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1 Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

2 Scheduling for students study at 6.00 to 8.00 from Monday to Friday in UME Students mark!!! MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday Core English Vocabulary Grammar Do exercises Core English Vocabulary Grammar Do exercises Core English Vocabulary Grammar Do exercises Core English Vocabulary Grammar Do exercises English for Business Ready context Translation to Khmer language DescriptionMinimumMaximum Attendance (Class participation)27.5 Homework37.5 Mid-term Examination2035 Final –term examination3550 Total65100 Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

3 Content UNIT ICan You Understand The TextSlide 4 UNIT IIClassroom Languageslide 6 UNIT IIIPrefixesslide 10 UNIT IVNouns and adjective suffixesslide 13 UNIT VCompound Nounsslide 17 UNIT VICompound Adjectiveslide 23 UNIT VIIPhrasal Verbsslide 30 UNIT VIIICountable and Uncountable Nounsslide 33 UNIT IXPrepositionsslide 40 UNIT XEnglish Grammar for Businessslide 47 Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

4 UNIT I Can You Understand The Text Where are the English words From? From the old English Many basic English words come from old English, e.g. England, house, woman, man, child, bird, water,. They sometimes have irregular pronunciation. From Latin Other English words come from Latin, e.g. family, wine, number, school, educate. From French Some English words come from French, e.g. royal, hotel, menu, beef. From other Languages Today English is an international language. Thousands of English words come from other languages, e.g. siesta (si ˈ es.t ə / noun [ C ] a rest or sleep taken after lunch, especially in hot countries), (Spanish). Judo / ˈ d ʒ u ː d ə ʊ / /noun [ U ] a sport in which two people fight using their arms and legs and hands and feet, and try to throw each other to the ground. He's a black belt (= has the highest level of skill) in/at judo. From New words Every year hundred of words come into English from new technologies, e.g. internet, text massage, , modem. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

5 Do your exercises a) Read the text once. Do you know the highlighted words? b) Read the text again. Now cover the text. Can you remember where these words come from. Write them in in the chart. Internetminemenuhousehotel Familysiestawomanjudo c) Where are words in our country from? Old EnglishLatinFrench Other LanguagesNew Words Internet Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

6 Unit II: Classroom Language A) Equipment: There are some of the things you may use in your classroom or school. There are: Chalk, Rubber, OHP, Board Pen, Board, Pencil sharpener, File, Briefcase Socket Plug Cassette recorder Photocopier Highlighters We can use some of these nouns as verbs: video a programme (= record it on video); photocopy an exercise; highlight new owrd; file some papers (= put them in a file) Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

7 Classroom Language (cont) B) Classroom activities Things students or teachers do in the classroom: Look up a word (= find a meaning of a word in a dictionary) Borrow someones dictionary or rubber (=use it and then return it) Rub out mistakes in a notebook (= remove mistakes using a rubber) Plug in the tape recorder (= put the plug in the electric socket) Turn up the tape recorder if you cant hear it (= increase the volume) (opp of turn down) Rub things off the board (= remove writing from the board) Correct students English (= give the correct English if students make mistakes) Things a teacher may ask students to do in the classroom: Could you clean a board, Carlos? (= remove all the writing from the board) Write these words down. ( Write these words on a piece of paper/ in a notebook) Enrique, could you swap place (change places) with Lorina? Kim, could you share your book with Petra? (= Use it together at the same time) Repeat this sentence after me. (= say it again) Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

8 C) Question about Vocabulary What does plug mean? (Not what means plug? How do you pronounce it? How do you spell bicycle? How do you use anyway in a sentence? Whats the difference between lend andborrow? Form…… borrow something (from someone) lend something to someone lend someone something Classroom Language (cont) Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

