Presentation on theme: "Admin. Lesson 10: Retrenchment1865-1890 Learning Objectives Know congressional attitudes toward the Navy in this postwar period.Know congressional attitudes."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 10: Retrenchment
Learning Objectives Know congressional attitudes toward the Navy in this postwar period.Know congressional attitudes toward the Navy in this postwar period. Comprehend the difficulty in maintaining technological leadership and the debate over whether to remain technologically current.Comprehend the difficulty in maintaining technological leadership and the debate over whether to remain technologically current. Comprehend the reasons for the rebuilding of the US Navy and the historical conditions accounting for the emergence and success of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahans lectures and books.Comprehend the reasons for the rebuilding of the US Navy and the historical conditions accounting for the emergence and success of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahans lectures and books.
Learning Objectives Know the major changes affecting warship hull, armament, and propulsion design during the period Know the major changes affecting warship hull, armament, and propulsion design during the period Know the principal naval weapons systems conceived by nations desiring cheap methods to level the playing field with the capital ship.Know the principal naval weapons systems conceived by nations desiring cheap methods to level the playing field with the capital ship. Know the responses of the major naval powers to counter the threats of low cost weapons.Know the responses of the major naval powers to counter the threats of low cost weapons.
Remember our Themes! The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign PolicyThe Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy Interaction between Congress and the NavyInteraction between Congress and the Navy Interservice RelationsInterservice Relations TechnologyTechnology LeadershipLeadership Strategy and TacticsStrategy and Tactics Evolution of Naval DoctrineEvolution of Naval Doctrine
International Affairs late 1800s Pax BritannicaPax Britannica –Era of peace continues - British Empire dominates the seas. Japan - Meiji RestorationJapan - Meiji Restoration –Continued increase in foreign trade. –Rapid modernization begins. German and Italian unifications – 1860s & 70s.German and Italian unifications – 1860s & 70s. Austro-Hungarian Empires Dual Monarchy Austro-Hungarian Empires Dual Monarchy Continued collapse of Ottoman Empire through 1800s.Continued collapse of Ottoman Empire through 1800s. –Balkan Peninsula: Independence of European states. New era of European imperialism:New era of European imperialism: –European powers vigorously compete to establish colonies on remaining world territories.
von Roon, von Moltke, von Bismarck
Battle of Lissa First battle between ironclad fleets.First battle between ironclad fleets. Adriatic Sea off Dalmatian coast (present-day Croatia).Adriatic Sea off Dalmatian coast (present-day Croatia). Italians attempt amphibious assault of the island of Lissa without command of the sea.Italians attempt amphibious assault of the island of Lissa without command of the sea. Austrian Fleet takes V formation.Austrian Fleet takes V formation. –Breaks the Italian line. –Ferdinand Maximilian sinks Re dItalia with the ram. Rams in warship design:Rams in warship design: –Remain prominent until late into the nineteenth century.
Iron-clad Screw-Frigate Re DItalia
Evolution of Warship Construction Construction materials:Construction materials: – Steel hulls replace iron hulls. – Steel has higher strength and less weight than iron. Compartment divisions.Compartment divisions. Protective decks.Protective decks. Armor protection.Armor protection. – Iron to steel-plated iron to steel. – Location of armor: Vulnerable areas get more armor. Unable to armor the entire ship due to weight of armor. Rams Rams
Evolution of Armaments Muzzle loaders to breech loaders.Muzzle loaders to breech loaders. –Safety and rate of fire increases. Rifled guns.Rifled guns. – Increased accuracy and ranges. Mounting of guns.Mounting of guns. –Hydraulic recoil mechanisms. Cartridge shells.Cartridge shells. –Round and charge are combined. –Rate of fire increases. –Greater penetrating power and range. Self-propelled torpedo:Self-propelled torpedo: –Invented by Englishman Robert Whitehead in 1866.
Ship Propulsion Innovations More efficient steam engines developed.More efficient steam engines developed. –Vertical Triple Expansion (VTE) –Increases in speed. –Longer ranges. –Coaling stations required at regular intervals while transiting overseas. Further incentive to acquire overseas colonies. Many ships still use sail as alternate means of propulsion.Many ships still use sail as alternate means of propulsion. –Hybrids with stacks and sails.
Low Cost Weapons vs Capital Ships Capital ships:Capital ships: –Large ships with heavy guns - core of a battle fleet. Battleships (Heavily armored). Cruisers (Faster but less heavily armored than battleships). New low cost weapons:New low cost weapons: – Self-propelled torpedoes launched from torpedo boats. – Mines - Stationary torpedoes to protect coastlines and ports.
Countermeasures Continued advances in compartmentation.Continued advances in compartmentation. New ship types:New ship types: – Torpedo boat destroyer shortened to just destroyer used to screen capital ships from torpedo attacks. – Minesweepers used to clear minefields.
Post-Civil War U.S. Navy Decline of the Navy Decline of the Navy. –Large reductions in naval appropriations: 700 to 52 ships. –Isolationism due to the need for: Reconstruction of the South Continued westward expansion Primary mission:Primary mission: –Protection of maritime trade overseas –Costal Defense
Congress and the Rebirth of the U.S. Navy Naval funding begins to increase in 1870s.Naval funding begins to increase in 1870s. Three distinct construction programs authorizedThree distinct construction programs authorized –1873 –1883 ABCD ships Steam (Sail used as secondary means of propulsion). Steel hulls and heavy armor. Rifled breech-loading guns. – 1889 First three battleships authorized
Congress Acts Why? 1873 & & 1883 –Modernize ships –Stimulate steel & shipbuilding industry –Ships to be employed in the usual way Cruisers abroad protecting commerce –Focused more towards continentalist views Defense of Coasts form another major power Evolving major power tactics
Professional Rebirth of the U.S. Navy Naval Institute established by naval officers Naval Institute established by naval officers –Proceedings - professional journal for naval personnel. Office of Naval Intelligence established Office of Naval Intelligence established Naval War College established Naval War College established Engineering Duty Officers enter the Line Engineering Duty Officers enter the Line – Increased importance of technical knowledge is apparent.
Naval War College Commerce raiding and coastal defenseCommerce raiding and coastal defense –Accepted strategies of the U.S. Navy after Civil War. Strategies seem obsolete to an influential group of American naval leaders. Strategies seem obsolete to an influential group of American naval leaders. Commodore Stephen B. LuceCommodore Stephen B. Luce – Establishes Naval War College in 1885 at Newport, Rhode Island to: Apply modern scientific methods to the study and raise naval warfare from the empirical stage to the dignity of a science. – Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan is one of the first instructors to serve under Luce.
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History Published in Mahans first book.Published in Mahans first book. –Based on a series of Naval War College lectures. Strong arguments for the U.S.:Strong arguments for the U.S.: – Maintaining naval strength during peacetime. – Building a fleet of capital ships. – Acquiring colonies abroad for secure coaling stations. Ideas strongly appeals to:Ideas strongly appeals to: - Industrialists- Merchants - Nationalists- Imperialists