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1 Training and Graduation Project Unit Graduation Project II Department Advisor: Dr. Monwar Hussein Examiner committee: Dr. Ali Al-Naqbi Dr. Abdulrahman.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Training and Graduation Project Unit Graduation Project II Department Advisor: Dr. Monwar Hussein Examiner committee: Dr. Ali Al-Naqbi Dr. Abdulrahman."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Training and Graduation Project Unit Graduation Project II Department Advisor: Dr. Monwar Hussein Examiner committee: Dr. Ali Al-Naqbi Dr. Abdulrahman Al Raisi Dr. Sulaiman Al Zuhair Fall 2010 Ayesha Ibrahim

2 Agenda Introduction Summary of GPI Unique of the project Advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives Process flow diagram, mass and energy balances Design of main equipment Process Economics Liquid-liquid extraction experiment Environmental Impact of the Process HAZOP and Safety Studies Conclusion Future of project Acknowledgments 2 Ayesha Ibrahim

3 Introduction Boron concentration in seawater is around 5 mg/L. World Health Organization (WHO) ruling to be below 0.5 mg/L for drinking water and should not exceed 0.2 mg/L for irrigation. Separation of boron is very important to be within the recommended limit because of bad effect in health and environment. 3 Problem Statement Ayesha Ibrahim

4 Objectives Select method that will remove boron from seawater without losing that much of essential minerals like: Mg +2, Na +, Cl - and Ca +2. Design a process that combined between RO and liquid-liquid extraction by using hollow fiber membrane contactor. Choose non toxic solvent like sunflower oil instead of toxic one which is kerosene. Introduction 4 Ayesha Ibrahim

5 Determine main parameters such as area of: RO, membrane contactor and heat exchanger. Examine the health, safety and HAZOP study in the process Obtain mass and energy balances for selected design and alternative. Study the economic analysis to evaluate the designed process. 5 Ayesha Ibrahim Introduction

6 Summary of GPI Six methods for removing boron from seawater were studied and then liquid-liquid extraction,ion exchange and reverse osmosis were selected. The material balance and energy balance were done for the selected methods. 6 Ayesha Ibrahim

7 Unique of the project Liquid-liquid extraction process works at natural pH of seawater and normal temperature and pressure. It can remove 45% of boron in one single stage pass. The chemicals used in liquid-liquid extraction process are non- toxic and non-corrosive. 7 Ayesha

8 Advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives 8 MethodAdvantagesDisadvantages Reverse Osmosis Could be effectively used with more than 95% rejection for removal boron. Ability to reject nearly all contaminant ions and most dissolved non-ions. Small space requirements. Second pass is required to reduce boron levels, which increase the cost. Pumps work at high pressure. Effectively removed at high pH value 11. Ayesha Ibrahim

9 9 MethodsAdvantagesDisadvantages Liquid-liquid extraction Best extraction (87%) at high pH value 12. Offers more flexibility in choice of operating conditions. Does not need heating and cooling provisions. Need two stages to remove boron first by organic solvent then re- extract from organic phase by acidic solution. Some solvent not commercial. Ayesha Ibrahim Advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives

10 10 Process flow diagram Ayesha Ibrahim

11 Assumptions Steady state. Recycled system. Basis: Concentration of boron in= 6 mg/L. Seawater flowrate= 100 m 3 /h. Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis 11 Maryam Ali

12 12 Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis Drawn by: Maryam Component material balance for boron in mixing point 1 F i : Flowrate of seawater in stream i (m 3 /h) C Bi :Concentration of boron in stream i (mg/L) Maryam Ali

13 13 Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis Drawn by: Maryam Component material balance for boron in RO 1 st stage Maryam Ali

14 14 Mass balance of two stages of reverse osmosis Drawn by: Maryam Component material balance for boron in RO 2 nd stage Maryam Ali

