50.87 4 P Drop 2 Drop 1 = 4.384 psi P 50 Feet 1 x.065 WALL - 18 GAUGE S.S. TUBING
Maintain Material Integrity? This is the #1 concern for paint circulating system design. Issues include: Material velocity Shear (turns through system) What Are We Doing?
Material Velocity Material must maintain a certain velocity through all piping and drop hoses. Velocity is measured via ft/sec of material flow through piping and drop hoses. General rule is WB material must maintain 0.5/sec and SB 1/sec. Maintain Material Integrity?
Material Velocity If velocity is to low then material can settle. If material settles finished product can have the appearance of dirt when in fact it is a settling issue. Over time this can also lead to restricted or clogged lines (usually return lines). Maintain Material Integrity?
Material Velocity If velocity is to high then extra energy is being used and material shear levels are higher then necessary. Higher velocity equates to higher then necessary pump flow rates and turns through paint circulating system. Maintain Material Integrity?
Shear Shear is caused at any point where force is put on material. High pressure combined with high flow will cause the highest shear point (i.e. BPR, pump ball checks, regulators…). The lower the pressure and/or flow the better.
Shear General rule is after 1000 turns through the system material will have visible color degradation. Material must be replenished or it could be damaged beyond repair. 80/20 Theory: 80% of paint waste costs comes from 20% of material (i.e. low run colors). Maintain Material Integrity?
Over Sized Delivery SystemSmart Design Tank Volume120 Flow Rate73 Time for 1 Turn (min)17.140.0 Time for 1000 Turns (min)1714340000 Time for 1000 Turns (days)11.927.8 Maintain Material Integrity? Material Integrity Example
What Are We Doing? Supply Material Flow? Total system flow is based on the following: Total applicator flow requirements if all applicators are flowing at maximum rate at one time. OR Required material velocity flow rate needed to maintain material integrity. WHICHEVER IS HIGHER
TYPES OF PAINT CIRC SYSTEMS What are end user options? THREE PIPE SYSTEM THREE PIPE SYSTEM TWO PIPE SYSTEM TWO PIPE SYSTEM ONE PIPE SYSTEM ONE PIPE SYSTEM PIGGABLE SYSTEM PIGGABLE SYSTEM
3-Pipe Systems Circulation thru Color Valve Circulation thru Color Valve Color valve can be mounted on robot arm (low material waste) Color valve can be mounted on robot arm (low material waste) ~ Disadvantage: Time and material to clean Time and material to clean Old Technology – Does not work well with WB PaintsOld Technology – Does not work well with WB Paints Regulator Dependent – Have to adjust to make sure system is balancedRegulator Dependent – Have to adjust to make sure system is balanced Different velocities throughout system Different velocities throughout system Costly labor to design & install Costly labor to design & install Not easily expandable Not easily expandable Swings in viscosity can cause problems Swings in viscosity can cause problems ~ Advantage:
Three Pipe System (1) Supply – (2) Returns Three Pipe System (1) Supply – (2) Returns
TWO PIPE SYSTEM GRADUATED LINE SIZES GRADUATED LINE SIZES SINGLE BPR (Back Pressure Regulator) SINGLE BPR (Back Pressure Regulator) RECIRCS THROUGH COLOR VALVE MOUNTED ON ROBOT ARM RECIRCS THROUGH COLOR VALVE MOUNTED ON ROBOT ARM HYDRAULICALLY BALANCED OR REGULATOR DEPENDANT HYDRAULICALLY BALANCED OR REGULATOR DEPENDANT
2-Pipe Systems Circulation in Color Valve Circulation in Color Valve Color valve can be mounted on robot arm (low material waste) Color valve can be mounted on robot arm (low material waste) Not Regulator Dependent Not Regulator Dependent ~ Disadvantage: Time and material to clean Time and material to clean Different velocities throughout system Different velocities throughout system Costly labor to design & install Costly labor to design & install Not easily expandable Not easily expandable Swings in viscosity can cause problems Swings in viscosity can cause problems ~ Advantage:
Overview 1-Pipe Systems Low volume containment Low volume containment Quick color change Quick color change Quick viscosity adjustment Quick viscosity adjustment Reduced energy Reduced energy Easily expandable Easily expandable Lower install cost Lower install cost ~ Advantage: No Circulation through Color Valve No Circulation through Color Valve Material settling at deadend drops Material settling at deadend drops ~ Disadvantage:
