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Colorado ZLD Pilot An Update

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Presentation on theme: "Colorado ZLD Pilot An Update"— Presentation transcript:

1 Colorado ZLD Pilot An Update
Phil Brandhuber PhD HDR Engineering Karla Kinser PE MWH

2 Concentrate Disposal Options
Surface water body Municipal sewer Deep well injection Land application Evaporation pond Brine minimization/zero liquid discharge

3 Project Update Colorado Project
Demonstration of Membrane Zero Liquid Discharge for Drinking Water Systems Pilot test brine minimization technologies at two locations in Colorado Poster at this conference last year Today discuss technology assessment and selection process.

4 What Minimization Technologies are Available?
Thermal Pressure Driven Electric Potential Alternative

5 Thermal Technologies Technology Claimed Overall Recovery Comments
Brine Concentrator 90% to 95% Mature technology High capital and energy cost Brine Crystallizer Up to 98% Spray Dryers None Seasonal use Low capital Energy usage similar to brine concentrator

6 Pressure Driven Technologies
Technology Claimed Overall Recovery Comments Dual RO with Intermediate Chemical Demineralization 90% - 98% Combination of mature technologies. Increased chemical dosage and sludge disposal required. Dual RO with Pellet Softener (PS) or Fluidized Bed Crystallizer (FBC) Seeded Slurry Precipitation and Recycle (SPARRO) 90% - 95% Proprietary technology. Limited full-scale applications for municipal water treatment.

7 Pressure Driven Technologies
Technology Claimed Overall Recovery Comments High Efficiency RO (HERO) 95% - 99% Proprietary technology. High capital and O&M cost High Efficiency Electro-Pressure Membrane (HEEPM) No applications for municipal water treatment. Advanced Reject Recovery of Water (ARROW) Up to 95% Optimized Pretreatment and Separation (OPUS) 90% - 98% High capital and O&M cost.

8 Pressure Driven Technologies
Technology Claimed Overall Recovery Comments Vibratory Shear Enhanced Process (VSEP) Up to 90% Proprietary technology. Insufficient capacity for municipal water treatment. Dist Tube (DT) Filtration Up to 93% No applications for municipal water treatment.

9 Electric Potential Driven Technologies
Technology Claimed Overall Recovery Comments Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) Up to 95% Effective for high silica content. Limited effectiveness with high calcium sulfate saturation Electrodialysis Metathesis (EDM) Up to 98% Effective for operation of water with high calcium sulfate saturation.

10 Advanced Technologies
Technology Claimed Overall Recovery Comments Forward Osmosis (FO) Up to 90% Emerging technology. High energy efficiency. Membrane Distillation (MD) No applied pressure. Dewvaporation Up to 80% Eutectic Freeze Crystallization Up to 97%

11 Technologies Selected for Detailed Evaluation
Membrane-based Dual Reverse Osmosis with Intermediate Demineralization Electric Potential-based Electrodialysis Metathesis (EDM)

12 Electrodialysis Metathesis (EDM)

13 Dual RO with Intermediate Treatment
Brine Concentrator Concentrate Groundwater Permeate Primary RO Secondary RO 50 mm Bag Filter Hold Tank Cartridge Overflow LP Pump HP Booster Antiscalant Intermediate Treatment Chemicals Sand Acid Sludge Evaporation Pond Distillate

14 Implementation of EDM for Brine Minimization

15 Water Quality Overview
Parameter Units Brighton (raw) Brighton (concentrate 80% recovery) La Junta (raw) La Junta (concentrate 75% recovery) Calcium (Ca++) mg/L 107 533 181 1065 Magnesium (Mg++) 24 120 60 353 Sodium (Na+) 121 605 103 606 Potassium (K+) 4.3 21 5 29 Iron (Fe+++) 0.05 0.25 Total Manganese (Mn) 0.13 0.65 0.6 Barium (Ba++) 0.06 0.3 0.29 Strontium (Sr++) 1.2 6.0 7.6 45 Aluminum (Al) 0.002 0.01 Chloride (Cl-) 125 818 128 753 Sulfate (SO4--) 213 546 3211 Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 179 (alkalinity) 895 218 1288 Nitrate (NO3-) mg/L as N 4.5 22.4 2.3 13.5 Fluoride (F-) 1 4.9 3.5 11 Silica (SiO2) mg/L SiO2 19 96.25 7.5 44 Phosphate (PO4---) mg/L PO4 0.27 1.33 TDS 634 4260 1258 7419 pH units 7.02 7.71 8.4 Conductivity (μS/cm) 1218 6382 11414 Temperature (F) 62 59

