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ASSESSMENT 1 – THE STRUCTURE OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM

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1 ASSESSMENT 1 – THE STRUCTURE OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM
UNIT 3 COMPUTER SYSTEMS Lynda Spencelayh ASSESSMENT 1 – THE STRUCTURE OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM

2 P1- IDENTIFY THE COMMON COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM
Lynda Spencelayh

3 COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM
TASK 1 You are required to produce a leaflet describing the main components [both hardware and software] of a computer including peripherals. You need to describe the components and features also explain what job each component does and how they are connected Lynda Spencelayh

4 HARDWARE COMPONENTS Hardware is any physical component in a computer system; something that is tangible and can therefore be ‘seen’ and ‘touched’ Hardware comes in a variety of different component types. Although they can be some differences between manufactures You should learn what job each component does and how they are connected. Lynda Spencelayh

5 Hardware Processor speed & Type Ram, Rom, cache [memory] Motherboard
Input Graphics tablet Mouse Digital camera Scanner Touch Screen Gaming controller Microphone Keyboard Storage CD Rom CDR CDRW & DVDR DVDRW, BD BLURAY Hard drive Flash Drives USB storage devices Memory Stick Output medium Printer Computer monitor Sound- speakers Computer Network connectivity eg 3G, Wireless, Bluetooth, NIC Lynda Spencelayh Costs

6 Motherboard Largest component – all the other components are plugged into or connected to the motherboard. All computer systems , no matter what size., have a ‘main’ board of some kind The most popular is called ATX [advanced technology extended] compatible. The following components are connected directly to the motherboard – CPU, RAM & the CHIPSET Lynda Spencelayh

7 CPU-Processor The central processing unit is another name for the processor. It is a chip that fits into a socket on the motherboard. It is the heart of the computer system, allowing the operating system and other programs to run. Lynda Spencelayh

8 CPU-Processor Every program consists of instructions for the processor that are decoded and actioned inside the processor to make them work CPUs are usually the most expensive component of a system, manufactured by either Intel or AMD AMD – Athlon and Opteron Intel – Pentium and Celeron Lynda Spencelayh

9 Speed The frequency of the processors internal clock is measured in [Hz]. CPU’s are usually 32-bit or 64-bit. This describes the size of data and instructions it can process. Some CPU’s have multiple ‘cores’ which can work independently or can combine to process data faster. CPU performance is measured by a combination or its bit size, number of cores and frequency: bigger is usually better! Lynda Spencelayh

10 Cache memory Is very fast electronic memory between RAM and another device, used to make the system run faster. The FAT (File Allocation Table) is held on the disk to connect names of files and folders to where they actually are on the disk. When a file is opened or saved the disk address needs to be looked up in the FAT before the file can be found. Lynda Spencelayh

11 RAM RAM stands for random access memory. Is to store data and instructions temporarily when a program is being run by a CPU. When the power is removed the data is lost – this is what we call volatile storage. RAM is a key factor in a good computer system performance [more is better] Lynda Spencelayh

12 RAM There are many types, sizes and speeds of RAM, with DIMMs [Dual Inline Memory Module] and DDR [Double Data Rate] being the most common. Lynda Spencelayh

13 Software being run and documents being opened
Cache Hard disk RAM Processor Software being run and documents being opened Documents being saved Lynda Spencelayh

14 Cache If data is required from the drive, the required data is brought to cache, as well as the next data on the disk, so if the computer needs this as well, it is already in the cache Lynda Spencelayh

15 Chipset Motherboards make use of many specialist microchips [‘chips’ for short] The common ones are: Northbridge – which manages data traffic between faster motherboard components [RAM, CPU and video card]. Southbridge – which manages traffic between slower motherboard components. In addition the motherboard may have chips dedicated to: Video Sound Network connectivity Lynda Spencelayh

16 Video Sound Network connectivity
Alternatively these can be separate cards which are plugged into the motherboard through extension slots. Lynda Spencelayh

17 STORAGE DEVICES Lynda Spencelayh

18 Hard disks [drives] Internal
Internal hard disks are connected to the motherboard by either a PATA [Parallel Advance Technology Attachment] or the newer SATA [Serial ATA] connection. These are magnetic data storage units and they store vast amounts of data and spin at speeds of around rpm [revolutions per minute]. Although hard disks are typically stored inside the base unit [or laptop] they can also be purchased as an external device, usually connected by USB [Universal serial bus] or e SATA cables. Most new computer systems are using SATA drives and often have at least 500 GB storage Lynda Spencelayh

