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Lianne Monterroso Scott Shelton Patricia Stratton Emily Wilborn UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION CHEN 320 – GROUP 7 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Lianne Monterroso Scott Shelton Patricia Stratton Emily Wilborn UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION CHEN 320 – GROUP 7 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lianne Monterroso Scott Shelton Patricia Stratton Emily Wilborn UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION CHEN 320 – GROUP 7 1

2 Introduction to Membrane Filtration Pressure-Driven Membrane Separation Membrane Materials, Structure, and Morphology Membrane Format and Module Design MATLAB Code Common Membrane Applications Conclusion ROADMAP a-roadmap-to-ensure-that-strategy-not-tactics- drives-your-social-media/roadmap/ 2

3 Accounts for 40% to 70% of capital and operating costs in the chemicals industry Broad range of applications Process Water Treatment Wastewater treatment and reuse Metal and catalyst recovery Solvent recovery Gas separation Concentration of heat sensitive biological macromolecules and proteins INTRODUCTION TO MEMBRANE FILTRATION find-the-flow/flowing-waterfall/ 3

4 Membrane filtration can be accomplished with either dead end filtration or crossflow filtration. Dead-end: Filter cake can form reducing filtration capacity. Crossflow: Maintains more steady permeate flux and low pressure. TWO MAIN TYPES OF FILTRATION Figure: Created by Group 7 4

5 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE SEPARATION Reverse Osmosis Nanofiltration Ultrafiltration Microfiltration 5

6 Employs tightest membranes for liquid separation. Only allows small water-soluble ions to go through membrane along with water. REVERSE OSMOSIS 6

7 Removes multivalent ions and small molecules in nanometer range like sulfate ions, and sugars. The most common type used for nanofiltration is the spiral membrane. NANOFILTRATION webdoc/webb8uefdg of-water/water-filtration/membrane- filtration/nano-filtration 7

8 Used to retain relatively large dissolved materials like proteins and starches. Ultrafiltration membranes are typically classified by their ability to retain component specific sizes. ULTRAFILTRATION c/reverse-osmosis 8

9 Suspended solids and large colloids are rejected, while dissolved solids and macromolecules pass through Operate at low pressures of 10 psi or less. MICROFILTRATION 9

10 Fabrication Desired Properties Classifications MEMBRANE MATERIALS STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY e-materials/ 10

11 Membranes are fabricated from variety of materials Made of Inorganic and organic materials Metals, polymers, and ceramics are used for different applications based on their properties FABRICATION OF MEMBRANES 11

12 Ceramic and Metals used for aggressive media Suitable for high temperature operations, acids, and strong solvent CERAMICS AND METALS china.com/showroom/ceramfil/product- detailNbcQIEdjLYhC/China-Ceramic-Membrane-Filter-CMF- Series-.html olator/stainless-steel-filter-cartridges- liquids html 12

13 Polymers are utilized most because of their price and versatility Polymer membranes are typically made up of a thin layer of polymer on a porous backing, creating a material with high permeability, selectivity, mechanical strength, and chemical stability POLYMERS 13

14 Desired properties of membranes include: High porosity Narrow pore size distribution Sharp MWCO High mechanical strength Flexible High pH Chemical stability Surface properties Low fouling Low cost DESIRED PROPERTIES https://www.millipore.com/membrane/flx4/filter_properties_hm 14

15 Membranes are classified according to structure, morphology, and application Two classifications of membranes Symmetric membranes Asymmetric membranes Composite membranes CLASSIFICATION 1.html 15

16 Very few commercially available membranes are symmetric throughout their thickness Some examples include: Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyethylene Polypropylene SYMMETRIC MEMBRANES pansion 16

17 Include most of the commercially available membranes Have either a thin microporous or dense permselective layer supported by a more-open porous substrate The membrane may by integrally skinned, formed in a single operation, or by separate steps An example of an asymmetric membrane is cellulose RO membrane, where both layers are made up of cellulose acetate. ASYMMETRIC MEMBRANES nanotechnology/nanofiltration-separations-part-1- nanotechnology/ 17

18 A composite membrane is a subset of asymmetric membranes The skin layer and support layer are made up of different polymers based on the individual properties The skin layer determines separation performance Support layer determines mechanical stability An example of a composite membrane is a polymide RO membrane which is made up of a thin polyamide permselective skin on a polysulfone UF support. COMPOSITE MEMBRANES 94/issue-48/in-this- issue/production/membranes-solve-north-sea- waterflood-sulfate-problems.html 18

