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Dr. Abdulrahman Al Raisi

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1 Dr. Abdulrahman Al Raisi
Training and Graduation Project Unit Graduation Project II Separation of Boron from seawater Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department Name ID Abeer Al Hammadi Ayesha Al Hosani Haleimah Seraidy Maryam Al Ali Department Advisor: Dr. Monwar Hussein Examiner committee: Dr. Ali Al-Naqbi Dr. Abdulrahman Al Raisi Dr. Sulaiman Al Zuhair Fall 2010 Ayesha Ibrahim

2 Agenda Introduction Summary of GPI Unique of the project
Advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives Process flow diagram, mass and energy balances Design of main equipment Process Economics Liquid-liquid extraction experiment Environmental Impact of the Process HAZOP and Safety Studies Conclusion Future of project Acknowledgments Ayesha Ibrahim

3 Introduction Problem Statement
Boron concentration in seawater is around 5 mg/L . World Health Organization (WHO) ruling to be below 0.5 mg/L for drinking water and should not exceed 0.2 mg/L for irrigation. Separation of boron is very important to be within the recommended limit because of bad effect in health and environment. Ayesha Ibrahim

4 Introduction Objectives Select method that will remove boron from seawater without losing that much of essential minerals like: Mg+2, Na+, Cl- and Ca+2. Design a process that combined between RO and liquid-liquid extraction by using hollow fiber membrane contactor. Choose non toxic solvent like sunflower oil instead of toxic one which is kerosene. Ayesha Ibrahim

5 Examine the health, safety and HAZOP study in the process
Introduction Determine main parameters such as area of: RO, membrane contactor and heat exchanger. Examine the health, safety and HAZOP study in the process Obtain mass and energy balances for selected design and alternative. Study the economic analysis to evaluate the designed process. Ayesha Ibrahim

6 Summary of GPI Six methods for removing boron from seawater were studied and then liquid-liquid extraction ,ion exchange and reverse osmosis were selected. The material balance and energy balance were done for the selected methods. Ayesha Ibrahim

7 Unique of the project Liquid-liquid extraction process works at natural pH of seawater and normal temperature and pressure. It can remove 45% of boron in one single stage pass. The chemicals used in liquid-liquid extraction process are non-toxic and non-corrosive. Ayesha

8 Advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives
Method Advantages Disadvantages Reverse Osmosis Could be effectively used with more than 95% rejection for removal boron. Ability to reject nearly all contaminant ions and most dissolved non-ions. Small space requirements. Second pass is required to reduce boron levels, which increase the cost. Pumps work at high pressure. Effectively removed at high pH value 11. Ayesha Ibrahim

9 Liquid-liquid extraction Best extraction (87%) at high pH value 12.
Advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives Methods Advantages Disadvantages Liquid-liquid extraction Best extraction (87%) at high pH value 12. Offers more flexibility in choice of operating conditions. Does not need heating and cooling provisions. Need two stages to remove boron first by organic solvent then re-extract from organic phase by acidic solution. Some solvent not commercial. Ayesha Ibrahim

10 Process flow diagram Ayesha Ibrahim

11 Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis
Assumptions Steady state. Recycled system. Basis: Concentration of boron in= 6 mg/L. Seawater flowrate= 100 m3/h. Maryam Ali

12 Component material balance for boron in mixing point 1
Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis Component material balance for boron in mixing point 1 Drawn by: Maryam Fi : Flowrate of seawater in stream i (m3/h) CBi :Concentration of boron in stream i (mg/L) Maryam Ali

13 Component material balance for boron in RO 1st stage
Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis Component material balance for boron in RO 1st stage Drawn by: Maryam Maryam Ali

14 Component material balance for boron in RO 2nd stage
Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis Component material balance for boron in RO 2nd stage Drawn by: Maryam Maryam Ali

15 Mass balance of one stage of reverse osmosis and liquid-liquid extraction
Assumption: Co-current process. Steady state. Basis: Boron concentration at seawater feed = 6 mg/L. Seawater feed flowrate = 100 m3/h. Reduction in volume in the 1st stage of RO = 20% Concentration from the 1st stage of RO =1 mg/L F3= 20 m3/h CB4= 0 (no boron in solvent) Maryam Ali

