Presentation on theme: "FIRE NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE Fire Education and Protection Unit"— Presentation transcript:
1FIRE NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE Fire Education and Protection Unit FIRE SAFETY EDUCATIONENGR. Richard R Balhon, REEFO3 Adrian D QuilangResource SpeakersFIRE NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTEFire Education and Protection Unit
2WHAT IS DISASTER?A situation wherein normal living conditions are seriously disruptedMAN-MADE CALAMITIESNATURAL CALAMITIESFireTyphoonPollutionTsunamiCivic DisturbanceVolcanic EruptionsEpidemicFloodEarthquakeLandslide
3IN ORDER TO AVERT DISASTER, WHAT SHOULD WE DO? WE MUST PREPARE
4FIRE ?!?Is a rapid, self-sustaining oxidation process accompanied by the evolution of heat and light of varying intensity.
5Fire BehaviorFire has been both a help and a hindrance to mankind throughout history. Fire has heated our homes, cooked our food, and helped us to become technologically advanced. Fire, in its hostile mode, has also endangered us for as long as we have used it.
6Triangle of FireFor many years, the fire triangle (oxygen, fuel and heat) was used to teach the components of fire. While this simple example is useful, it is NOT technically correct.HEATOXYGENFUEL
7Fire TetrahedronFor combustion to occur, four components are necessary:Oxygen (oxidizing agent)FuelHeatSelf-sustained chemical reaction
8Fire TetrahedronEach component of the tetrahedron must be in place for combustion to occur. Remove one of the three components and combustion will not occur. If ignition has already occurred, the fire is extinguished when one of the components is removed from the reaction.
9Stages of FireIgnitionGrowthFlashoverFully-DevelopedDecay
10Fire TetrahedronOxygen or Oxidizing agents are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction. Oxidizers are not themselves combustible, but they support combustion when combined with a fuel.Fuel is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process.
11Fire TetrahedronHeat is the energy component of the fire tetrahedron. When heat comes into contact with a fuel, the energy supports the combustion reaction.Combustion is a complex reaction that requires a fuel (in the gaseous or vapor state), an oxidizer, and a heat energy to come together in a very specific way. Once flaming combustion or fire occurs, it can only continue when enough heat energy is produced to cause the continued development of fuel vapors or gases. Scientists call this type of reaction a “chain reaction”. A chain reaction is a series of reactions that occur in sequence with the result of each individual reaction being added to the rest.
12Fire DevelopmentWhen the four components of the fire tetrahedron come together, ignition occurs. For a fire to grow beyond the first material ignited, heat must be transmitted beyond the first material to additional fuel packages.
13FULLY DEVELOPED FIRE TIME TEMPERATURE RISEFLASH-OVERPOST FLASH-OVERGROWTHIGNITIONFULLY DEVELOPED FIREDECAYTIME
14Stages of FireIgnition. Describes the period when the four elements of the fire tetrahedron come together and combustion beginsGrowth. Shortly after ignition, a fire plume begins to form above the burning fuel. As the plume develops, it begins to draw or entrain air from the surrounding space into the column
15Stages of Fire continued. . . Flashover. Is the transition between the growth and the fully developed fire stages and is not a specific event such as ignition. During flashover, conditions in the compartment change very rapidly as the fire changes from one that is dominated by the burning of the materials first ignited to one that involves all of the exposed combustible surfaces within the compartment
16Stages of Fire continued. . . Fully developed Stage. Occurs when all combustible materials in the compartment are involved in the fire.Decay. As the fire consumes the available fuel in the compartment, the rate of heat released begins to decline
17Products of Combustion HeatLightSmokeToxic Gases
18Physiological Effects of Hypoxia (Reduced Oxygen) Physiological Effects of Reduced Oxygen (Hypoxia)Oxygen in Air (Percent)Symptoms21None – Normal Conditions17Some impairment of muscular coordination; increase in respiratory rate to compensate for lower oxygen content12Dizinnes, headache, rapid fatigue9Unconsciousness6Death within a few minutes and concurrent heart failure
19Fire Extinguishment Theory Fire is extinguished by limiting or interrupting one or more of the essential elements in the combustion process (fire tetrahedron). A fire may be extinguished by: * Reducing its Temperature * Removal of available Fuel * Exclusion of Oxygen * Inhibition of Self-Sustained Chemical Chain Reaction.
