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Computer Concepts 2012 Chapter 2 Computer Hardware.

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1 Computer Concepts 2012 Chapter 2 Computer Hardware

2 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware2 Chapter Contents Section A: Personal Computer Basics Section B: Microprocessors and Memory Section C: Storage Devices Section D: Input and Output Devices Section E: Hardware Security

3 2 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False A netbook is a scaled-down version of a standard notebook computer Small business computers have better sound and graphics capabilities than home or game computers PCs, Macs, and Linux are three computer platforms Todays Macs can be configured to run Windows Pentium, Core, Atom, and Athlon are types of microprocessors. 3 3 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

4 2 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False Todays computers typically process 8 bits at a time Serial processing is when a processor begins executing one instruction before it completes the previous instruction In RAM microscopic electronic parts called capacitors hold the bits that represent data ROM is a type of memory that holds the computers startup routine. 4 4 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

5 2 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False Hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid state drives are random access devices CD-RWs allow you to record data, but data cannot be changed once it is recorded VGA, SVGA, and WUXGA are examples of screen resolutions A surge strip allows you to use your desktop computer during a power outage. 5 5 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

6 2 SECTION A Chapter 2: Computer Hardware6 Personal Computer Basics Personal Computer Systems Desktop and Portable Computers Home, Game, and Small Business Systems Buying Computer System Components

7 2 Question In the interest of being ecological, many consumers consider upgrading their computers instead of disposing of them and buying a new one. Which one of the following upgrades is best left to professional technicians? –A. Replacing the microprocessor with a newer model –B. Adding an external hard drive for backup –C. Swapping out a graphics card for a more powerful one –D. Adding RAM Chapter 2: Computer Hardware7

8 2 Personal Computer Systems Chapter 2: Computer Hardware8

9 2 9 Desktop and Portable Computers The term form factor refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet

10 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware10 Desktop and Portable Computers A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard A netbook offers even more portability than a standard computer A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad –Slate tablet

11 2 Desktop and Portable Computers Chapter 2: Computer Hardware11

12 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware12 Home, Game, and Small Business Systems A home computer system offers a computer configuration designed to accommodate consumers who use computers for personal tasks Some of the most cutting-edge computers are designed for gaming Computers marketed for small business applications tend to be middle-of-the-line models pared down to essentials

13 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware13 Buying Computer System Components Browse through computer magazines and online computer stores to get a general idea of features and prices Decide on a budget and stick to it Make a list of the ways you plan to use your computer Select a platform Decide on a form factor Select peripherals, software, and accessories

14 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware14 Buying Computer System Components Instead of buying a new computer, you might consider upgrading

15 2 SECTION B Chapter 2: Computer Hardware15 Microprocessors and Memory Microprocessor Basics Todays Microprocessors Random Access Memory Read-only Memory EEPROM

16 2 Question Some computers are suitable for , word processing, and similar low-key operations, whereas other computers have the power to keep up while you play complex action games, edit high-resolution videos, and prepare multi-track sound recordings. Which of the following computers is the most powerful? –A. Intel Core 2 Quad processor; 4 GB RAM –B. AMD Phenom Quad core processor; 3 GB RAM –C. Intel Core 2 Quad processor; 2 GB RAM –D. Intel Atom processor; 4 GB RAM Chapter 2: Computer Hardware16

17 2 A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions –Usually the most expensive component of a computer Chapter 2: Computer Hardware17 Microprocessor Basics

18 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware18 Microprocessor Basics Microprocessor clock –Megahertz –Gigahertz Multicore processor Front side bus Cache –Level 1 cache (L1) –Level 2 cache (L2) –Level 3 cache (L3) Word size

19 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware19 Microprocessor Basics CISC vs. RISC technology Serial processing –Pipelining Parallel processing Benchmarks

20 2 Todays Microprocessors Chapter 2: Computer Hardware20

21 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware21 Random Access Memory RAM (random access memory) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

22 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware22 Random Access Memory Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data Most RAM is volatile –Requires electrical power to hold data

23 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware23 Random Access Memory RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes Personal computers typically feature between 2 GB and 8 GB of RAM If a program exceeds its allocated space, the operating system uses an area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, to store parts of programs or data files until they are needed

24 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware24 Random Access Memory SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive –DDR, DDR2, or DDR3 RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds or megahertz –Lower nanosecond ratings are better

25 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware25 Read-Only Memory ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computers startup routine –Permanent and non-volatile The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM

26 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware26 EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory Replaces CMOS technology Requires no power to hold data

27 2 SECTION C Chapter 2: Computer Hardware27 Storage Devices Storage Basics Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology Solid State Storage Storage Wrap-up

28 2 Question Storage devices have varying levels of versatility, durability, speed, and capacity. For a student who owns a computer, but sometimes needs to use computers in the school lab, which storage device is most versatile? –A. Hard disk drive –B. CD-R –C. Solid state drive –D. USB flash drive Chapter 2: Computer Hardware28

29 2 Storage Basics A storage medium contains data A storage device records and retrieves data from a storage medium –Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed –Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium Vertical vs. horizontal storage Chapter 2: Computer Hardware29

30 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware30 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface

31 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware31 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology Hard disk platters and read-write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants.