15 Assumption: Co-current process. Steady state. Basis: Boron concentration at seawater feed = 6 mg/L. Seawater feed flowrate = 100 m 3 /h. Reduction in volume in the 1 st stage of RO = 20% Concentration from the 1 st stage of RO =1 mg/L F 3 = 20 m 3 /h C B4 = 0 (no boron in solvent) Mass balance of one stage of reverse osmosis and liquid-liquid extraction Maryam Ali 15

16 Mass balance of one stage of reverse osmosis and liquid-liquid extraction Maryam Ali Drawn by: Maryam 16 Component material balance for boron in RO 1 st stage F i : Flowrate of seawater in stream i (m 3 /h) C Bi :Concentration of boron in stream i (mg/L)

17 Mass balance of one stage of reverse osmosis and liquid-liquid extraction Maryam Ali Drawn by: Maryam 17 Component material balance for boron in liquid-liquid extraction

18 Assumption: Steady state No heat loss Flowrate of seawater = 100 m 3 /h Basis: Density of water = 1000 kg/m 3 Flowrate of refrigerant water =50 m 3 /h 18 Energy balance on heat exchanger Maryam Ali

19 Energy balance on heat exchanger 19 Maryam Ali Drawn by: Maryam

20 Design of main equipment 20 Reverse osmosis membrane design: Data used for performing the calculations: Flux (L/m 2.h)Flowrate (m 3 /h)Membrane area (m 2 ) Maryam Ali

21 21 Membrane contactor design: Maryam Ali Design of main equipment

22 22 Pumps design: Pretreatment pump: Maryam Ali Design of main equipment

23 23 Maryam Ali Design of main equipment Pumps design: Reverse osmosis pump:

24 Heat exchanger design Aim: cool 100 m 3 /h of seawater from 30 o C to 25 o C using refrigerant water at 5 o C. By designing a suitable shell and tube heat exchanger. Calculation: 24 Haleimah Seraidy

25 Heat exchanger design 25 Assume: U=1000 watt/m 2. ˚ C L = 5m Haleimah Seraidy Coulson &Richardsons, Chemical engineering Design, Fourth edition,V.6,P:

26 Tube side calculation All properties were found at average temperature:(Cp avg, ρ, μ, k, pr). Heat transfer coefficient(h i ) was calculated from: 26 Heat exchanger design Haleimah Seraidy A tubes : Cross sectional area of tube (m 2 ) ID: Inner diameter (m) u: Velocity (m/s) Re: Renold number Nu: Nuselt number Pr: Prandelt number h i : Heat transfer coefficient (watt/m 2. ° C)

27 Shell side calculation Calculate the out side heat transfer coefficient 27 Haleimah Seraidy Heat exchanger design

28 28 Results Q(watt) 5.7*10 5 L (m)3.7 A (m 2 )29 N (tubes)148 h i (Watt/m 2. o c)1.61*10 4 h o (Watt/m 2. o c)1.46*10 4 U (Watt/m 2.°C)1167 Heat exchanger design Haleimah Seraidy

29 Use of HYSIS software packages HYSIS software was used to verify the heat exchanger calculation: Heat duty and area of heat exchanger. 29 Q(watt) 5.7*10 5 A (m 2 )28 Haleimah Seraidy

30 Process Economics It is a well formulated prediction of the probable construction cost of a specific project. It is any attempt by a company to calculate the price of producing a product before making it. Types of cost: Capital Cost Manufacturing Cost 30 Haleimah Seraidy

31 31 EquipmentNo. of equipment Purchased Cost ($)Bare Module Cost ($) Pretreatment pump15,13720, RO pump129, , Heat exchanger127, , RO membranes190104,500495,330 Sand filters315,00071,100 Cartridge filters29004,266 Membrane contactors451,147,5005,439,150 Tank , Total6,306,8477,200,504 Haleimah Seraidy Process economics Capital cost