9 EXERCISES Answers these questions 1) What do you rub off the board? Write 2) What do you put in a tape recorder?____________ 3) What do you put on the OHP?_________________ 4) What do you use the rubber for?_______________ 5) What do you put on the photocopier?__________ Match the verbs to the nouns 1) Correcta) place 2) Cleanb) a ward 3) Borrowc) someones mistakes 4) Swapd) the board 5) Videoe) a dictionary 6) Dof) a program 7) Turn upg) an exercise 8) Look uph) the tape recorder Here are some answers. What are possible questions? 1) A: ………………………………………..? B: It means to exchange places 2) A: ………………………………………..? B: /sw ǝ d/ like shop or stop. 3) A: ………………………………………..? B: S-W-A-P. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

10 Unit III Prefixes What are prefixes? Prefixes are groups of letters added before a word, which then creates new words and new meaning. For example: biannual - "bi" means twice, so the new meaning is "twice a year" distrust - "dis" means not, so the new meaning is "not to trust" submarine - "sub" means under, so the new meaning is "under water" There are many prefixes in English, some of which are quite common and some of which are used-less frequently. In some cases, the same prefix may have more than one meaning, too. If you learn prefixes, your ability to comprehend new words will greatly improve. Unfortunately, it comes down to memorization. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

11 Here's a list of many prefixes. The ones marked with the following symbol (O) are more often used, and should perhaps be studied first. anti- against; opposite from/to anti-aging anti-bacterial anti-viral Some anti-aging skin creams can get quite pricey. bi- twice; to biannual biplane bipolar The top sales reps have a biannual meeting in sunny Puerto Rico. circum- around; round about circumlocution circumnavigate It's always been a dream of mine to circumnavigate the globe in a sailboat. Prefixes cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

12 de- opposite; reverse decompose, defrag demystify / m ɪ s.t ɪ.fa ɪ / # The news program really demystified the race for the US Presidency. O dis- not; opposite from/of disagree disappear disconnect As the stock market tumbled, my savings disappeared! en- or em-,,, into; make into; put into; within entitled, embed empower Bob felt empowered the day of his promotion, and strutted around the office. ex-, former, ex-boss ex-colleague ex-wife My ex-boss couldn't/didn't have a clue. He was incompetent! fore- before; front; in front of forefront forerunner foretell The old lady could foretell when and where a person would die. Prefixes cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

13 UNIT IV: NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES A) Verbs + Nouns suffixes = Noun and Nouns or verbs + suffixes = Adjectives There has been a big improvement in the economy. Who do you think will win the election? The problems are due to bad management. The road were dangerous this morning. It was foggy and I cant see far. He was very emotional when he said good bye. Did you buy a diesel car because its more economical than petrol. VerbSuffixNoun Improve (= get better) Govern (=control affairs of a city or country) Manage (= direct or control a business) Elect (= choose somebody by voting) Discuss (= talk about some thing seriously) Jog (= running to keep fit or for pleasure) -ment -ion -ing Improvement Government Management Election Discussion jogging Mix of Nouns or VerbsSuffixAdjectives Danger, fame Music, politics, emotion Economics, industry Cloud, sun, fog, dirt, attract, create -ous -al -y -ive Dangerous, famous ( = known by lots of people) Musical, political, emotional ( = have or show strong feelings) economical (= saves you money) Cloudy, sunny, foggy, dirty (opp of clean) Attractive (= pretty, good-looking) creative (= ability to produce new ideas; with imagination. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

14 NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES cont B) Adjectives + Noun suffixes *** Students will find out the example of these words C) -able, -ful, and –less -able: This common suffix creates adjectives from nouns and verbs: An enjoyable evening, a comfortable chair, Jeans are still fashionable. -ful: often means full of or having the quality of noun careful (= doing sth with care and attention) careful driver, very helpful, painful, thoughtful. -less: often means without: Careless, useless, homeless, etc…. * ** Students will find out the examples for these words AdjectivesSuffixNoun Weak (= opp strong) Happy Ill (= sick/ not well) Stupid (opp intelligence, clever) Active Similar (= almost the same; opp different) -ness -ity Weakness Happiness Illness Stupidity Activity similarity Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

15 NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES cont D) -r, -er, -or, -ist. These suffixes can be added to nouns or verbs. They often describe people and jobs. -r-er-or-ist Bullet dancer Shop manager Party organizer Bus driver Pop singer Footballer Employer Hairdresser Television actor Director Coordinator Translator Artist Economist Psychologist Journalist Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

