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Global Estimates of Ambient PM2.5 Concentrations from Satellite AOD

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Presentation on theme: "Global Estimates of Ambient PM2.5 Concentrations from Satellite AOD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Estimates of Ambient PM2.5 Concentrations from Satellite AOD
Aaron van Donkelaar with contributions from: Randall Martin, Brian Boys, Crystal Weagle, and Graydon Snider VIIRS Aerosol Science and Operational Users Workshop November 21-22, 2013

2 PM2.5 affects human health and longevity
Life expectancy increases 7 months per 10 μg/m3 decrease in long-term exposure PM2.5 regulation achieved largest gains of all U.S. Federal Regulation Dominates global environmental mortality by 2030 Particulate Matter Ground-level Ozone Unsafe Water Supply and Sanitation Indoor Air Pollution Malaria Deaths (millions of people) OECD, 2012 2010 2030 2050

3 Locations of Publicly Accessible Long-Term PM2.5 Monitoring Sites
Vast Regions Have Insufficient Measurements for Air Pollution Exposure Assessment Locations of Publicly Accessible Long-Term PM2.5 Monitoring Sites Emerging Network Monitor locations can be driven by compliance objectives ~1 site / 10,000 km2 in continental US & southern Canada

4 Previous Global Burden of Disease Report for 2000 Impaired by Insufficient Global Observations of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Estimate air pollution in urban areas causes: ~1 million deaths (~1%) Could not estimate effects outside of urban areas for 2000 report Could this be improved with satellite remote sensing? Cohen et al., 2005

5 AOD is related to PM2.5 …but how to separate surface aerosol from column concentrations?
PM2.5 / AOD ratio is a function of: vertical structure aerosol type/hygroscopicity meteorology Multiple approaches: surface monitors calibration empirical relations model output PM2.5 / AOD [μg/m3] GEOS-Chem v

6 Significant agreement with coincident ground measurements over NA
MODIS AOD 0.39 MISR AOD Combined AOD 0.61 Combined PM2.5 0.77 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 Annual Mean PM2.5 [μg/m3] ( ) Satellite Derived Satellite-Derived [μg/m3] In-situ In-situ PM2.5 [μg/m3] van Donkelaar et al., EHP, 2010

7 Satellite-derived PM2.5 shows global agreement
Outside Canada/US N = 244 (84 non-EU) r = 0.83 (0.83) Slope = 0.86 (0.91) Bias = 1.15 (-2.64) μg/m3 CTM Agreement: r = 0.63 (0.72) slope = 0.54 (0.60) bias = 8.89 (2.45) μg/m3 Satellite-Derived PM2.5 ( ) [μg/m3] van Donkelaar et al., EHP, 2010

8 Global impact of global data
Global Burden of Disease 2010 488 authors from 303 institutions in 50 countries Inclusion of rural populations PM2.5 causal role in 3 million deaths per year Lim et al., Lancet, 2012 Inform Epidemiological Studies: Global childhood asthma (Anderson et al., 2012) Lung cancer in Canada (Hystad et al., 2012) Mortality in California (Jerrett et al., 2013) Diabetes (Brook et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2013) Global adverse birth outcomes (Fleisher et al., in press) Hypertension (Chen et al., in press) Low PM2.5 cardiovascular mortality (Crouse et al., 2012) Crouse et al., EHP, 2012

9 Global in situ monitors are sparse ...and far from AERONET
PM2.5 estimates accuracy impacted by AOD retrieval Simulated aerosol vertical profile Mass to extinction conversion Sampling (clouds/snow) Difficult to evaluate error sources SPARTAN network collocates PM2.5 and AOD measurements Satellite-derived PM2.5 evaluation, analysis, Airphoton PM2.5 (Vanderlei Martins) Filter PM2.5 Filter PM10 3-λ Nephelometer AOD from CIMEL Sunphotometer (e.g. AERONET)

10 CALIOP allows vertical profile correction
GEOS-Chem CALIOP Altitude [km] 5 4 3 2 1 Relative Profile Ratio Relative Profile Determine profile accuracy: Compare with CALIOP space-borne lidar Match optical properties Long-term ( ) comparisons 2 1.5 1 0.5 𝑒𝑥𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓 𝐴𝑂𝐷 𝐺𝐶 𝑒𝑥𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓 𝐴𝑂𝐷 𝐶𝐴𝐿 June-August van Donkelaar et al., JGR, 2013

11 Long-term retrievals allow trends combined MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS-based PM2.5
PM2.5 [μg/m3] van Donkelaar et al., in prep.

12 Global exposure and trends vary by region
+0.6 Percent of Population [%] 100 80 60 40 20 Annual Mean Exposure [μg/m3] 2012 2005 1998 Year IT1 IT3 IT2 AQG exposure trend [μg/m3/yr] Europe, Central -0.2 Asia, South +1.0 Western North America, High Income -0.3 East +1.4 North Africa, Middle East +0.4 100 80 60 40 20 Percent of Population [%] Annual Mean Exposure [μg/m3] van Donkelaar et al., in prep

13 Some Ongoing & Future Activities
Environmental Performance Index Operational AIRNow Satellite Data Processor PCW/PHEOS Chinese PM2.5 Events PURE Air: Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological Study 1 km Optimal Estimation Retrieval Size Resolved AOD/PM2.5 Calculation ESCAPE - European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects

14 Extras

15 Short-term agreement during extreme events – Moscow 2010
120 100 80 60 40 20 PM2.5 [μg/m3] Before Fires July 7- July 29, 2010 During Fires 35°E °E °E MODIS-based In Situ PM2.5 In Situ PM2.5 from PM10 r =0.92, slope=1.06 1000 800 600 400 200 PM2.5 [μg/m3] Jul Jul Jul Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug-18 MODIS/Aqua Aug 7th, 2010 Moscow 50 km van Donkelaar et al., AE, 2011

16 Error in Smoothed & Bias-corrected (2004, 2006, 2008)
Daily Satellite-based Estimates in North America Benefit from Spatial Smoothing & Bias Correction Bias Corrected & Smoothed, Jun 27, 2005 Error in Original (2004, 2006,2008) Error in Smoothed & Bias-corrected (2004, 2006, 2008) van Donkelaar et al., ES&T, 2012

17 Simulated values can constrain retrievals
Optimal estimation constrains AOD retrieval by error: GEOS-Chem provides: AOD/PM2.5 relationship A priori values observed TOA reflectance a priori AOD a posteriori AOD a priori error observational error Satellites provide: High resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) Observational constraint Column-integrated value Available from OE PM2.5 [μg/m3] In situ PM2.5 [μg/m3] 40 30 20 10 15 5 OE PM2.5 [μ g/m3] 2005 van Donkelaar et al., JGR, 2013

18 Sampling Station Designed for Nearly Autonomous Operation Filter Cartridges Replaced Every Two Months Nephelometer (1 Hz) Resolves Satellite Overpass vs 24-hr Solar Capability 8-slot Filter Cartridge Collect PM2.5 & PM10 Cartridge Protects Filters

19 SPARTAN Activities at Dalhousie
Analysis for Ions, Metals, Black Carbon (Ion Chromotraphy; Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; Absorption ) Pre&Post Weigh Filters

20 SPARTAN Activities Beijing, China Dhaka, Bangladesh Kanpur, India
Expansion & Supersite Development

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