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FIRE NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE Fire Education and Protection Unit

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1 FIRE NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE Fire Education and Protection Unit
FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION ENGR. Richard R Balhon, REE FO3 Adrian D Quilang Resource Speakers FIRE NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE Fire Education and Protection Unit

2 WHAT IS DISASTER? A situation wherein normal living conditions are seriously disrupted MAN-MADE CALAMITIES NATURAL CALAMITIES Fire Typhoon Pollution Tsunami Civic Disturbance Volcanic Eruptions Epidemic Flood Earthquake Landslide


4 FIRE ?!? Is a rapid, self-sustaining oxidation process accompanied by the evolution of heat and light of varying intensity.

5 Fire Behavior Fire has been both a help and a hindrance to mankind throughout history. Fire has heated our homes, cooked our food, and helped us to become technologically advanced. Fire, in its hostile mode, has also endangered us for as long as we have used it.

6 Triangle of Fire For many years, the fire triangle (oxygen, fuel and heat) was used to teach the components of fire. While this simple example is useful, it is NOT technically correct. HEAT OXYGEN FUEL

7 Fire Tetrahedron For combustion to occur, four components are necessary: Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Fuel Heat Self-sustained chemical reaction

8 Fire Tetrahedron Each component of the tetrahedron must be in place for combustion to occur. Remove one of the three components and combustion will not occur. If ignition has already occurred, the fire is extinguished when one of the components is removed from the reaction.

9 Stages of Fire Ignition Growth Flashover Fully-Developed Decay

10 Fire Tetrahedron Oxygen or Oxidizing agents are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction. Oxidizers are not themselves combustible, but they support combustion when combined with a fuel. Fuel is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process.

11 Fire Tetrahedron Heat is the energy component of the fire tetrahedron. When heat comes into contact with a fuel, the energy supports the combustion reaction. Combustion is a complex reaction that requires a fuel (in the gaseous or vapor state), an oxidizer, and a heat energy to come together in a very specific way. Once flaming combustion or fire occurs, it can only continue when enough heat energy is produced to cause the continued development of fuel vapors or gases. Scientists call this type of reaction a “chain reaction”. A chain reaction is a series of reactions that occur in sequence with the result of each individual reaction being added to the rest.

12 Fire Development When the four components of the fire tetrahedron come together, ignition occurs. For a fire to grow beyond the first material ignited, heat must be transmitted beyond the first material to additional fuel packages.


14 Stages of Fire Ignition. Describes the period when the four elements of the fire tetrahedron come together and combustion begins Growth. Shortly after ignition, a fire plume begins to form above the burning fuel. As the plume develops, it begins to draw or entrain air from the surrounding space into the column

15 Stages of Fire continued. . .
Flashover. Is the transition between the growth and the fully developed fire stages and is not a specific event such as ignition. During flashover, conditions in the compartment change very rapidly as the fire changes from one that is dominated by the burning of the materials first ignited to one that involves all of the exposed combustible surfaces within the compartment

16 Stages of Fire continued. . .
Fully developed Stage. Occurs when all combustible materials in the compartment are involved in the fire. Decay. As the fire consumes the available fuel in the compartment, the rate of heat released begins to decline

17 Products of Combustion
Heat Light Smoke Toxic Gases

18 Physiological Effects of Hypoxia (Reduced Oxygen)
Physiological Effects of Reduced Oxygen (Hypoxia) Oxygen in Air (Percent) Symptoms 21 None – Normal Conditions 17 Some impairment of muscular coordination; increase in respiratory rate to compensate for lower oxygen content 12 Dizinnes, headache, rapid fatigue 9 Unconsciousness 6 Death within a few minutes and concurrent heart failure

19 Fire Extinguishment Theory
Fire is extinguished by limiting or interrupting one or more of the essential elements in the combustion process (fire tetrahedron). A fire may be extinguished by: * Reducing its Temperature * Removal of available Fuel * Exclusion of Oxygen * Inhibition of Self-Sustained Chemical Chain Reaction.

20 Classes of Fire CLASS A Fires involving ordinary combustibles such as: wood, paper, cloth, plastics and rubber. It can be extinguished with water, water-based agents or foam, and multi-purpose dry chemicals. Water is usually used by the fire dept.

21 CLASS B Fires involving flammable and combustible liquids, gases and greases such as: gasoline, oils, alcohol, propane and cooking oils. Common extinguishing agents are carbon dioxide (CO2), regular and multi-purpose dry chemical and foam.

22 CLASS C Fires involving energized electrical equipment, which eliminates the use of water-based agents to put them out. The recommended method of fighting these fires is to turn-off or disconnect electrical power and then use an appropriate extinguisher depending on the remaining fuel source. Extinguishing agents includes carbon dioxide (CO2), regular and multi-purpose dry chemical.

23 CLASS D Fires involving combustible metals and alloys such as: magnesium, sodium, lithium, and potassium. Great case must be used when attempting to extinguish in these types of fuels. Extinguishing agents for this class of fire are called dry powders and should not be confused with dry chemical.