16 EXERCISE OF UNIT 4 Exercise I a)How many suffixes are there in this unit studying? b)How many types of those suffixes? c)Are the words leaded suffixes -ous, -al, -y, -ive nouns/verbs or adjectives? d)Are the words leaded suffixes –ness, ity nouns/verbs or adjectives? e)What are the type words when we suffix to them by -ment, -ion, -ing? Exercise II 1)Describe the 3 suffixes -able, ful, and -less. What do they means? Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

17 UNIT V: COMPOUND NOUNS WHERE IS A COMPOUND NOUN FORMATION FROM? A COMPOUND NOUN IS FORMED FROM TWO WORDS, AND OCCASSIONALLY THREE, TO CREATE A NEW SINGLE IDEA. E.G. EARRINGS, FRYING PAN, TIN OPENER= cans opener, WASHING MACHINE, SUNGLASSES, CREDIT CARD, TOOTHBRUSH ETC.. THEY ARE MORETHAT WRITTEN WITH A HYPHEN E.G. T- SHIRT, MAKE-UP (= STUFF YOU PUT ON THE FACE, OFTEN ON LIPS AND AROUND EYES, TO BE ATTRACTIVE) WHERE IS THE STRESS SYLLABLE STAND ON? Most of the compound nouns, the main stress are usually on the first part. E.g. post office, income tax. But sometime they are on the both parts, e.g. science fiction, mother tongue. You must have a good friend for helping you is a large size dictionary. HOW TO FORM THE NEW COMPOUNDS One part of compound often forms the basis for a number of compound noun as you can see the following: Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

18 COMPOUND NOUNS cont Postman Postbox Post office Film star Pop star Rock star Toothbrush Toothpaste Toothache Living room Waiting room Chat room (= an area for communication on the internet) noun+ bus stopIs this the bus stop for the number 12 bus? fire-flyIn the tropics you can see fire-flies at night. footballShall we play football today? adjective+noun full moonI always feel crazy at full moon. blackboardClean the blackboard please. softwareI can't install this software on my PC. verb(-ing)+noun breakfastWe always eat breakfast at 8am. washing machinePut the clothes in the red washing machine. swimming poolWhat a beautiful swimming pool! noun+verb(-ing) sunriseI like to get up at sunrise. haircutYou need a haircut. train-spottingHis hobby is train-spotting. verb+prepositioncheck-outPlease remember that check-out is at 12 noon. noun+prepositional phrasemother-in-lawMy mother-in-law lives with us. preposition+noununderworld Do you think the police accept money from the underworld? noun+adjectivetruckfulWe need 10 truck-ful of bricks. Here are some samples of compound nouns: Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

19 COMPOUND NOUNS cont singularplural a tennis shoethree tennis shoes one assistant headmasterfive assistant headmasters the sergeant majorsome sergeants major a mother-in-lawtwo mothers-in-law an assistant secretary of statethree assistant secretaries of state my toothbrushour toothbrushes a woman-doctorfour women-doctors a doctor of philosophytwo doctors of philosophy a passerby, a passer-bytwo passersby, two passers-by Plural forms of compound nouns In general we make the plural of a compound noun by adding -s to the "base word" (the most "significant" word). Look at these examples: Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

20 COMPOUND NOUNS cont old style plural(very formal)new style plural teaspoonful3 teaspoonsful of sugar3 teaspoonfuls of sugar truckful5 trucksful of sand5 truckfuls of sand bucketful2 bucketsful of water2 bucketfuls of water cupful4 cupsful of rice4 cupfuls of rice Note that there is some variation with words like spoonful or truckful. The old style was to say spoonsful or trucksful for the plural. Today it is more usual to say spoonfuls or truckfuls. Both the old style (spoonsful) and the new style (spoonfuls) are normally acceptable, but you should be consistent in your choice. Here are some examples: Some compound nouns have no obvious base word and you may need to consult a dictionary to find the plural: higher-ups ha ɪ. ə r ˈʌ p/ someone with a more important position than you in an organization also-rans / ˈɔː l.s ə ʊ.ræn/ someone in a competition who is unlikely to do well or who has failed go-betweens some1 who takes messages between people who are unable or unwilling to meet has-beens: DISAPPROVING, a person who in the past was famous, important, admired or good at something, but is no longer any of these. good-for-nothings a person who is lazy and not helpful or useful. She told him he was a lazy good-for-nothing and should get a job. grown-ups: an adult, used especially when talking to children Ask a grown-up to cut the shape out for you. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