Overview Piggable System Low volume containment Low volume containment No settling No settling Quick color change Quick color change Capable of being shut down Capable of being shut down Expandable Expandable Reduced energy Reduced energy ~ Advantage: Circulates through color valve Circulates through color valve Low design engineering costs Low design engineering costs Simpler operation Simpler operation Consistent velocity Consistent velocity Low solvent usage Low solvent usage ~ Disadvantage: Color valve cannot be located on robot arm (must be hard mounted)
MAIN PAINT LINE COLOR 1 SOLVENT HEADER COMPRESSED AIR HEADER MAIN PAINT LINE COLOR 1 COLOR CHANGE VALVE
Paint Circulation System Components Tote Tank Transfer Pump Day TankBPRPump Surge Chamber Supply Line Return Line Booth Heat ExchangerDrops
TYPES OF BALL VALVES Non-Encapsulated Ball Valves Dirt builds up between ball Not easily cleanable Paint can settle out Cheaper FORD SPEC - Full-Encapsulated Ball Valves No space for dirt build up Easily cleanable Piggable More Expensive
TYPES OF FITTINGS Threaded Fittings Dirt builds up threads Rough inside diameter Oil used to cut threads Not piggable Sanitary Fittings Used in dairy and pharma industry Cleanest fitting No oil used in fabrication Piggable
DUAL FUNCTION FILTERS Filter Housing Cartridge Bag Basket Strainer Centering Ring
TYPES OF AGITATORS Vain Air Motors High SCFM usage (15 – 30 scfm) High cost to operate Oil required for lubrication Radial Piston Air Motor Low SCFM usage (2 – 4 scfm) Low cost to operate Oil NOT required for lubrication FORD SPEC - Electric Direct Drive Agitator Motor Lowest cost to operate Most expensive to integrate (larger tanks)
TANKS FLAT LID TANKS Removal lids for cleaning Larger access openings Not recommended for WB – Paints DOMED TOP TANKS Not Removable Typically smaller openings Condensation builds up and wicks side wall Recommend for WB Paints
Main Components 5 HP Motor & Gearbox Main Cam Shaft and Bearings 4 Cylinders 8 Ball Check Carriage and Cam Follower Carriage Support Shaft and Linear Ball Bearing Bushes Main Pump Assembly Description E4-60 & E4-90 16 & 24 GPM
Turbine Pump Technology Use multi stage chambers each with a impeller blade that centrifugally create pressure and flow. Each chamber will create shear and increase paint temperature as the impeller blade abuses material. Temperature increase demonstrates the inefficiency of the pump…temperature increase is lost energy. A large 10 to 20 HP motor is needed to supply necessary power to impeller blades. End result is a costly pump that shears material and needs a heat exchanger installed on the circulating system to function properly. Stages Impeller Blade
Typical turbine pumps will use a 10 to 20 HP motor to supply required pressure & flow. Smart Pumps will require a 1.5 to 5 HP to supply same pressure & flow. The extra energy required for turbine pumps is transferred into the material in the form of heat (30° to 50°). This heat transfer requires Temperature Controls to be used to cool material to an application temperature. The Temperature Controls may not be required for the Smart Pump as heat transfer is minimal (2° to 5°). If required in order to maintain material temperature due to changing ambient temperature, the footprint and energy consumption is much lower. Turbine Pump Technology
Overview Smart Pump… every Hz equals flow! Smart BPR… can be automatically energized or de- energized! End Result… Smart Circulating System
What is SMART CIRC Existing circulating technology maintains operating pressure 24 hours a day even though material is not in demand… SMART CIRC automatically adjusts system pressure and flow to meet the demands at the applicator!
Smart Circulating System Flow Chart Job Queue Input a)Data shows material to be required. b) Data shows material is not required. A) Material Required: Signal activates BPR to preset pressure level. Pump is adjusted to Flow or Pressure mode depending on system demands. B) Material Not Required: Signal de-activates BPR to fully open 0 pressure level. Pump is adjusted to maintain Flow mode at preset levels. PLC Smart Circ Controls