20Classes of FireCLASS AFires involving ordinary combustibles such as: wood, paper, cloth, plastics and rubber.It can be extinguished with water, water-based agents or foam, and multi-purpose dry chemicals.Water is usually used by the fire dept.
21CLASS BFires involving flammable and combustible liquids, gases and greases such as: gasoline, oils, alcohol, propane and cooking oils.Common extinguishing agents are carbon dioxide (CO2), regular and multi-purpose dry chemical and foam.
22CLASS CFires involving energized electrical equipment, which eliminates the use of water-based agents to put them out.The recommended method of fighting these fires is to turn-off or disconnect electrical power and then use an appropriate extinguisher depending on the remaining fuel source.Extinguishing agents includes carbon dioxide (CO2), regular and multi-purpose dry chemical.
23CLASS DFires involving combustible metals and alloys such as: magnesium, sodium, lithium, and potassium.Great case must be used when attempting to extinguish in these types of fuels.Extinguishing agents for this class of fire are called dry powders and should not be confused with dry chemical.
24Class KIs a new classification of fire as of 1998 and involves fires in combustible cooking fuels such as vegetable or animal oils and fats.Its fuels are similar to Class B fuels but involves high temperature cooking oils and therefore have special characteristics.Class K agents are usually wet chemicals.
25Class ENuclear installation/reactor/nuclear chemical fires.
26Portable First Aid Appliance Is a device within its chemical, fluids,& gases for extinguishing and used for small area of fire.Is designed to fight small incipient or unusual ones that are not easily put out of water.Formerly known as “fire extinguisher”
27LimitationsIt is important to note that fire extinguishers have limited capabilities, and trying to exceed those capabilities can increase the damage done and cause injuries.They are designed for specific purpose.It is usually a first aid method for fire extinguishers.They are designed and rated with certain types and sizes of fires in mind.
28PICK THE RIGHT EXTINGUISHER FOR THE JOB PFAP Cardinal RulePICK THE RIGHT EXTINGUISHER FOR THE JOB
30CLASSES OF FIRE APPLICABILITY KINDS OF PFAPCYLINDER COLORCLASSES OF FIRE APPLICABILITYTYPEKINDDry ChemicalLight RedClass A, B, CStored PressureCartridge typeDry PowderUltra Corrosion Resistant YellowClass DStored PressureCartridge typeCarbon Dioxide (CO2)Dark RedClass B, CStored PressureCartridge typeFoam Extinguisher (AFFF/FFFP)Light BlueClass A, BStored PressureWet ChemicalLight RedClass KStored PressureWater type (Pressurized Water)StainlessClass AStored PressureClean AgentDark GreenClass A, B, CStored Pressure
31SYMBOLSOrdinary Burning Materials – Green background, Triangular Shaped with class letter at the center (A)Flammable and Combustible Liquid – Red background, Square Shaped with class letter at the center (B)Energized Electrical Equipment – Blue background, Circular Shaped with class letter at the center ( C )Combustible Metals – Yellow background, star shaped with class letter at the center ( D )Combustible Cooking Fuel – Red background with special emphasis on the label discovered/introduced in Class (K)
32LPPSS OPERATION You must familiarize yourself with LPPSS L - Lift the unit at the carrying handleP - Pull the pinP - Point nozzle at the base of fireS – Squeeze the Operation Lever/HandleS - Sweep side-to-side/back-and-forth (depending on the surface area of the burning material or Sweeping Motion)
34FIRE SAFETY PLANThe fire safety plan is a very important part of the overall fire and life safety program within the building. Its purpose is to prevent potential injuries and deaths and to protect your residential and/or company from damage or loss due to fire.