21 Note that with compound nouns made of [noun + noun] the first noun is like an adjective and therefore does not usually take an -s. A tree that has apples has many apples, but we say an apple tree, not apples tree; matchbox not matchesbox; toothbrush not teethbrush. With compound nouns made of [noun + noun] the second noun takes an -s for plural. The first noun acts like an adjective and as you know, adjectives in English are invariable. Look at these examples: long plural form becomes plural compound noun [noun + noun] 100 trees with apples100 apple trees 1,000 cables for telephones1,000 telephone cables 20 boxes for tools20 tool boxes 10 stops for buses10 bus stops 4,000 wheels for cars4,000 car wheels COMPOUND NOUNS cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

22 No phrases are not compound nouns Change to compound nouns 1a room for stores 2a tape for measuring up to 300 cms 3the assistant manager of the restaurant 4a station for express trains 5size of cables 6reduction in cost 7two periods of three months 8plugs with 3 pins 9two steel boxes for the tools 10the husband of my daughter Compound noun quiz Using compound nouns, can you shorten the following phrases? Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

23 Unit VI Compound Adjectives What is a compound adjective? A compound adjective is an adjective that comprises more than one word. Usually, hyphens are used to link the words together to show that it is one adjective. Examples: - Please request a four-foot table. ('Four-foot' is an adjective describing the table. A hyphen is used to link 'four and 'foot' to show that it is one adjective.) - It is a 6-page document. - Claire worked as a part-time keeper at the safari park. - That is an all-too-common mistake. 12-page magazine, free-range eggs, never-to-be-forgotten experience. Compound adjectives can also be grouped using italics, quotation marks and title case (i.e., capital letters). This is covered more in the lesson Alternatives to Hyphens in Compound Adjectives.Alternatives to Hyphens in Compound Adjectives Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

24 Compound Adjectives cont Compound Adjectives from Proper Nouns Often adjectives are formed from proper nouns (i.e., the names of things), which should be written using capital letters. In these circumstances, there is no need to group the words together using hyphens. Examples: Did you manage to get the Billy Elliot tickets? (The words 'Billy Elliot' are one adjective describing the tickets. As the capital letters group the words, there is no need to use a hyphen.)proper nouns The village fete will be held on the Red Lion lawn. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

25 Compound Adjectives with Quotation Marks and Italics Although a less common practice, it is also possible to group the words in a compound adjective using quotation marks, italics or a combination of the two. (Italics tend to be used for foreign words.) Examples: It is an ab initio course (i.e., for beginners) initio is a Latin, From the beginning; from the first act; from the inception. (italics used to group the adjective) Amber looked at the stick in the water, looked me in the eye and then turned away, giving me a "get it yourself" look. (quotation marks used to group the adjective) For more than ten years, Jack claimed to be part of the "Mary Celeste" crew before admitting to his cousin at a party that he was not. (capital letters, italics and quotation marks used to group the adjective) Compound Adjectives cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

26 Adverbs and Compound Adjectives As covered in the Adverbs, an adjective is often preceded by a word like very, well, beautifully or extremely. (These are adverbs.) Usually, there is no need to link an adverb to an adjective using a hyphen. Examples: Young Tracey is an extremely brave girl. (The adverb 'extremely' modifies the adjective 'brave' but is not part of it. There is no need to group it and 'brave' together with a hyphen.) It was a beautifully painted portrait in a skillfully carved frame. (The adverb 'beautifully' adds to the adjective 'painted' but is not part of it. It is the same with 'skillfully' and 'carved'. There is no need for hyphens.)Adverbs USE A HYPHEN WITH WELL The following rule will cover most scenarios: When preceding an adjective with the adverb well, use a hyphen. well-known actor, well-known lawyer (< hyphen with 'well') widely known actor (< no hyphen with any other adverb) Compound Adjectives cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

