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1 ______________________
EVERY MARINE A RIFLEMAN USMC RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP MARINE GUNNER C.P. WADE WTBN, QUANTICO, VIRGINIA

2 Historical Context “Every Marine is, first and foremost, a Rifleman. All other conditions are secondary.” -General A.M. Gray, Jr., USMC. “The deadliest weapon in the world is a Marine and his rifle.” -General John “Blackjack” Pershing, US Army. “Do not attack the First Marine Division. Leave the yellow-legs alone. Strike the American Army.” --Orders to Communist enemy forces in Korea. (The 1st MAR DIV subsequently discontinued the use of khaki leggings).

3 Purpose To educate leaders on the history of USMC rifle marksmanship in order to improve their ability to conduct analysis and refinement of the current USMC rifle program and the USMC Infantry Rifle. To educate Marines on USMC history and heritage to foster espirit de corps.

4 Agenda History of the USMC Service Rifles and Carbines (1903-2013).
Combat history of USMC Service Rifles and Carbines. History of the USMC rifle qualification programs ( ). 110 years of history of USMC rifle qualification targets. Concepts for consideration. US Marine Corps Winchester Lee-Navy M1895 Service Rifle NOTE: This Service Rifle used up until the time period of this study. It is also depicted on the USMC Good Conduct Medal.

5 US Marine Corps Service Rifle Current USMC Infantry Rifle
United States Carbine, 5.56mm, M4. Adopted as the standard US Marine Corps Infantry Rifle in 2013. (2012) $ for base Carbine. $ for Rifle Combat Optic (RCO). $ for RCO mount. $ for Back-Up Iron sight. $ for AN/PEQ-16A device. $9.21 per magazine (x7)= $64.47. $67.92 for sling. $71.33 for ambidextrous fire control. $41.81 for bayonet. $81.81 for cleaning gear. $97.39 for enhanced charging handle. TOTAL COST FOR M4 INFANTRY RIFLE IN 2012: $4,354.41 TOTAL COST FOR M1903A1 & SLING IN 1941: $49.55 What cost $49.55 in 1941 would cost $ today.

6 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A1. Adopted in Primary Service Rifle until Fully replaced by M1 Rifle in 1947. Replaced the Krag-Jorgensen, Lee 1895, and the M1885 Remington-Lee rifles. 1906: Projectile redesigned into “spitzer” bullet. Stock redesigned on M1903A1 ( ). Caliber: .30-’06 Springfield (“Thirty-aught-Six”). Rifle often called “Aught Three”. Based on the Mauser Gewehr 98 rifle. Clip-loaded, bolt action, 5-round internal magazine. Capable of firing rifle grenades. M1903A cost: $ cents for sling.

7 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A1. US Marine Corps Expert Rifle Badge—1920’s (with unauthorized USMC Emblem). US Marines at Belleau Wood, France 1918

8 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903A3. Caliber: .30-’06 Springfield (“Thirty-aught-Six”). Based on the original Springfield 1903 rifle. Clip-loaded, bolt action, 5-round internal magazine. Redesigned in ~1942 for greater ease of manufacture: Rear sight converted to aperture on rear of receiver. Rifle butt stock altered. Some metal parts stamped vs. milled.

9 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A3. US Marines on Guadalcanal 1942 ‘03 Rifle Grenades

10 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1903/A1/A3. US Marine Corps Color Guard Washington D.C. – present day.

11 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. Called “M1 Service Rifle” or “M1 Rifle” by USMC; not “Garand”. Capable of firing rifle grenades. Ordered by USMC in 1941—began fielding in 1942, standard by 1947. Semi-auto, gas operated, Enbloc clip-fed, 8 rd capacity. Caliber .30-’06 M2 selected as standard Ball ammunition. Some in the USMC advocated against adopting a semi-auto rifle, for fear of marksmanship degradation. NOTE: This rifle is depicted on the USMC Expert Rifle qualification badge and on the rank insignia of Lance Corporal through Master Sergeant.

12 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. M1 Firing Rifle Grenade Sergeant Dakota Meyer, USMC. The USMC Enlisted chevron has a representation of two crossed M1 Service Rifles.