24 Class K Is a new classification of fire as of 1998 and involves fires in combustible cooking fuels such as vegetable or animal oils and fats. Its fuels are similar to Class B fuels but involves high temperature cooking oils and therefore have special characteristics. Class K agents are usually wet chemicals.

25 Class E Nuclear installation/reactor/nuclear chemical fires.

26 Portable First Aid Appliance
Is a device within its chemical, fluids,& gases for extinguishing and used for small area of fire. Is designed to fight small incipient or unusual ones that are not easily put out of water. Formerly known as “fire extinguisher”

27 Limitations It is important to note that fire extinguishers have limited capabilities, and trying to exceed those capabilities can increase the damage done and cause injuries. They are designed for specific purpose. It is usually a first aid method for fire extinguishers. They are designed and rated with certain types and sizes of fires in mind.


29 PARTS Handle Operation lever Safety pin Safety pin lock Pressure gauge
Cylinder Siphon tube Label Inspection tag Hose Nozzle

KINDS OF PFAP CYLINDER COLOR CLASSES OF FIRE APPLICABILITY TYPE KIND Dry Chemical Light Red Class A, B, C Stored Pressure Cartridge type Dry Powder Ultra Corrosion Resistant Yellow Class D Stored Pressure Cartridge type Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Dark Red Class B, C Stored Pressure Cartridge type Foam Extinguisher (AFFF/FFFP) Light Blue Class A, B Stored Pressure Wet Chemical Light Red Class K Stored Pressure Water type (Pressurized Water) Stainless Class A Stored Pressure Clean Agent Dark Green Class A, B, C Stored Pressure

31 SYMBOLS Ordinary Burning Materials – Green background, Triangular Shaped with class letter at the center (A) Flammable and Combustible Liquid – Red background, Square Shaped with class letter at the center (B) Energized Electrical Equipment – Blue background, Circular Shaped with class letter at the center ( C ) Combustible Metals – Yellow background, star shaped with class letter at the center ( D ) Combustible Cooking Fuel – Red background with special emphasis on the label discovered/introduced in Class (K)

32 LPPSS OPERATION You must familiarize yourself with LPPSS
L - Lift the unit at the carrying handle P - Pull the pin P - Point nozzle at the base of fire S – Squeeze the Operation Lever/Handle S - Sweep side-to-side/back-and-forth (depending on the surface area of the burning material or Sweeping Motion)


34 FIRE SAFETY PLAN The fire safety plan is a very important part of the overall fire and life safety program within the building. Its purpose is to prevent potential injuries and deaths and to protect your residential and/or company from damage or loss due to fire.

35 Every business establishment should have a fire safety plan, which should be reviewed with all new employees when they begin their job and with all employees when the plan is changed.

Fire Hazard Any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the occurrence of fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with the fire fighting operations and the safeguarding of life and property.

37 PROCEDURES Identify Problem Areas (Potential Hazard)
People Action Sources of Ignition Flammable, Combustible & other Hazardous Materials (Toxic Materials) Equipment Failures Availability of Fire Fighting Equipment and Fire Protection Devices/Systems Where is it located? How it works? How to use it? Preparing Emergency Action Plan

38 Fire Fighting & Emergency Escape & Evacuation
Included in the Plan How to call the Local Fire Station Emergency Escape & Evacuation Procedure Listing of Workplace Hazard How to properly store Flammable, Combustible Toxic & Other Hazards Availability and conditions of Fire Fighting Equipment & Other Devices Who will be maintaining & operating the following Fire Fighting Equipment Standard Housekeeping Procedures

Map the complete layout of the building, verifying all the exit locations, occupied rooms, offices, incorporating the property lot and building size measurement, highlighting street access and names, noting any other vital firefighter entry information. Document the locations of the onsite fire extinguishers, fire hoses, standpipe stations, fire alarm system & detection devices, emergency lighting, fire pumps, sprinkler risers & Siamese connections, etc. Describe fire alarm system specifications, including the operation sequence of the control panel and layout of all fire detection devices (i,e. heat and smoke detectors, fire bells, pull stations, also any auxiliary shut downs, door releases and monitoring agency functions and information).

40 Outline the preventative maintenance program, including servicing requirements, monthly inspections and tests, performance details, and fire logging methods pertaining to the audit of all the fire protection equipment within the building. Provide sample signage indicating overall floor plans, each exit within the building and the location of the fire extinguishers, fire hoses and stations, fire alarm & devices, emergency lighting, sprinklers systems, emergency gas and water shut off valves and electrical disconnect switches. Outline fire drills intervals, occupant emergency evacuation procedures and alternative measures in fire emergency situations. Indicate of all on-site fire hazards and measures to be taken by the supervisory staff and fire wardens.