27 Ambiguous Adverbs However, with words like well and fast (which are both adjectives and adverbs), a hyphen can be used to avoid ambiguity. Example: Jacob took the well-fatted calf to the riverside. ('well-fatted calf' as in a very plump calf) Jacob took the well fatted calf to the riverside. ('well fatted calf' could be construed as a 'well' (i.e., healthy) and 'fatted' calf. In the first example, the 'well-fatted calf' could be ill.) Compound Adjectives cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

28 Practice your exercises of compound adjectives REWRITE EACH OF THE SENTENCES BELOW, FORMING A COMPOUND ADJECTIVE FROM THE WORDS IN ITALICS AND MAKING ANY OTHER CHANGES NECESSARY Example: The journey took ten hours. They make these chocolates by hand. The memory was both bitter and sweet. Answer: It was a ten-hour journey. These chocolates are hand-made. It was a bitter-sweet memory. 1) That thing looks dangerous. 2) Mr. Reed is an accountant who was born in London. 3) She always dresses very smartly. 4) It was painted red like the color of bricks. 5) She has eyes like a cat. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

29 6) It was an occasion which was happy and sad at the same time. 7) The tower has a shape like a mushroom. 8) He was famous all over the world. 9) The meal tastes awful. 10) Only planes with a single engine can land here. 11) A building of five storey suddenly collapsed. 12) We walked along a corridor which had a red carpet. 13) This machine is operated by hand. 14) The new director is an economist educated in Oxford. 15) He has very broad shoulders. 16) She's always very satisfied with herself. Practice your exercises of compound adjectives Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

30 UNIT VIIPhrasal Verb What are phrasal verbs? Phrasal verbs are mainly used in spoken English and informal texts. (The more formal a conversation or text, the less phrasal verbs are found.) Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a particle (preposition, adverb). The particle can change the meaning of the verb completely. For example:: look up – consult a reference book (look a word up in a dictionary) look for – seek (look for her ring) look forward – anticipate with pleasure (look forward to meeting someone) There are no rules that might explain the meaning of phrasal verbs. All you can do is look them up in a good dictionary and study their meanings. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

31 Phrasal Verb cont Position of the Particle: In some cases the particle is placed either after the verb or after the object. Example: Write down the word Write the word down If the object is a pronoun, however, the particle has to be placed after the pronoun (object). Example: Write it down. Your photo album. Put it down Your jacket. Take it off Phrasal verbs are mainly used in spoken English and informal texts. (The more formal a conversation or text, the less phrasal verbs are found.) Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

32 Frequently Used Phrasal Verbs with: break, bring, call, carry, come, do, fall, get, go, keep, look, make, put, run, set, take, turn breakbringcallcarrycomedofallgetgo keeplookmakeputrunsettaketurn Phrasal Verb cont Exercise on Phrasal Verbs Phrasal Verbs with 'up' Complete the first part of the phrasal verbs. Use each verb only once. 1) Jane and I want to……………… up smoking. 2) Could you …………………me up at 6 o'clock? 3) We must ……………………up or we will miss the bus. 4) Can you ……………………... me up at the station? 5) In many countries, the pupils have to ……………….. up when the teacher enters the class-room. 6) I usually have to ………………….. up at half past six. 7) I must ………………………………………up my room today. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

33 ANSWER KEY Jane and I want to give up smoking. Could you wake me up at 6 o'clock? We must hurry up or we will miss the bus. Can you pick me up at the station? In many countries, the pupils have to stand up when the teacher enters the class-room. I usually have to get up at half past six. I must tidy up my room today. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