16 Component material balance for boron in RO 1st stage
Mass balance of one stage of reverse osmosis and liquid-liquid extraction Component material balance for boron in RO 1st stage Drawn by: Maryam Fi : Flowrate of seawater in stream i (m3/h) CBi :Concentration of boron in stream i (mg/L) Maryam Ali

17 Component material balance for boron in liquid-liquid extraction
Mass balance of one stage of reverse osmosis and liquid-liquid extraction Component material balance for boron in liquid-liquid extraction Drawn by: Maryam Maryam Ali

18 Energy balance on heat exchanger
Assumption: Steady state No heat loss Flowrate of seawater = 100 m3/h Basis: Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 Flowrate of refrigerant water =50 m3/h Maryam Ali

19 Energy balance on heat exchanger
Drawn by: Maryam Maryam Ali

20 Design of main equipment
Reverse osmosis membrane design: Data used for performing the calculations: Flux (L/m2.h) Flowrate (m3/h) Membrane area (m2) 15 100 35 Maryam Ali

21 Membrane contactor design:
Design of main equipment Membrane contactor design: Maryam Ali

22 Pumps design: Pretreatment pump: Design of main equipment
Maryam Ali

23 Pumps design: Reverse osmosis pump: Design of main equipment
Maryam Ali

24 Heat exchanger design Aim: cool 100 m3/h of seawater from 30oC to 25oC using refrigerant water at 5oC. By designing a suitable shell and tube heat exchanger. Calculation: Haleimah Seraidy

25 Assume: U=1000 watt/m2 .˚C L = 5m
Heat exchanger design Assume: U=1000 watt/m2 .˚C L = 5m Coulson &Richardson’s, Chemical engineering Design, Fourth edition,V.6,P: Haleimah Seraidy

26 All properties were found at average temperature:(Cpavg, ρ, μ, k, pr).
Heat exchanger design Tube side calculation All properties were found at average temperature:(Cpavg, ρ, μ, k, pr). Heat transfer coefficient(hi) was calculated from: Atubes: Cross sectional area of tube (m2) ID: Inner diameter (m) u: Velocity (m/s) Re: Renold number Nu: Nuselt number Pr: Prandelt number hi: Heat transfer coefficient (watt/m2.°C) Haleimah Seraidy

27 Shell side calculation
Heat exchanger design Shell side calculation Calculate the out side heat transfer coefficient Haleimah Seraidy

28 Results Q(watt) 5.7*105 L (m) 3.7 A (m2) 29 N (tubes) 148
Heat exchanger design Results Q(watt) 5.7*105 L (m) 3.7 A (m2) 29 N (tubes) 148 hi(Watt/m2.oc) 1.61*104 ho(Watt/m2.oc) 1.46*104 U (Watt/m2.°C) 1167 Haleimah Seraidy

29 Use of HYSIS software packages
HYSIS software was used to verify the heat exchanger calculation: Heat duty and area of heat exchanger. Q(watt) 5.7*105 A (m2) 28 Haleimah Seraidy

30 Process Economics It is a well formulated prediction of the probable construction cost of a specific project. It is any attempt by a company to calculate the price of producing a product before making it. Types of cost: Capital Cost Manufacturing Cost Haleimah Seraidy

31 Capital cost Equipment No. of equipment Purchased Cost ($)
Process economics Capital cost Equipment No. of equipment Purchased Cost ($) Bare Module Cost ($) Pretreatment pump 1 5,137 20,111.35 RO pump 29,725.78 74,240.14 Heat exchanger 27,100.75 58,620.19 RO membranes 190 104,500 495,330 Sand filters 3 15,000 71,100 Cartridge filters 2 900 4,266 Membrane contactors 45 1,147,500 5,439,150 Tank 694.99 3,294.25 Total 6,306,847 7,200,504 Haleimah Seraidy