16 Modeling Results - RO Based Train
No Intermediate Treatment With Intermediate Treatment Parameter Degrees of Saturation in Concentrate as % Brighton (Concentrate treated at 53% recovery) La Junta (Concentrate treated at 39% recovery) No Inhibitor MSI310 MDC151 CaSO4 133.6 53.5 343.4 98.1 BaSO4 6362.1 97.9 7572.2 72.1 SrSO4 71.3 2.4 646.8 18.5 CaF2 5248.7 0.4 1.5 SiO2 163.3 85.3 42.5 CaPO4 172.6 CaCO3 94.4 91.0 Parameter Degrees of Saturation in Concentrate as % Brighton (Concentrate treated at 81% recovery) La Junta (Concentrate treated at 67% recovery) No Inhibitor MSI310 MDC151 CaSO4 148.0 42.3 349.7 99.9 BaSO4 7783.5 74.1 6705.8 63.9 SrSO4 211.0 6.0 1353.4 38.7 CaF2 1.5 3.4 SiO2 96.1 50.4 CaPO4 189.1 101.8 CaCO3 82.3 98.0 Brighton – Since 1993 the City of Brighton was issued a permit allowing the discharge of RO concentrate to a storm sewer adjacent to the plant. In 2004, the Division notified the City that a more restrictive individual permit will be required. (The current general permit was administratively extended.) The driver behind Brighton’s desire to maintain its surface water discharge is the cost of upgrading and installing facilities for treatment of the concentrate which will ultimately be paid for by existing customers. If treatment of the concentrate to a quality acceptable for discharge becomes unworkable, the City will be forced to determine if citizens should pay for expensive facilities to manage the concentrate – to the tune of #$30 million.. Since receiving the notification, the City has been researching viable disposal options. Thornton – Because of reduced source water quality, Thornton renovated the Wes Brown Treatment Plant replacing conventional filters with ultra filtration membranes. I addition, Thornton considered RO for nitrate removal. Thornton’s consultant reviewed 20 options for the disposal of the RO concentrate and found that only 2 were const effective – discharge to surface waters or a wastewater treatment plant. The POTW option was not viable or affordable at the time and the Division did not issue a permit for discharge to the South Platte River at flows high enough to assimilate the waste stream. In 2008, Thornton will pilot a BNR system for the removal of nitrate. However, Thornton will focus on a long-term water quality protection strategy which may include RO. POTWs may not always be a viable alternative for concentrate disposal. Facility upgrades costing in the millions of dollars will need to be made to handle a proportionately small flow. In addition to meeting permit requirements, there may assimilative capacity issues in the receiving water. RMEC – The RNEC uses well water for condensers and boiler feed to operate a 6000 MW, natural gas fired, electric generation power plant. Lime softening is conducted for the condenser freed water and the boiler feed is treated with an RO system. The cooling tower blow down and RO concentrate are discharged to 2 lined evaporation ponds. The supernatant from the ponds is then transferred to a brine concentrator. Solids generated by the lime softening are sent to a licensed landfill and the backwash from the concentrator is recycled. RMEC is proud to be one of the few ZLD facilities in northwest Colorado and has operated successfully for over 5 years.

17 Summary of Detailed Evaluation
Brine Treatment Process Brighton La Junta Brine Treatment Recovery Overall Recovery RO 53% || 81% 91% || 96% 39% || 67% 85% || 92% EDM 95% || N/A 99% || N/A Brighton – Since 1993 the City of Brighton was issued a permit allowing the discharge of RO concentrate to a storm sewer adjacent to the plant. In 2004, the Division notified the City that a more restrictive individual permit will be required. (The current general permit was administratively extended.) The driver behind Brighton’s desire to maintain its surface water discharge is the cost of upgrading and installing facilities for treatment of the concentrate which will ultimately be paid for by existing customers. If treatment of the concentrate to a quality acceptable for discharge becomes unworkable, the City will be forced to determine if citizens should pay for expensive facilities to manage the concentrate – to the tune of #$30 million.. Since receiving the notification, the City has been researching viable disposal options. Thornton – Because of reduced source water quality, Thornton renovated the Wes Brown Treatment Plant replacing conventional filters with ultra filtration membranes. I addition, Thornton considered RO for nitrate removal. Thornton’s consultant reviewed 20 options for the disposal of the RO concentrate and found that only 2 were const effective – discharge to surface waters or a wastewater treatment plant. The POTW option was not viable or affordable at the time and the Division did not issue a permit for discharge to the South Platte River at flows high enough to assimilate the waste stream. In 2008, Thornton will pilot a BNR system for the removal of nitrate. However, Thornton will focus on a long-term water quality protection strategy which may include RO. POTWs may not always be a viable alternative for concentrate disposal. Facility upgrades costing in the millions of dollars will need to be made to handle a proportionately small flow. In addition to meeting permit requirements, there may assimilative capacity issues in the receiving water. RMEC – The RNEC uses well water for condensers and boiler feed to operate a 6000 MW, natural gas fired, electric generation power plant. Lime softening is conducted for the condenser freed water and the boiler feed is treated with an RO system. The cooling tower blow down and RO concentrate are discharged to 2 lined evaporation ponds. The supernatant from the ponds is then transferred to a brine concentrator. Solids generated by the lime softening are sent to a licensed landfill and the backwash from the concentrator is recycled. RMEC is proud to be one of the few ZLD facilities in northwest Colorado and has operated successfully for over 5 years. Key: Without Intermediate Treatment || With Intermediate Treatment Current overall recovery without brine treatment: Brighton 80%, La Junta 75%

18 Recommendations for Brine Minimization Technologies
Technology Recommendation Dual Reverse Osmosis Model performance for Brighton and La Junta; Electrodialysis Metathesis (EDM) Project team supervised pilot test at Brighton and La Junta.

19 The Ideal ZLD Solution…
Badwater Salt Flats Death Valley, CA


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