34 UNIT VIII : Countable and uncountable nouns In English, nouns are "countable" or "uncountable. Countable nouns refer to things and concepts that can be counted, like two hours, five puppies and twenty geraniums. Uncountable nouns refer to things and concepts that cannot be counted, such as luggage, information or courage. Although identifying countable and uncountable nouns sounds easy, it isn't always sosometimes, the same noun can have both a countable and uncountable sense. Think of time, as in we've had some good times (countable) versus it's time to leave (uncountable). Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

35 Countable and uncountable nouns cont In English grammar, words that refer to people, places, or things are called nouns. They can be classified in many ways. One way to classify nouns is according to whether they can be counted or not. Many English mistakes are related to this point. By learning through this page, you will understand: 1) what countable and uncountable nouns are. 2) how to use them correctly in a sentence Countable (or count) nouns are words which can be counted. They have a singular form and a plural form. They usually refer to things. Most countable nouns become plural by adding an s at the end of the word. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

36 SingularPlural chairchairs bottlebottles studentstudents Singular money furniture information For example: Uncountable (or non-count) nouns are words which cannot be counted. Therefore, they only have a singular form. They have no plural forms. These words are thought of as wholes rather than as parts. They usually refer to abstractions (such as confidence or advice) or collectives (such as equipment or luggage). For example: Countable and uncountable nouns cont Using Countable & Uncountable Nouns When using countable or uncountable nouns, pay attention to articles and adjectives! Some articles and adjectives can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. However, others can be used with only countable or only uncountable nouns. Lets see together!!! Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

37 Used with Countable Nouns Only aa doctor, a pen, a meal, a class, a college many many cups, many books, many libraries, many flights few few questions, few tables, few apples, few holidays, few countries a few a few questions, a few problems, a few issues, a few issues Used with Uncountable Nouns Only Much much money, much time, much food, much water, much energy little little trouble, little equipment, little meat, little patience a little bit of a little bit of confidence, a little bit of sleep, a little bit of snow Countable and uncountable nouns cont Used with Countable & Uncountable Nouns the countablethe monkeys, the schools, the teachers, the boats, the bananas uncountablethe cheese, the machinery, the luggage, the grass, the knowledge some countablesome tables, some stores, some grapes, some cities, some nurses uncountablesome time, some news, some bread, some salt, some mail any countableany forks, any socks, any bathrooms, any waiters, any beliefs uncountableany advice, any soap, any transportation, any gold, any homework no countableno magazines, no chocolates, no pilots, no rings, no markers uncountableno trouble, no grass, no scenery, no money, no furniture a lot of countablea lot of animals, a lot of coins, a lot of immigrants, a lot of babies uncountablea lot of help, a lot of aggravation, a lot of happiness, a lot of fun Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

38 lots of Countablelots of computers, lots of buses, lots of parties, lots of colleges uncountablelots of cake, lots of ice cream, lots of energy, lots of laughter enough countableenough plates, enough onions, enough restaurants, enough worries uncountableenough courage, enough wisdom, enough spaghetti, enough time plenty of countableplenty of houses, plenty of concerts, plenty of guitars, plenty of uncountableplenty of oil, plenty of sugar, plenty of cheese, plenty of space Countable and uncountable nouns cont Partitive Expressions with Uncountable Nouns A list of 100 partitive expressions containing a partitive + uncountable noun, each with an example sentence. (These expressions are in alphabetical order based on the uncountable noun.)partitiveuncountable noun Note that most of these expressions collocate strongly. Let us discuss together with all those sentences in the next slides…… Partitive is from old French mean that devidcollocate Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

39 a torrent of abuse The manager was so angry that he let loose a torrent of abuse at his workers. a piece of advice Can I offer you a piece of advice about investing your savings? a fit of anger Harry slapped his girlfriend in a fit of anger. a work of art Everyone says her gardens a work of art, its so beautiful. a rasher of bacon How many rashers of bacon would you like with your breakfast? a glass of beer If you drink more than two glasses of beer, you shouldnt drive a car. a drop of blood There were two or three drops of blood on the carpet. a spot of botherIm in a spot of bother because I cant find my car keys, and Im already late. a loaf of breadHow much does a loaf of bread cost in Japan? a pat of butter Could I have three pats of butter and some jam, please? a game of chess We played three games of chess, and Bobby won all of them. a bar of chocolate If youre a good boy, Ill give you a bar of chocolate. an item of clothing Put any items of clothing you no longer need into this box. a lump of coal The kids found some lumps of coal beside the railway tracks, and took them home. a cup of coffeeThe first thing I do when I get to work is have a cup of coffee. Countable and uncountable nouns cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