35Every business establishment should have a fire safety plan, which should be reviewed with all new employees when they begin their job and with all employees when the plan is changed.
36PRE-FIRE AND OTHER EMERGENCY PLANNING Fire Hazard Any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the occurrence of fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with the fire fighting operations and the safeguarding of life and property.
37PROCEDURES Identify Problem Areas (Potential Hazard) People ActionSources of IgnitionFlammable, Combustible & other Hazardous Materials (Toxic Materials)Equipment FailuresAvailability of Fire Fighting Equipment and Fire Protection Devices/SystemsWhere is it located?How it works?How to use it?Preparing Emergency Action Plan
38Fire Fighting & Emergency Escape & Evacuation Included in the PlanHow to call the Local Fire StationEmergency Escape & Evacuation ProcedureListing of Workplace HazardHow to properly store Flammable, Combustible Toxic & Other HazardsAvailability and conditions of Fire Fighting Equipment & Other DevicesWho will be maintaining & operating the following Fire Fighting EquipmentStandard Housekeeping Procedures
39THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED WITHIN THE FIRE SAFETY PLAN. Map the complete layout of the building, verifying all the exit locations, occupied rooms, offices, incorporating the property lot and building size measurement, highlighting street access and names, noting any other vital firefighter entry information.Document the locations of the onsite fire extinguishers, fire hoses, standpipe stations, fire alarm system & detection devices, emergency lighting, fire pumps, sprinkler risers & Siamese connections, etc.Describe fire alarm system specifications, including the operation sequence of the control panel and layout of all fire detection devices (i,e. heat and smoke detectors, fire bells, pull stations, also any auxiliary shut downs, door releases and monitoring agency functions and information).
40Outline the preventative maintenance program, including servicing requirements, monthly inspections and tests, performance details, and fire logging methods pertaining to the audit of all the fire protection equipment within the building.Provide sample signage indicating overall floor plans, each exit within the building and the location of the fire extinguishers, fire hoses and stations, fire alarm & devices, emergency lighting, sprinklers systems, emergency gas and water shut off valves and electrical disconnect switches.Outline fire drills intervals, occupant emergency evacuation procedures and alternative measures in fire emergency situations.Indicate of all on-site fire hazards and measures to be taken by the supervisory staff and fire wardens.
42ORGANIZATIONA Fire Brigade in any plant, facility or institution shall be organized. It shall be composed of a.) firefighting of a firefighting or operating group and b.) support or evacuation group. The organization shall have the following objectives: 1. To enable mngt. to conduct an effective safety program; 2. To lessen potential loss by anticipating possibilities & instituting appropriate procedures; 3. To promote fastest & most desirable reaction of the personnel institution in dealing with emergencies; 4. To re-establish normal conditions with little confusion & as promptly as possible; 5. To secure better employee/mngt. relations by obvious preparations for emergencies; 6. To imbibe people with responsibilities for dealing with fires & other disasters a sense of having taken all possible steps to meet likely situations; and 7. To establish necessary liaison with the appropriate government & private agencies concerned & acquire the necessary support & cooperation.
43In it simplest form, this organization is: Headed by a Fire Marshal assisted by the selected personnel;The size of the facility, the presence of unusual hazards, the potential magnitude of the fire or any other emergencies; andAvailability of the local fire department will determine the nature and size of protection and organization to be provided.Members of the Fire Brigade should be regular plant employees from all departments. They should be available to answer all alarms and to attend required training sessions. Minimum physical requirement should be established, but a periodic physical examination is desirable.