32 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware32 A hard disk controller positions the disk, locates data, and interfaces with the components of the system board –SATA –Ultra ATA –EIDE –SCSI Not as durable as many other storage technologies –Head crash Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

33 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware33 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface –CD, DVD, and Blu-ray storage technologies

34 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware34 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology Todays DVD drives typically have 24X speeds for a data transfer rate of 3600 KBps Three categories of optical technologies –Read-only (ROM) –Recordable (R) –Rewritable (RW)

35 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware35 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology CD-DA DVD-Video CD-ROM DVD-ROM CD-R DVD+R or DVD-R CD-RW DVD+RW or DVD-RW BD-ROM, BD-R, and BD-RE

36 2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology Chapter 2: Computer Hardware36

37 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware37 Solid State Storage Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry Non-volatile Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storage

38 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware38 Solid State Storage A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computers system unit using a built-in connector Files stored on a USB flash drive can be opened, edited, deleted, and run just as though those files were on magnetic or optical media

39 2 Storage Wrap-up Chapter 2: Computer Hardware39

40 2 Storage Wrap-up Chapter 2: Computer Hardware40

41 2 SECTION D Chapter 2: Computer Hardware41 Input and Output Devices Basic Input Devices Display Devices Printers Installing Peripheral Devices

42 2 Question Computer owners usually want to add various peripheral devices to their computers. Suppose you have a notebook computer and you want to add an external hard drive, but youve run out of USB ports. What can you do? –A. Use the HDMI port instead. –B. Plug directly into the expansion bus. –C. Swap in a USB hub for one of the currently connected peripherals. –D. Use an Ethernet-to-USB converter. Chapter 2: Computer Hardware42

43 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware43 Basic Input Devices Keyboard Pointing device –Mice –Trackball –Joystick –Trackpad Touch screen

44 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware44 Display Devices An LCD display produces an image by filtering light through a layer of liquid crystal cells Gradually, CCFL backlighting technology is being replaced by low- power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) –LED display

45 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware45 Display Devices Screen size Dot pitch Viewing angle width Response rate Color depth Screen resolution –VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, WUXGA, and WQXGA

46 2 Display Devices Chapter 2: Computer Hardware46

47 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware47 Display Devices Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen –Integrated graphics –Graphics card –Graphics processing unit (GPU)

48 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware48 Printers An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper A laser printer works like a photocopier

49 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware49 Printers Laser printers electrostatically collect toner on a drum, then the toner is transferred onto paper.

50 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware50 Printers Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires –The wires strike a ribbon and the paper

51 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware51 Printers Printer features –Resolution –Print speed –Duty cycle –Operating costs –Duplex capability –Memory –Networkability

52 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware52 Installing Peripheral Devices The data bus moves data between RAM and the microprocessor The segment of the data bus to which peripheral devices connect is called the expansion bus An expansion slot is a long, narrow socket on the system board into which you can plug an expansion card Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities –Expansion port

53 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware53 Installing Peripheral Devices An expansion card simply slides into an expansion slot. Before you install an expansion card, make sure you unplug the computer and ground yourself thats technical jargon for releasing static electricity by using a special grounding wristband or by touching both hands to a metal object.

54 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware54 Installing Peripheral Devices An expansion port passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral device

55 2 Installing Peripheral Devices Chapter 2: Computer Hardware55 Most peripherals connect to an external USB port You can easily add USB ports to your computer by using a USB hub

56 2 Installing Peripheral Devices Other kinds of ports Plug and Play automatically configures your computer to accommodate new peripheral devices you add Chapter 2: Computer Hardware56

57 2 SECTION E Chapter 2: Computer Hardware57 Hardware Security Anti-theft Devices Surge Protection and Battery Backup Basic Maintenance Troubleshooting and Repair

58 2 Question When you treat your computer carefully and perform basic maintenance, you can avoid many hardware problems, However, if you encounter the blue screen of death, what has gone wrong? –A. The operating system has encountered an error from which it cannot recover. –B. Your computer has contracted a virus. –C. Your hard disk is full. –D. Your display device has malfunctioned. Chapter 2: Computer Hardware58

59 2 Anti-Theft Devices Chapter 2: Computer Hardware59

60 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware60 Surge Protection and Battery Backup A power surge is a sudden increase in electrical energy, affecting the current that flows to electrical outlets A surge strip is a device that contains electrical outlets protected by circuitry that blocks surges A UPS is a device that not only provides surge protection, but also furnishes your computer with battery backup power during a power outage

61 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware61 Surge Protection and Battery Backup

62 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware62 Basic Maintenance Computer component failures can be caused by manufacturing defects and other circumstances beyond your control Keep the keyboard clean Clean your computer screen on a regular basis Keep the area clean around your computer Make sure fans are free of dust

63 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware63 Basic Maintenance Carefully use a cotton swab and a can of compressed air or a vacuum cleaner to remove dust and debris from your keyboard. Sticky liquids are difficult to remove. That can of pop? Better to keep it away from your keyboard.

64 2 Chapter 2: Computer Hardware64 Troubleshooting and Repair There are several telltale signs that your computer is in trouble –Failure to power up –Loud beep –Blank screens and/or error messages –Blue screen of death Windows troubleshooter Safe Mode

65 2 Troubleshooting and Repair Chapter 2: Computer Hardware65

66 2 What Do You Think? Have you ever thrown away an old computer or other electronic device? –A. YesB. NoC. Not sure Are you aware of any options for recycling electronic equipment in your local area? –A. YesB. NoC. Not sure Would it be fair for consumers to pay a recycling tax on any electronic equipment that they purchase? –A. YesB. NoC. Not sure Chapter 2: Computer Hardware66

67 Computer Concepts 2012 Chapter 2 Complete


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