40 Decide whether these nouns are countable (C) or uncountable (U) 1.The children are playing in the garden. C 2.I don't like milk. U 3.I prefer tea. U 4.Scientists say that the environment is threatened by pollution. C 5.My mother uses butter to prepare cakes. U 6.There are a lot of windows in our classroom. C 7.We need some glue to fix this vase. U 8.The waiters in this restaurant are very professional. C 9.My father drinks two big glasses of water every morning. C 10.The bread my mother prepares is delicious. U 11.Drivers must be careful; the road is slippery. C 12.Some policemen are organizing road traffic to avoid any accidents. C 13.I bought three bottles of mineral water for our picnic. C 14.I'd like some juice please! U 15.Successful candidates will join the camp later this year. C 16.A rise in oil prices is inevitable since there is more and more world demand for energy. U 17.The exercises on this website are interesting. C 18.Dehydrated babies must drink a lot of water. U 19.Adult illiterates learn through a special government program. C 20.I met some nice people when I was walking along the beach. C Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

41 UNIT IX Prepositions What is a Preposition? A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.nounspronounsphrasessentenceobject A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."prepositional phrase adjectivesadverbs Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

42 Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects On is used with days: I will see you on Monday. The week begins on Sunday. At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day: My plane leaves at noon. The movie starts at 6 p.m. In is used with other parts of the day, with months, with years, with seasons: He likes to read in the afternoon. The days are long in August. The book was published in The flowers will bloom in spring. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

43 Preposition Extended time To express extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by, fromto, from-until, during,(with)in She has been gone since yesterday. (She left yesterday and has not returned.) I'm going to Paris for two weeks. (I will spend two weeks there.) The movie showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending in October.) The decorations were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending in fall.) I watch TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.) We must finish the project within a year. (No longer than a year.) Place To express notions of place, English uses the following prepositions: to talk about the point itself: in, to express something contained: inside, to talk about the surface: on, to talk about a general vicinity, at. There is a wasp in the room. Put the present inside the box. I left your keys on the table. She was waiting at the corner. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

44 Higher than a point To express notions of an object being higher than a point, English uses the following prepositions: over, above. He threw the ball over the roof. Hang that picture above the couch. Lower than a point To express notions of an object being lower than a point, English uses the following prepositions: under, underneath, beneath, below. The rabbit burrowed under the ground. The child hid underneath the blanket. We relaxed in the shade beneath the branches. The valley is below sea-level. Close to a point To express notions of an object being close to a point, English uses the following prepositions: near, by, next to, between, among, opposite. She lives near the school. There is an ice cream shop by the store. An oak tree grows next to my house The house is between Elm Street and Maple Street. I found my pen lying among the books. The bathroom is opposite that room. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

45 Preposition cont To introduce objects of verbs English uses the following prepositions to introduce objects of the following verbs. At: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare She glanced at her reflection. (exception with mirror: She glanced in the mirror.) You didn't laugh at his joke. I'm looking at the computer monitor. We rejoiced at his safe rescue. That pretty girl smiled at you. Stop staring at me. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

46 Of: approve, consist, smell I don't approve of his speech. My contribution to the article consists of many pages. He came home smelling of alcohol. Of (or about): dream, think I dream of finishing college in four years. Can you think of a number between one and ten? I am thinking about this problem. For: call, hope, look, wait, watch, wish Did someone call for a taxi? He hopes for a raise in salary next year. I'm looking for my keys. We'll wait for her here. You go buy the tickets and I'll watch for the train. If you wish for an "A" in this class, you must work hard. Preposition cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