13 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. US Marines at Iwo Jima 1945 US Marines in Korea 1950

14 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. US Marines in Beirut, Lebanon (the 1st time 1958)

15 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1. US Marine Corps Silent Drill Platoon present day

16 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1, M1A1. Issued to select Marines in lieu of sidearm. .30 Carbine cartridge. Developed into M2 (select fire) and M3 (night vision) versions. Fired only to 300 yards/meters for Annual Rifle Training.

17 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1, M1A1. US Marines at Okinawa 1945 US Marines in North Korea 1950

18 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 7.62mm, M14. Adopted by USMC in 1960. 7.62 x 51mm, semi-auto (or select when modified), gas operated, magazine-fed (20 rd). Highly modified M1 Service Rifle. Intended to replace multiple weapons in US Army and USMC inventory. NOTE: Springfield Armory, Massachusetts was closed in 1968.

19 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 7.62mm, M14. The M14 had the capability of fitting an M76 GL attachment, but the M79 GL was issued. US Marine in Vietnam 1965

20 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 7.62mm, M14. US Marine color guard— unknown unit, present day

21 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A1. Adopted in 1967 and sent straight to Vietnam. Result from Project Salvo. Semi-auto and automatic modes. Capable of mounting optic devices in Carrying Handle. Grenade fires by way of attached launcher (M203). USMC developed training program after rifle had been fielded to combat.

22 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A1. US Marines in Vietnam 1968 US Marines in Beirut, Lebanon (the 2nd time 1983)

23 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. Designed by US Marine Corps (WTBn Quantico (Rifle Team) and MCDEC) as the M16A1E1 from Adopted (FIRST) by the USMC in This is the only time in 110 years when the USMC preceded the US Army in a Service Rifle development and acquisition. Adopted by US Army in late-80’s (read ARI research note 86-19). Semi-auto and 3 round burst mode. Capable of mounting optic devices in Carrying Handle. Grenade fires by way of attached launcher (M203).

24 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. US Marines in Panama 1989 US Marines in Kuwait 1991

25 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. US Marines in Somalia 1993 US Marines in Liberia 1996

26 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A2. US Marines in Afghanistan 2001 US Marines in Iraq 2003

27 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4. Developed from US Army requirement for “Modular Weapon System” in 1994 to facilitate mounting of modular attachments. Continued use of semi-auto and burst modes.

28 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4. Decision to remove from the USMC Infantry battalions made in 2013. USMC full-fielding of Rifle Combat Optic (for every rifle and carbine achieved in 2013. Iron sights are attached as a “back-up” to the RCO.

29 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Rifle, 5.56mm, M16A4. US Marines in Iraq 2004 US Marines in Afghanistan 2012

30 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Carbine, 5.56mm, M4 First issued to select personnel in lieu of a sidearm in 1999. Large additional procurement in 2004 and 2007. Selected as standard USMC Infantry Service Rifle in 2013. Approximately 86,000 in 2013 USMC service.

31 US Marine Corps Service Rifle
United States Carbine, 5.56mm, M4 US Marines in Iraq 2004 US Marines in Afghanistan 2012

32 110 Years of the USMC Service Rifle
1903 1942 1960 1971 1984 1999 2013 M1903 M1 RIFLE M14 RIFLE M16A1 M16A2 M16A4 M4 M4 M16A4 US Army 1936 1957 1967 1988 1993 M1903 M1 RIFLE M14 RIFLE M16A1 M16A2 M4 M16A4 M4A1 1917 NOTE: The end dates of some Service Rifles are approximate due to relegation to Reserve and ceremonial service.

33 ______________________
US Marine Corps Courses of Fire

34 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification
Annual Rifle Entry Level Annual Rifle Entry Level Annual Rifle “A” Course Annual Rifle “C” Course ART & ELT “A” Course Entry Level Rifle ART & ELT “A” Course Annual Rifle S.L.R. Annual Rifle Table 1A+2 Iron Sight ?? Annual Rifle Table 1A+2 Optical Sight NOTE: The USMC has always endorsed a program for ELT and a time-condensed program for ART. Entry Level “A” Course Entry Level Table 1+2 Iron Sight ?? Entry Level Table 1+2 Optical Sight

35 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Three courses of fire: Army Marksmans’ Sharpshooters’ Expert Rifleman’s

36 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Marines would fire one of the several courses dependent on billet and time. Recruits and Annual shooters fired different courses. Common use of shooting jackets, slings, sight-blackening, etc. Marines who had demonstrated previous high qualifications fired an abbreviated training program. Use of .22 caliber training rifles was routine prior to scored fire.

