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Dr. Cristi Alberino, Ph. D. Amy Radikas Joanne White.

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1 Dr. Cristi Alberino, Ph. D. Amy Radikas Joanne White

2 SUPPORTING DISTRICTS WITH DETERMINING TEXT COMPLEXITY

3 Understand the three part model of text complexity and the final step of placing texts in grade bands. Discuss how this understanding can be shared in a district/school to facilitate the placement and shifts of texts.

4 Complexity of texts students are expected to read is far below what is required to achieve college and career readiness: High school textbooks have declined in all subject areas over several decades Average length of sentences in K-8 textbooks has declined from 20 to 14 words CCSSO Text Complexity

5 Vocabulary demands have declined, e.g., 8 th grade textbooks = former 5 th grade texts; 12 th grade anthologies = former 7 th grade texts Too many students are reading at too low a level (<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts) CCSSO Text Complexity

6 The chief difference between students who succeed and students who struggle in introductory college courses is NOT: Question type (main idea, word meanings, details) Question level (higher order vs. lower order; literal vs. inferential) The complexity of what students can read is greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study)

7 In 2006, ACT, Inc., released a report called Reading Between the Lines that showed which skills differentiated those students who equaled or exceeded the benchmark score (21 out of 36) in the reading section of the ACT college admissions

8 The most important implication of this study: What students could read, in terms of its complexity, was at least as important as what they could do with what they read. CCSS Appendix A. p. 2

9 Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational texts Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text Regular practice and instruction with complex texts and its academic vocabulary

10 All students must be exposed to grade level text complexity regardless of their reading ability CCSS, Appendix A

11 Read - Alouds Independent Reading Shared Reading Close reading of a passage Multiple exposures Reading for different purposes Reading for extended periods of time

12

13 Text complexity is defined by: 1. Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software. Kansas Department of Education

14 Text complexity is defined by: 2. Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader. Kansas Department of Education

15 Text complexity is defined by: 3. Reader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment. Kansas Department of Education

16 A CLOSER LOOK

17 Sentence and word length Frequency of unfamiliar words Word frequency Number of syllables in words

18 Sentence length and vocabulary/word frequency Fire Cat – names of characters appear frequently, challenging words are minimal Sarah Plain and Tall – challenging words appear once or twice in a chapter Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smart

19 Joe took Pickles to the Chief, who was sitting at his desk. Oh! said the Chief. I know this young cat. He is the one who chases little cats. How do you know? asked Joe. The Chief answered, A Fire Chief knows many things. Just then the telephone began to ring. Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smart

20 Every-single-day, I told him for the second time this week. For the twentieth time this month. The hundredth time this year? And the past few years? Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smart

21 Grade Band Current Lexile Band "Stretch" Lexile Band* K–1 N/A 2–3 450L–725L420L–820L 4–5 645L–845L740L–1010L 6–8 860L–1010L925L–1185L 9–10 960L–1115L1050L–1335L 11–CCR 1070L–1220L1185L–1385L *Grade Bands reflect the 2012 Revised Appendix A of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts

22 General Rule : Use any one of the quantitative analyzer tools to place text into a complexity band level. For decisions about whether to place a text at the upper, lower, or middle of a band, use qualitative analysis. (For drama and poetry, use qualitative measures.)

23 A CLOSER LOOK

24 A. Levels of meaning or purpose B. Structure C. Language conventionality and clarity D. Knowledge demands CCSS, Appendix A Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D. Publication Date: April 5, 2012

25 A. Levels of meaning or purpose Stage 1: Single level of meaning (often supported by illustrations); explicitly stated purpose Stage 3: More than one level of meaning Stage 5: Multiple levels require drawing extensively on reading/experiences from other sources; implicit purpose, may be hidden or obscure Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D. Publication Date: April 5, 2012

26 B. Structure Stage 1: Texts follow structure of common genres (simple narrative) Stage 3: Texts include less common genres (e.g., autobiography, cause-effect expository) Stage 5: Traits specific to a content-area discipline or use of unique chronologies/perspectives Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D. Publication Date: April 5, 2012

27 C. Language conventionality and clarity Stage 1: Literal Stage 3: Figurative; some irony/sarcasm Stage 5: Literary: high level of figurative, metaphorical language (e.g., Hemingway) Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D. Publication Date: April 5, 2012

28 There were mists over the river and clouds on the mountain and the trucks splashed mud on the road and the troops were muddy and wet in their capes; their rifles were wet and under their capes the two leather cartridge-boxes on the front of the belts, gray leather boxes heavy with the packs of clips of thin, long 6.5 mm cartridges, bulged forward under the capes so that the men, passing on the road, marched as though they were six months gone with child. CCSS, Appendix B, p. 150

29 D. Knowledge demands (literary text) Stage 1: Simple theme; everyday knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions required; low intertextuality (few if any references/allusions to other texts) Stage 3: Complex ideas interwoven Stage 5: Interconnected theme; cultural and literary knowledge useful; high intertextuality (many references/allusions to other texts) Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D. Publication Date: April 5, 2012