47 Exercise on Prepositions – McDonalds Complete the exercise with the correct prepositions. 1. The first McDonalds restaurant was opened Dick and Mac McDonald the 15th May The best selling products their restaurant were hamburgers. 3. So the McDonald brothers thought a way to produce hamburgers more quickly. 4. This was introduced 1948 and became known the Speedee Service System. 5. The first franchised McDonalds restaurant was opened 1953, and today you can find McDonalds restaurants more than 100 countries. 6. The meats the burgers vary the culture the country. 7. Franchisees and future managers McDonalds restaurants are trained Hamburger University, which is located Oak Brook, a suburb Chicago. 8. McDonalds is also known its sponsorship various international sport events. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

48 UNIT X English Grammar for Business Form of Present Perfect Progressive P: He has been speaking. N: He has not been speaking. Q: Has he been speaking? Use of Present Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Simple is used for actions that started in the past and stopped recently or are still going on. The focus is on the course or duration of the action (not on the result). Action that is still going on Action that started in the past and is still going on. We want to emphasize how long the action has already been going on.. Examples: We have been successfully working in this field since I have been working in this company for over five years now. Action that stopped recently and has an influence on the present Action that has been going on for a certain period of time and is the reason for a present situation. Examples: I am so tired – I have been working all night. I have been trying to change the toner cartridge – now my fingers are dirty. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

49 PositiveNegativeQuestion I / you / we / theyI have been speaking.I have not been speaking.Have I been speaking? he / she / itHe has been speaking.He has not been speaking.Has he been speaking? Exceptions in spelling when adding ingExample final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed) come – coming (but: agree – agreeing) after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubledsit – sitting l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling final ie becomes ylie – lying The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action. Form of Present Perfect Progressive Exceptions in Spelling English Grammar for Business cont Use of Present Perfect Progressive puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours. action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon. Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

50 Exercise on Present Perfect Progressive Complete the sentences in Present Perfect Progressive. 1) We (do) business since ) Mister Vincent (wait) in the entrance hall for 20 minutes already. 3) Our company (supply) pumps for almost 20 years. 4) I need a break - I (type) in those numbers for three hours now. 5) These customers (purchase) our machines for over a decade. 6) For the last 30 minutes, I (try) to get through to Misses Ryan. 7) Jane (work / not) here for two years, but for five years. 8) How long (you / learn) English? 9) Marta is completely out of breath. (she / run) ? 10) (you / read) the catalogue? Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

51 Form of Present Progressive P: He is speaking. N: He is not speaking. Q: Is he speaking? Use of Present Progressive Present Progressive is used for actions in the present and focuses on the course or duration of the action. Action taking place now Being in the middle of doing something at the time of speaking. Examples: Carla is preparing the briefing. I am looing for Mister Millers phone number. Action taking place for a limited period of time only. Actions that don't take place regularly, but only temporarily. Examples: Mister Thomson is on sick leave, that's why I am doing his job. Three temporary employees are helping out this month. Arranged future actions Future actions that are already arranged (and maybe even jot down in a diary) Beispiele = e.g = i.e: I am meeting Misses Walker at 5 pm. Bob is doing overtime tomorrow. English Grammar for Business cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

52 Signal Words of Present Progressive at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now The present progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action. The present progressive is used for actions going on in the moment of speaking and for actions taking place only for a short period of time. It is also used to express development and actions that are arranged for the near future. *** Present progressive is also known as present continuous. Well continue our Business English Grammar to the next version soon. English Grammar for Business cont Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

53 Exercise on Present Progressive Complete the sentences in Present Progressive. 1) I (look for) my pen. 2) Jane (print out) the contract. 3) As long as I am on holiday, Hannah and John (take care) of everything. 4) Look! Graham (wear) a tie today. 5) That's because he (meet) the big boss in the afternoon. 6) I (work / not) tomorrow. 7) Bob (talk / not) on the phone. 8) What (you / do) ? 9) Where (Mister Bradley / stay) ? Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher

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