19 OPTICAL DRIVES Use a laser to read\data from CD, DVD or a BD [Blu – ray disc] Most drives can use either read-only discs, such as CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs, or can be used to record data on recordable or rewriteable discs. Drives are usually marked to indicate what type of discs they will accept The typical data capacity of these discs is as given below: CD: MB DVD: 4.7 – 16GB BD:25 – 128GB Lynda Spencelayh

20 Flash Drives Use a special type of electronic memory which can be written very quickly and remains intact even when the device is removed from the computer system’s power. This makes them ideal for medium and long term data storage. Relatively inexpensive and easy to use, flash drives connect to, modern computer systems via a USB port storing anything between 16MB and 250GB. The USB hub it connects to is built into the motherboard Lynda Spencelayh

21 Peripherals The following components are connected to the motherboard via external ports [usually on the ‘backplane’ of the motherboard which is visible on the back of the base unit]. These components are peripheral [connected outside the base unit] and are classified as input devices. Lynda Spencelayh

22 INPUT DEVICES Lynda Spencelayh

23 Touch Screen Is new popular in mobile phones, GPS devices, public access points, bank ATMs and hand held games consoles. Touch screens are easy they only require the users hand. Combined with simple user friendly icon based interface, even non technical users can interact with a computer system. The surface project from Microsoft is a good showcase for this technology Lynda Spencelayh

24 Graphics Tablet Alternative way to draw instead of using a mouse, greater precision for drawing. Professional digital artists will use a tool like this when using graphical applications software such as Adobe Photoshop. Graphic tablets come complete with a stylus and often comes in A5, A4 and A# sizes. They are usually connected to a computer system via USB Lynda Spencelayh

25 Game Controllers Can be use with a PC or Apple Mac most are specific to a chosen games console. Most contain force-feedback technology which ‘rumbles’ the controller in the user’s hand to reflect on-screen events. Some controllers use a proprietary connection [specific to a particular console] most modern devices use either USB or wireless connections. Lynda Spencelayh

26 A Microphone Is used to convert sound waves made by human speech into electrical signals which can be used to control a computer system or talk to other users via internet telephone services such as Skype Lynda Spencelayh

27 Keyboard Qwerty keyboard basic input device Most PC keyboards are wireless or USB or PS/2 connections. A Mouse Uses either mechanical roller ball or optical light-emitting dipoles and sensors to move the pointer on the screen. A mouse is a key component of a modern GUI either wireless or USB or PS/2 connections Lynda Spencelayh

28 OUTPUT DEVICES Lynda Spencelayh

29 Printer – other peripherals
Produces monochrome, grey scale or colour prints containing text and / or images. Inkjet and laser. Inkjet uses wet cartridge ink laser works similar to photocopiers by using dry toner which is heat-bonded to certain points of the page. Most printers are wireless, USB or much older parallel port connections. Lynda Spencelayh

30 Monitors Older – CRT diminishing in use due to bulky nature and higher power consumption. LCD have become standard. Connections to computer systems are usually by the older 15-pin for VGA connecter for newer typically 29-pin DVI digital interface. The type of connection used must be compatible with the computer system’s video card. Lynda Spencelayh

31 Speakers Connects to the sound card. Converts electrical signals into sound waves. Two speakers are common offering stereo sounds. More complex speaker systems are possible depending on the sound card. You can set up 5.1 systems five speakers plus a sub woofer for lower frequency ‘bass’ sounds. Speakers can be connected\wireless or USB Lynda Spencelayh

32 Network connectivity In addition to input and output devices computers can be connected together. Any device that helps to achieve this comes under the classification of network connectivity. 3G or 4th generation mobile telephone technology, can be used to transmit data over a cellar network between two different computer systems. Although the technology is built into #G phones, tradition PC systems such as desktops or notebook can make use of USB 3G Dongles to access the same network. Lynda Spencelayh

33 Wi-Fi networks Can be accessed by an appropriate wireless network controller and many devices have these built-in [for example, Apple I phone, Nintendo Wii Sony Play Station and most notebooks. It is possible to connect a USB wireless dongle that will do the same job. Although not fast, flexible or powerful as a Wi-Fi network., Bluetooth connectivity can be a useful tool when transmitting data between a mobile telephone and a computer system. . Lynda Spencelayh

34 Wi-Fi networks Inexpensive USB Bluetooth dongles enable a user to back up mobile telephone data [such as pictures, SMS text] to their computer system or uploaded music to them A network interface card [NIC} usually plugs into a motherboard of a computer system. Many different types [and speeds] exist and it is not uncommon to find its circuitry built into the motherboards of most desktops PC’s, laptops and netbooks. Although some NIC’s use a wired [Ethernet] connection, others use wireless connectivity sand often have a visible antenna Lynda Spencelayh


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