32 32 Manufacturing Cost Process economics Haleimah Seraidy Fixed Manufacturing Cost Direct Manufacturing Cost General Expenses C RM Quantity (L/year)Price ($/yr) Sunflower solvent240,000600,000 Diol2402,544 Total602,544 Raw material cost

33 Utility Cost 33 Haleimah Seraidy Process economics C UT Price ($/yr) Pretreatment pump (Electricity)4,882.8 RO pump (Electricity)111,900.2 Refrigerant tower water81,030 Total197,813

34 34 COM Price ($/yr) C OL 300,000 FCI 197,813 C RM 602,544 C UT 197,813 Total3,810,580 Haleimah Seraidy Total Manufacturing cost Process economics

35 Experimental Results Experiments were done to check whether the desired value of boron reach 0.5 mg/L. Sunflower oil was used as a solvent which was pumped to shell side where the boron concentration with 1 mg/L was pumped to the tube side Two runs were done: First run without diol Second one with diol as carrier which was better to enhance the extraction 35 Abeer Ahmed

36 Liquid-liquid extraction experiment 36 Taken by Ayesha Abeer Ahmed

37 37 Experimental Results Time (min)Concentration of boron (mg/L) Run1: Sunflower solvent without diol Time (min)Concentration of boron (mg/L) Run2: Sunflower solvent with diol Abeer Ahmed

38 38 Experimental Results Using Diol enhance the % removal from % Abeer Ahmed Results of run1 and run 2

39 Environmental Impact of the Process 39 Abeer Ahmed In our experiment the following chemical were used: 1.Ethanol :It is used as cleaner of fiber of hollow membranes conductor at start up which is insoluble in water so it doesn't affect. 2.Sunflower oil: It is used as solvent. It is less toxicity, less corrosiveness, low environmental impact, good health and safety benefits.

40 HAZOP and Safety Studies A Hazard and Operability (HAZOP). Evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation in the plant. Combinations of parameters (flow, level, pressure and temperature) and guide words (no, more, less) to arise consequences and recommendation. 40 Abeer Ahmed

41 HAZOP of pump 41 KeywordDeviationCauseConsequenceAction NoFlow -Blockage in pump line -Valve closed or jammed -Cavitation -No extraction -Damage pump -Maintenance of line -Run standby pump -Vent the pump MoreFlow -Pump failure -Valve failure -Need more sea water in tank -Decrease separation efficiency -Run standby pump -Maintenance of valve Pressure-Blockage -Valve closed -break of line-Maintenance of line -Open valve Abeer Ahmed HAZOP and Safety Studies

42 HAZOP of pump 42 Key wordDeviationCauseConsequenceAction LessFlow -Pump failure -leak -Partial Blockage -Cavitation -Poor suction head -Valve failure -Decrease separation efficiency -Maintenance of line/valve Pressure-Pump failure -Leak -Decrease separation efficiency -Maintenance -Repair the leakage Abeer Ahmed

43 Conclusions Concentration of boron in drinking water should be below 0.5 mg/L according to (WHO). The combination of the RO and liquid-liquid extraction by using hollow fiber membrane contactor represent the selected design The area of RO, membrane contactor and heat exchanger were equal to 6700,5834 and 29 m 2 respectively Capital cost and the manufacturing cost were calculated which equal to $6,306,847 and $3,810,580 respectively. The main objectives and deliverables of this project are achieved. 43 Abeer Ahmed

44 Future of project Doing experiment with high concentration of boron like water production from oil filed(20-25 mg/L). If high extraction work the RO process it can be eliminate Treatment of boron from oil phase and get boron as product 44 Abeer Ahmed

45 Acknowledgments We would like to express our pleasure and gratitude to: Our advisor Dr. Md Monwar Hossain. Faculty coordinate Dr. Ali Al-Naqbi Training and graduation projects unit. Family members for their unlimited help and support during our study. 45 Abeer Ahmed

46 46 Thank You For Your Attention We will be glad for your questions


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