44FIRE BRIGADE ORGANIZATION FIRE MARSHALDEPUTY FIRE MARSHALFIREFIGHTINGGROUPSUPPORT GROUPFLOOR CAPTAINRESCUERFIRSTAID & MEDICALATTENDANTSSECURITYFIRE HOSEOPERATORF/EXTINGUISHEROPERATORROOM CAPTAINSEARCHEREXIT GUARD
45Members and Duties Fire Marshal Shall be responsible for the implementation of fire prevention and safety measures;Responsible for maintaining an up-to-date record of all members;Coordinate with all departments when a fire and evacuation drill is held;Report all deficiencies including the life safety systems for corrective action;Responsible for submission of the fire and evacuation drill report and recommendations for improvement;Prepares evacuation plan; andReports all types of fire and emergency incidence;
46Deputy Fire Marshal: Floor Captains and Alternates: Assist the Fire Marshal;Assumes duties of Fire Marshal in case of his absence.Floor Captains and Alternates:Responsible to the Fire Marshal on matters pertaining to fire prevention and control his floor;Immediate charge of all occupants on his floor in case of emergency;Responsible for the maintenance of all aisles and passageway especially those leading to exits to be clear of obstructions;Assigns Room Captains, Exit Guards, Searches, Fire Extinguisher/Hose Operations in his floor;Submit an up-to-date record for Fire Brigade Members on his floor to the Fire Marshal.
47Room CaptainsSupervises firefighting and evacuation activities of his area of responsibility during actual emergency drills;At sound of the alarm, reports to the Floor Captain for orders;Upon orders to evacuate, organizes his group and moves the group through pre-planned evacuation routes to its assigned evacuation areas;Conducts immediate head-count at evacuation area to see if anyone is missing.
48Exit GuardsAt sound of the alarm, reports to the Floor/Room Captain for orders;Leads evacuation column thru pre-planned evacuation routes to assigned evacuation areas;Opens fire exit doors, keeping it open until all members of his group have left the floor area;Follow tail end of evacuation column and keep order in the line; andReceives advice from searchers when the floor area is cleared upon which the exit door is closed.
49Searchers At sound of the alarm, reports to Room Captain for orders; Searches rooms, offices, washrooms and other spaces where they may be persons who did not hear the alarm and were not aware of evacuation orders; andAdvises the exit guards when the room or floor is cleared and joins the evacuation column.
50Fire Extinguisher Operations and Alternates: Upon receipt of alarm, proceeds to assigned portable fire extinguisher;If the fire is located in his area of assignment takes fire extinguisher assigned to him and proceeds to the scene of fire to extinguish the fire;If the fire is in other floors or areas, stands by the fire extinguisher and awaits orders from Floor Captain;Joins evacuation column after the room or floor area is cleared, bringing with him portable fire extinguisher, if necessary; andReturns fire extinguisher to proper place after actual emergency drill.
51Fire Hose Operators and Alternates Upon receipt of the alarm, proceed immediately to the fire hose they are assigned;If the fire is in their area of assignment, pulls out fire hoses assigned to them and proceeds to the fire scene to extinguish the fire;If the fire is located in other floors, stands by the fire hose they are assigned and awaits orders from Floor Captain; andUpon orders to evacuate, joins the evacuation column to designated evacuation area.
52Other Units or Support Groups RescuersLocates victims still at endangered areas;Extricate victims when found, if necessary;Stabilizes victims and bring them to a place of safety;Joins evacuation column upon orders of the Fire Marshal; andJoins wrap-up activities at evacuation area and awaits further orders from the Fire Marshal.First Aid Nurses and Medical AttendantsProvides first aid treatment;Assist in the evacuation of injured victims to hospitals; andJoins wrap-up activities at evacuation areas and awaits further orders from the Fire Marshal.
53Security Guards:At sound of the alarm, notifies the Local Fire Department thru whatever means available;Determines location of the fire and notifies the Fire Marshal and Floor Captains;Secure immediate areas around the place of emergency including the designated evacuation areas;Maintains orderly traffic movement and see that fire lanes being used by responding fire apparatus and other emergency units are not obstructed; andStays at assigned post until properly relieved and awaits final instructions from Fire Marshal during and after wrap-up activities.
54Fire Safety Credo It takes one minute to write a Safety Rule; It takes one hour to hold a Safety Meeting;It takes one week to plan a Safety Program;It takes one day to inspect a Workplace;It takes one month to put into Practice;It takes one year to win a Safety Award;It takes a lifetime to make a Safety Worker;It takes only a second to destroy all in one