42 ORGANIZATION A Fire Brigade in any plant, facility or institution shall be organized. It shall be composed of a.) firefighting of a firefighting or operating group and b.) support or evacuation group. The organization shall have the following objectives: 1. To enable mngt. to conduct an effective safety program; 2. To lessen potential loss by anticipating possibilities & instituting appropriate procedures; 3. To promote fastest & most desirable reaction of the personnel institution in dealing with emergencies; 4. To re-establish normal conditions with little confusion & as promptly as possible; 5. To secure better employee/mngt. relations by obvious preparations for emergencies; 6. To imbibe people with responsibilities for dealing with fires & other disasters a sense of having taken all possible steps to meet likely situations; and 7. To establish necessary liaison with the appropriate government & private agencies concerned & acquire the necessary support & cooperation.

43 In it simplest form, this organization is:
Headed by a Fire Marshal assisted by the selected personnel; The size of the facility, the presence of unusual hazards, the potential magnitude of the fire or any other emergencies; and Availability of the local fire department will determine the nature and size of protection and organization to be provided. Members of the Fire Brigade should be regular plant employees from all departments. They should be available to answer all alarms and to attend required training sessions. Minimum physical requirement should be established, but a periodic physical examination is desirable.


45 Members and Duties Fire Marshal
Shall be responsible for the implementation of fire prevention and safety measures; Responsible for maintaining an up-to-date record of all members; Coordinate with all departments when a fire and evacuation drill is held; Report all deficiencies including the life safety systems for corrective action; Responsible for submission of the fire and evacuation drill report and recommendations for improvement; Prepares evacuation plan; and Reports all types of fire and emergency incidence;

46 Deputy Fire Marshal: Floor Captains and Alternates:
Assist the Fire Marshal; Assumes duties of Fire Marshal in case of his absence. Floor Captains and Alternates: Responsible to the Fire Marshal on matters pertaining to fire prevention and control his floor; Immediate charge of all occupants on his floor in case of emergency; Responsible for the maintenance of all aisles and passageway especially those leading to exits to be clear of obstructions; Assigns Room Captains, Exit Guards, Searches, Fire Extinguisher/Hose Operations in his floor; Submit an up-to-date record for Fire Brigade Members on his floor to the Fire Marshal.

47 Room Captains Supervises firefighting and evacuation activities of his area of responsibility during actual emergency drills; At sound of the alarm, reports to the Floor Captain for orders; Upon orders to evacuate, organizes his group and moves the group through pre-planned evacuation routes to its assigned evacuation areas; Conducts immediate head-count at evacuation area to see if anyone is missing.

48 Exit Guards At sound of the alarm, reports to the Floor/Room Captain for orders; Leads evacuation column thru pre-planned evacuation routes to assigned evacuation areas; Opens fire exit doors, keeping it open until all members of his group have left the floor area; Follow tail end of evacuation column and keep order in the line; and Receives advice from searchers when the floor area is cleared upon which the exit door is closed.

49 Searchers At sound of the alarm, reports to Room Captain for orders;
Searches rooms, offices, washrooms and other spaces where they may be persons who did not hear the alarm and were not aware of evacuation orders; and Advises the exit guards when the room or floor is cleared and joins the evacuation column.

50 Fire Extinguisher Operations and Alternates:
Upon receipt of alarm, proceeds to assigned portable fire extinguisher; If the fire is located in his area of assignment takes fire extinguisher assigned to him and proceeds to the scene of fire to extinguish the fire; If the fire is in other floors or areas, stands by the fire extinguisher and awaits orders from Floor Captain; Joins evacuation column after the room or floor area is cleared, bringing with him portable fire extinguisher, if necessary; and Returns fire extinguisher to proper place after actual emergency drill.

51 Fire Hose Operators and Alternates
Upon receipt of the alarm, proceed immediately to the fire hose they are assigned; If the fire is in their area of assignment, pulls out fire hoses assigned to them and proceeds to the fire scene to extinguish the fire; If the fire is located in other floors, stands by the fire hose they are assigned and awaits orders from Floor Captain; and Upon orders to evacuate, joins the evacuation column to designated evacuation area.

52 Other Units or Support Groups
Rescuers Locates victims still at endangered areas; Extricate victims when found, if necessary; Stabilizes victims and bring them to a place of safety; Joins evacuation column upon orders of the Fire Marshal; and Joins wrap-up activities at evacuation area and awaits further orders from the Fire Marshal. First Aid Nurses and Medical Attendants Provides first aid treatment; Assist in the evacuation of injured victims to hospitals; and Joins wrap-up activities at evacuation areas and awaits further orders from the Fire Marshal.

53 Security Guards: At sound of the alarm, notifies the Local Fire Department thru whatever means available; Determines location of the fire and notifies the Fire Marshal and Floor Captains; Secure immediate areas around the place of emergency including the designated evacuation areas; Maintains orderly traffic movement and see that fire lanes being used by responding fire apparatus and other emergency units are not obstructed; and Stays at assigned post until properly relieved and awaits final instructions from Fire Marshal during and after wrap-up activities.

54 Fire Safety Credo It takes one minute to write a Safety Rule;
It takes one hour to hold a Safety Meeting; It takes one week to plan a Safety Program; It takes one day to inspect a Workplace; It takes one month to put into Practice; It takes one year to win a Safety Award; It takes a lifetime to make a Safety Worker; It takes only a second to destroy all in one


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