37 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Army Marksmans’ Course

38 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Sharpshooters’ Course

39 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Expert Rifleman’s Course

40 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Expert Rifleman’s Course

41 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1912-1942
Navy Marksman’s Course

42 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1947-1955
‘A’ Course of Fire Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire NA “Able” 4 Standing Hasty Stage Two Slow Fire NA “Able” 4 Sitting Loop or Hasty Stage Three Slow Fire NA “Able” 4 Kneeling Loop or Hasty Stage Four Slow Fire NA “Baker” 8 Prone Loop Stage Five Rapid Fire 60 sec “Dog” 16 Standing to Sitting Loop or Hasty Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec “Dog” 16 Standing to Kneeling Loop or Hasty Stage Seven Rapid Fire 60 sec “Dog” 16 Standing to Prone Loop or Hasty Total Rounds 68 The qualification scores for each marksmanship category were: • Expert – 306 • Sharpshooter – 292 • Marksman – 268

43 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification (Note that Entry Level shooters fired this course until 1971) ‘A’ Course of Fire Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire “Able” 10 Standing Hasty or Parade Stage Two Slow Fire “Able” 5 Sitting Loop Stage Three Slow Fire “Able” 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Four Slow Fire “Baker” 10 Prone Loop Stage Five Rapid Fire 50 sec “Dog” 10 (2+8 for M1) Standing to Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 50 sec “Dog” 10 (2+8 for M1) Standing to Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 The qualification scores for each marksmanship category were: • Expert – 220 • Sharpshooter – 210 • Marksman – 190

44 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1968-1971
‘C’ Course of Fire for Annual Rifle Qualification Drill Time Distance(yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Timed Fire 120 sec Short/Midrange 10 Standing Hasty or Parade Stage Two Timed Fire 120 sec Short/Midrange 10 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Rapid Fire 40 sec Short/Midrange 10 Sitting Loop Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec Short/Midrange 20 Prone Loop Stage Five Rapid Fire 180 sec Long-range Prone Loop Total Rounds

45 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1971-1986 Entry Level and Annual Rifle Training
Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing Loop to Sitting Stage Five Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 Expert: 220 Sharpshooter: 210 Marksman: 190

46 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1986-1993 Entry Level and Annual Rifle Training
Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing to Sitting or Kneeling Loop Stage Five Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting or Kneeling Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 Expert: 220 Sharpshooter: 210 Marksman: 190

47 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1986-1993 Entry Level and Annual Rifle Training
Aspects of this particular course of fire: Shooters were not permitted to fill magazines for Slow Fire. An Empty magazine was inserted, then one cartridge [at a time] was inserted into the Upper Receiver, and the Bolt Release operated to chamber each round. Shooters raised their hands for a Coach’s assistance when encountering stoppages. A Speed Reload occurred during the Rapid Fire events, reloaded by the “strong hand”. Weapons Conditions had not yet been created. A Flag Safety was employed at all times when not actually firing. Weapons Safety Rules had not yet been created. Lessons-learned from the Gulf War caused major weapons handling revisions to USMC rifle training and qualification.

48 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007 (Entry Level Rifle Training)
Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing to Sitting Loop Stage Five Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 Expert: 220 Sharpshooter: 210 Marksman: 190

49 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007 (Sustainment Level Rifle)
Course of Fire (Sustainment Level Rifle Training) Expert: 40 Sharpshooter: 35 Marksman: 25

50 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007 (Sustainment Level Rifle)
Note: Here is an excerpt from a Marine’s May 2001 SLR Qualification Day:

51 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 1993-2007 (Sustainment Level (Annual) Rifle)
Note: Here is an excerpt from a Marine’s May 2001 Qualification Day: Note that the Marine achieved Rifle Expert on his fourth shot of the 300 Yd Slow Fire. This was a “hit or miss” course. No points were awarded for a shot that missed the bullseye.

