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Global Estimates of Ambient PM 2.5 Concentrations from Satellite AOD Aaron van Donkelaar with contributions from: Randall Martin, Brian Boys, Crystal Weagle,

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Presentation on theme: "Global Estimates of Ambient PM 2.5 Concentrations from Satellite AOD Aaron van Donkelaar with contributions from: Randall Martin, Brian Boys, Crystal Weagle,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Estimates of Ambient PM 2.5 Concentrations from Satellite AOD Aaron van Donkelaar with contributions from: Randall Martin, Brian Boys, Crystal Weagle, and Graydon Snider VIIRS Aerosol Science and Operational Users Workshop November 21-22, 2013

2 PM 2.5 affects human health and longevity Particulate Matter Ground-level Ozone Unsafe Water Supply and Sanitation Indoor Air Pollution Malaria Deaths (millions of people) OECD, Life expectancy increases 7 months per 10 μg/m 3 decrease in long-term exposure PM 2.5 regulation achieved largest gains of all U.S. Federal Regulation Dominates global environmental mortality by 2030

3 Vast Regions Have Insufficient Measurements for Air Pollution Exposure Assessment Locations of Publicly Accessible Long-Term PM 2.5 Monitoring Sites Monitor locations can be driven by compliance objectives ~1 site / 10,000 km 2 in continental US & southern Canada Emerging Network

4 Previous Global Burden of Disease Report for 2000 Impaired by Insufficient Global Observations of Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) Estimate air pollution in urban areas causes: ~1 million deaths (~1%) Could not estimate effects outside of urban areas for 2000 report Could this be improved with satellite remote sensing? Cohen et al., 2005

5 AOD is related to PM 2.5 …but how to separate surface aerosol from column concentrations? Multiple approaches: surface monitors calibration empirical relations model output PM 2.5 / AOD [μg/m 3 ] GEOS-Chem v PM 2.5 / AOD ratio is a function of: vertical structure aerosol type/hygroscopicity meteorology

6 Significant agreement with coincident ground measurements over NA Satellite Derived In-situ Satellite-Derived [ μ g/m3] In-situ PM 2.5 [μg/m 3 ] Annual Mean PM 2.5 [ μ g/m 3 ] ( ) r MODIS AOD0.39 MISR AOD0.39 Combined AOD0.61 Combined PM van Donkelaar et al., EHP, 2010

7 Satellite-derived PM 2.5 shows global agreement Outside Canada/US N = 244 (84 non-EU) r = 0.83 (0.83) Slope = 0.86 (0.91) Bias = 1.15 (-2.64) μg/m 3 CTM Agreement: r = 0.63 (0.72) slope = 0.54 (0.60) bias = 8.89 (2.45) μg/m 3 van Donkelaar et al., EHP, 2010 Satellite-Derived PM 2.5 ( ) [μg/m 3 ]

8 Inform Epidemiological Studies: Global childhood asthma (Anderson et al., 2012) Lung cancer in Canada (Hystad et al., 2012) Mortality in California (Jerrett et al., 2013) Diabetes (Brook et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2013) Global adverse birth outcomes (Fleisher et al., in press) Hypertension (Chen et al., in press) Low PM 2.5 cardiovascular mortality (Crouse et al., 2012) Global impact of global data Global Burden of Disease authors from 303 institutions in 50 countries Inclusion of rural populations PM 2.5 causal role in 3 million deaths per year Lim et al., Lancet, 2012 Crouse et al., EHP, 2012

9 Global in situ monitors are sparse...and far from AERONET Difficult to evaluate error sources SPARTAN network collocates PM 2.5 and AOD measurements – Satellite-derived PM 2.5 evaluation, analysis, Airphoton PM 2.5 (Vanderlei Martins) Filter PM 2.5 Filter PM 10 3-λ Nephelometer AOD from CIMEL Sunphotometer (e.g. AERONET) PM 2.5 estimates accuracy impacted by –AOD retrieval –Simulated aerosol vertical profile –Mass to extinction conversion Sampling (clouds/snow)

10 Determine profile accuracy: Compare with CALIOP space-borne lidar Match optical properties Long-term ( ) comparisons CALIOP allows vertical profile correction GEOS-Chem CALIOP Altitude [km] Relative Profile Ratio Relative Profile van Donkelaar et al., JGR, June-August

11 van Donkelaar et al., in prep PM 2.5 [μg/m 3 ] Long-term retrievals allow trends combined MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS-based PM 2.5

12 Global: +0.6 Percent of Population [%] Annual Mean Exposure [μg/m 3 ] Year IT1 IT3 IT2 AQG exposure trend [μg/m 3 /yr] Global exposure and trends vary by region van Donkelaar et al., in prep Europe, Central -0.2 Asia, South +1.0 Europe, Western -0.2 North America, High Income -0.3 Asia, East +1.4 North Africa, Middle East Percent of Population [%] Annual Mean Exposure [μg/m 3 ]

13 Some Ongoing & Future Activities Chinese PM 2.5 Events Size Resolved AOD/PM 2.5 Calculation 1 km Optimal Estimation Retrieval PURE Air: Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological Study Operational AIRNow Satellite Data Processor PCW/PHEOS Environmental Performance Index ESCAPE - E UROPEAN S TUDY OF C OHORTS FOR A IR P OLLUTION E FFECTS

14 Extras

15 Short-term agreement during extreme events – Moscow 2010 van Donkelaar et al., AE, 2011 MODIS/Aqua Aug 7 th, 2010 Moscow 50 km MODIS-based In Situ PM 2.5 In Situ PM 2.5 from PM 10 r =0.92, slope= PM 2.5 [μg/m 3 ] Jul-14 Jul-19 Jul-24 Jul-29 Aug-03 Aug-08 Aug-13 Aug-18 65°N 60°N 55°N 50°N PM 2.5 [μg/m 3 ] Before Fires July 7- July 29, 2010 During Fires July 7- July 29, °E 45°E 55°E

16 Daily Satellite-based Estimates in North America Benefit from Spatial Smoothing & Bias Correction Error in Original (2004, 2006,2008) Error in Smoothed & Bias-corrected (2004, 2006, 2008) van Donkelaar et al., ES&T, 2012 Bias Corrected & Smoothed, Jun 27, 2005

17 OE PM 2.5 [μg/m 3 ] In situ PM 2.5 [μg/m 3 ] OE PM 2.5 [μ g/m 3 ] Simulated values can constrain retrievals 2005 van Donkelaar et al., JGR, 2013 observed TOA reflectance a priori AOD a posteriori AOD a priori error observational error Satellites provide: High resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) Observational constraint Column-integrated value GEOS-Chem provides: AOD/PM 2.5 relationship A priori values Optimal estimation constrains AOD retrieval by error: Available from

18 Sampling Station Designed for Nearly Autonomous Operation Filter Cartridges Replaced Every Two Months Nephelometer (1 Hz) Resolves Satellite Overpass vs 24-hr Solar Capability 8-slot Filter Cartridge Collect PM 2.5 & PM 10 Cartridge Protects Filters

19 SPARTAN Activities at Dalhousie Pre&Post Weigh Filters Analysis for Ions, Metals, Black Carbon (Ion Chromotraphy; Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; Absorption )

20 SPARTAN Activities Expansion & Supersite Development Beijing, China Dhaka, Bangladesh Kanpur, India


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