32 Manufacturing Cost Fixed Manufacturing Cost Direct Manufacturing Cost
Process economics Manufacturing Cost Fixed Manufacturing Cost Direct Manufacturing Cost General Expenses Raw material cost CRM Quantity (L/year) Price ($/yr) Sunflower solvent 240,000 600,000 Diol 240 2,544 Total 602,544 Haleimah Seraidy

33 Utility Cost CUT Price ($/yr) Pretreatment pump (Electricity) 4,882.8
Process economics Utility Cost CUT Price ($/yr) Pretreatment pump (Electricity) 4,882.8 RO pump (Electricity) 111,900.2 Refrigerant tower water 81,030 Total 197,813 Haleimah Seraidy

34 Total Manufacturing cost
Process economics Total Manufacturing cost COM Price ($/yr) COL 300,000 FCI 197,813 CRM 602,544 CUT Total 3,810,580 Haleimah Seraidy

35 Experimental Results Experiments were done to check whether the desired value of boron reach 0.5 mg/L. Sunflower oil was used as a solvent which was pumped to shell side where the boron concentration with 1 mg/L was pumped to the tube side Two runs were done: First run without diol Second one with diol as carrier which was better to enhance the extraction Abeer Ahmed

36 Liquid-liquid extraction experiment
Taken by Ayesha Abeer Ahmed

37 Run1: Sunflower solvent without diol Time (min)
Experimental Results Run1: Sunflower solvent without diol Time (min) Concentration of boron (mg/L) 0.9072 3 0.8672 6 0.8529 9 0.8389 Run2: Sunflower solvent with diol Time (min) Concentration of boron (mg/L) 1.571 6 1.353 9 0.8716 Abeer Ahmed

38 Using Diol enhance the % removal from 7.51- 45%
Experimental Results Results of run1 and run 2 Using Diol enhance the % removal from % Abeer Ahmed

39 Environmental Impact of the Process
In our experiment the following chemical were used: Ethanol :It is used as cleaner of fiber of hollow membranes conductor at start up which is insoluble in water so it doesn't affect. Sunflower oil: It is used as solvent. It is less toxicity, less corrosiveness, low environmental impact, good health and safety benefits. Abeer Ahmed

40 HAZOP and Safety Studies
A Hazard and Operability (HAZOP). Evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation in the plant. Combinations of parameters (flow, level, pressure and temperature) and guide words (no, more, less) to arise consequences and recommendation. Abeer Ahmed

41 HAZOP and Safety Studies
HAZOP of pump Keyword Deviation Cause Consequence Action No Flow -Blockage in pump line -Valve closed or jammed -Cavitation -No extraction Damage pump -Maintenance of line -Run standby pump -Vent the pump More -Pump failure -Valve failure -Need more sea water in tank -Decrease separation efficiency -Maintenance of valve Pressure -Blockage -Valve closed -break of line -Open valve Abeer Ahmed

42 -Decrease separation efficiency -Maintenance of line/valve
HAZOP of pump Key word Deviation Cause Consequence Action Less Flow -Pump failure -leak -Partial Blockage -Cavitation -Poor suction head -Valve failure -Decrease separation efficiency -Maintenance of line/valve Pressure -Leak -Maintenance -Repair the leakage Abeer Ahmed

43 Conclusions Concentration of boron in drinking water should be below 0.5 mg/L according to (WHO). The combination of the RO and liquid-liquid extraction by using hollow fiber membrane contactor represent the selected design The area of RO, membrane contactor and heat exchanger were equal to 6700 ,5834 and 29 m2 respectively Capital cost and the manufacturing cost were calculated which equal to $6,306,847 and $3,810,580 respectively. The main objectives and deliverables of this project are achieved. Abeer Ahmed

44 Future of project Doing experiment with high concentration of boron like water production from oil filed(20-25 mg/L). If high extraction work the RO process it can be eliminate Treatment of boron from oil phase and get boron as product Abeer Ahmed

45 Acknowledgments We would like to express our pleasure and gratitude to: Our advisor Dr. Md Monwar Hossain. Faculty coordinate Dr. Ali Al-Naqbi Training and graduation projects unit. Family members for their unlimited help and support during our study. Abeer Ahmed

46 Thank You For Your Attention We will be glad for your questions


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