52 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 2007-Present (All Rifle Training)
TABLE 1 (of 2) Drill Time (min) Distance (yards) Target Rounds Position Sling Stage One Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Two Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Kneeling Loop Stage Three Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Standing Parade Stage Four Rapid Fire 60 sec 200 “D‟ 10 Standing to Sitting Loop Stage Five Slow Fire “A‟ 5 Sitting Loop Stage Six Rapid Fire 60 sec 300 “D‟ 10 Standing to Prone Loop Stage Seven Slow Fire “B‟-MOD 10 Prone Loop Total Rounds 50 (possible score 250) NOTE: In 2008, the RCO was required for all Annual Rifle Training. In 2012, the RCO was also required for all Entry Level Training. In 2011, the Marine Corps decided to transition from the Loop Sling to a Hasty/combat sling.

53 US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification 2007-Present (All Rifle Training)
Table 2 (of 2) Dist. Drill Position Iterations Rds per Time (sec) Stage One – Presentation 25/50 Head Shot Standing /50 Controlled Pair Standing /50 Failure to Stop Standing Stage Two - Position Change 25/50 Controlled Pairs Standing & Kneeling /50 Failure to Stop Standing to Kneeling Stage Three - Multiple Targets w. Position Change 25/50 (2)Controlled Pairs Standing /50 (2)Controlled Pairs Standing & Kneeling /50 (2)Failure to Stop Standing to Kneeling Stage Four - Speed Reloads 25/50 (2)Controlled Pairs Standing & Kneeling Stage Five - Moving Targets 100/200 Movers Right Standing to Kneeling /200 Movers Left Standing to Kneeling Total Rounds: 50 (x2 runs) for a Possible score of 100. Expert: 305 Sharpshooter: 280 Marksman: 250

54 ______________________
US Marine Corps Rifle Qualification Targets

55 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “A” or “Able”
1960-Present

56 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “B” or “Baker”
Mainstream use until 1971 but since only used in competitions.

57 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “B-Modified” or “B-Mod”
1971-Present This target was created to provide a high aiming point for the front sight of the M16A1 due to its lack of rear sight adjustability.

58 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “C” or “Charlie”
A 20” V-ring was added in 1922.

59 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “D” or “Dog”
This target has been in use for 100 years.

60 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “D-Modified” or “D-Mod”
This target was only used for Annual Rifle Training (“SLR”).

61 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “E” or “Echo”
10.5” 29.5” This version used for Expert Rifleman’s Test in early 20th Century.. This version used for SLR program from 1903-Present This target has been in use for 110 years.

62 USMC Qualification Targets 1903-2013 Target “F” or “Fox”
Early 20th Century Note: Used for Expert Rifleman’s Test. 1903-Present Used for field firing. Note: This is a “Dog” bullseye.

63 USMC Qualification Targets 1913-2013 Current Rifle Targets
2007-Present (All) Note: This Able Target used from 1960. This Dog Target used from 1903. This B-Mod Target used from 1971.

64 USMC Qualification Targets 1913-2013 Current Rifle Targets
2007-Present (All) Note: Entry Level Marines use a version with easily identifiable scoring lines. ART shooters cannot distinguish scoring lines at firing distance.

65 USMC Qualification Targets 1913-2013 Current Rifle Targets- 1980’s to Present
“Ivan”, “Crazy Ivan”, “Bobber” targets are frequently used for field firing on automated Location Of Hits And Misses (LOMAH) devices. This target depicts a Soviet soldier with a Kalashnikov.

66 USMC Qualification Targets 1913-2013
Is the Known Distance method of training still relevant? Should the USMC continue to utilize competition-style “bullseye” targets? If so, should we reinstate the “Baker” target since the requirement for the “B-Mod” target is no longer valid? No. RCO hold required. Could our “bullseye” targets be modified or enhanced to integrate human physiological factors? Yes. Should we continue to utilize range flags? Should we continue to allow each shot to be “pulled, marked, and scored” or should a shooter fire a portion of or the entire course without constant feedback and then score? Should we continue the practice of firing “near to far” or should be conduct the course “far to near”? Should we have entirely removed use of the Loop Sling? Should we require the use of body armor and equipment for Table 1? Is our rifle training challenging [enough]? Is it time to raise the standard?

67 Questions __________


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