30 In our building there are two dogs: the whippet belonging to the Meurisses who looks like a skeleton covered over with beige leather hide, and a ginger cocker spaniel who belongs to Diane Badoise, an anorexic blond woman who wears Burberry raincoats and who is the daughter of a very la-di-da lawyer. The Whippet is called Athena and the cocker Neptune. Just in case you dont yet understand what sort of place I live in…

31 D. Knowledge demands (chiefly informational texts) Stage 1: Everyday knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions required; low intertextuality (few if any references to/citations of other texts) Stage 3: Complex knowledge and familiarity with genre conventions Stage 5: Extensive, perhaps specialized discipline- specific content knowledge required; high intertextuality (many references to/citations of other texts) Elfrieda H. Hiebert, Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction and Assessment, Pre-K–6 Edited by Martha C. Hougen, Ph.D., & Susan M. Smartt, Ph.D. Publication Date: April 5, 2012

32 A CLOSER LOOK

33 Reasoning skills/strategic planning Motivation and engagement Knowledge and experience Purpose for reading Complexity of associated tasks Skills and strategies

34 Complexity of task assigned regarding text Complexity of questions asked regarding text Differences between literary texts and informational texts

35 A CLOSER LOOK

36 Lexile Text Measure: 870L ATOS Book Level: 5.6 In which of the text complexity bands would this novel fall? Kansas State Department of Education Text Complexity Grade Bands Stretch Lexile Range Suggested ATOS Book Level Range** K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – L – 820L 2.0 – L – 1010L 3.0 – L – 1185L 4.0 – L – 1335L 4.6 – CCR 1185L – 1385L 4.8 – 12.0

37 Text Complexity Grade Bands Stretch*** Lexile Range Suggested ATOS Book Level Range** K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – L – 820L 2.0 – L – 1010L 3.0 – L – 1185L 4.0 – L – 1335L 4.6 – CCR 1185L – 1385L 4.8 – 12.0 * The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas. ** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL: ***Grade Bands reflect the 2012 Revised Appendix A of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Kansas State Department of Education

38 The quantitative measures is only the first of three legs of the text complexity triangle. Final recommendation may be validated, influenced, or even over-ruled by examination of qualitative measures and the reader and task considerations. Kansas State Department of Education

39 Measures such as: Levels of meaning Levels of purpose Structure Organization Language conventionality Language clarity Prior knowledge demands Kansas State Department of Education

40 Rubrics for Literary and Informational Text: The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors. Kansas State Department of Education

41 Because the elements for literary texts are different from information texts, these two rubrics contain different content. However, the formatting of each document is exactly the same. And because these factors represent continua rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric values are not associated with these rubrics. Instead, four points along each continuum are identified: high, middle high, middle low, and low. Kansas State Department of Education

42 So… How is the rubric used? How would To Kill a Mockingbird fair when analyzed through the lens of the Literary Text Rubric?

43 x x x x x x x x x X X X X X X X

44 Lexile Text Measure: 870L ATOS Book Level: 5.6 But after reflecting upon the qualitative measures, we believed: Text Complexity Grade Band "Stretch" Lexile Band* Suggested ATOS Book Level Range** K–1N/A –3420L–820L –5740L–1010L –8925L–1185L L–1335L –CCR1185L–1385L Text Complexity Grade Band "Stretch" Lexile Band* Suggested ATOS Book Level Range** K–1N/A –3420L–820L –5740L–1010L –8925L–1185L L–1335L –CCR1185L–1385L

45 Initial placement of To Kill a Mockingbird into a text complexity band changed when the qualitative measures were examined. Remember, this completes only the first two legs of the text complexity triangle. The reader and task considerations still remain.

46 Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experience Purpose for reading Complexity of task assigned regarding text Complexity of questions asked regarding text

47 Questions for Professional Reflection on Reader and Task Considerations: The questions provided in this resource are meant to spur teacher thought and reflection upon the text, students, and any tasks associated with the text.

48 The questions are largely open-ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom.

49 Based upon the examination of the Reader and Task Considerations, the third leg of the text complexity model has been completed and final placement within a text complexity band may be determined.

50 The texts and the annotations accompanying them will provide educators with a deeper, more multidimensional picture of text complexity that can be used to help them select materials. Develop a pool of annotated texts that exemplify and help benchmark the process of evaluating text complexity, using both quantitative and qualitative measures and the professional judgment of teachers -- complex text playlists!

51 Current instructional materials will need to be supplemented, enhanced, or moved to a different grade.

52 Connecticut State Department of Education : Council of Chief State School Officers : ntation_Video_Series.html ntation_Video_Series.html Kansas State Department of Education : Lexile Analyzer : Maine Department of Education : National PTA : The Hunt Institute (video series): The Fundamentals of Literacy Instruction & Assessment, PreK-6 Instruction-and-Assessment-Pre-K6-P256.aspx


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