19 Cassette Cartridge Spiral Wound MEMBRANE MODULE DESIGN Source: Om7fiMFT42A/Tq4RXJWvfNI/AAAAAAAAFfg/RAxOua20zR8 /s1600/2-12-idealfluidflow.008.png 19

20 Cassette membranes are used for UF and MF. The membrane filtrates the fluid, while the gaskets are used to separate the permeate, feed, and retentate streams. Spacers introduce turbulence, which increases mixing and prevents the formation of a gel layer. However, spacers are sometimes prone to particulate clogging, and can be difficult to clean. CASSETTE Source: "Understand the Basics of Membrane Filtration." Wang, Hua. Hongyi, Zhou. GE Global Research. 20

21 INDUSTRIAL/LARGE-SCALE CASSETTE MODULE Source: content/themes/microclear_v0.1/img/products_photo_1.jpg 21

22 Utilizes laminar flow for MF, UF, or NF. Composed of a large number of hollow-fiber membranes in a cylindrical housing with permeate ports and end caps. Has a very high packing density, therefore has a high surface area to volume ratio, making this particular filter ideal for product recovery. CARTRIDGE Source: "Understand the Basics of Membrane Filtration." Wang, Hua. Hongyi, Zhou. GE Global Research. Source: amazon.com/images/I/41za yl%2BuLzL._SY300_.jpg 22

23 Spiral Wound are used predominantly for RO. They are composed of a multi- layered assemble of flat sheet membranes, and spacer screens. These components are all rolled around a perforated tube, which seals the membrane and spacer layers on three sides. SPIRAL WOUND Source: "Understand the Basics of Membrane Filtration." Wang, Hua. Hongyi, Zhou. GE Global Research. 23

24 They are built to have a high packing density by utilizing thin spacer screens. Industrially, large-scale operations use these RO modules connected in parallel with one another. SPIRAL WOUND MODULE USED FOR RO Source: /Reverse_osmosis_membrane_coil.jpg 24

25 >> % Rc: cake resistance >> % r: specific cake resistance >> % Vs: volume of cake >> % Am: area of membrane >> >> %Plot of Rc vs. r (Vs = m^3, Am =.01 m^2) >> r = linspace(0,10);>> Vs = 0.001;>> Am =.01; >> Rc = r*Vs/Am; >> plot(r,Rc,'-') >> legend('Vs and Am constant') >> title('Plot of Rc vs. r') >> xlabel('r (m^-2)') >> ylabel('Rc (m^-1)') PLOT OF CAKE RESISTANCE VS. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE WITH THE AREA OF THE MEMBRANE AND CAKE VOLUME HELD CONSTANT Figure: Created by Group 7 Source for Filtration equation: 25

26 >> % Rc: cake resistance >> % r: specific cake resistance >> % Vs: volume of cake >> % Am: area of membrane >> >> %Plot of Rc vs. Vs (r = 5 m^-2, Am =.01 m^2) >> r = 5; >> Am =.01; >> Vs = linspace(1e- 6,1,400); >> Rc = r*Vs/Am; >> plot(Vs,Rc,'-') >> legend('r and Am constant') >> title('Plot of Rc vs. Vs') >> xlabel('Vs (m^-3)') >> ylabel('Rc (m^-1)') PLOT OF CAKE RESISTANCE VS. CAKE VOLUME WITH THE AREA OF THE MEMBRANE AND SPECIFIC RESISTANCE HELD CONSTANT Figure: Created by Group 7 Source for Filtration equation: 26

27 >> % Rc: cake resistance >> % r: specific cake resistance >> % Vs: volume of cake >> % Am: area of membrane >> >> %Plot of Rc vs. Am (r = 5 m^-2, Vs =.001 m^3) >> Am = linspace(.0001,1,400); >> r = 5;>> Vs =.001; >> Rc = r*Vs./Am; >> plot(Am,Rc) >> title('Plot of Rc vs Am') >> legend('r and Vs held constant') >> xlabel('Am (m^2)') >> ylabel('Rc (m^-1)') PLOT OF CAKE RESISTANCE VS. AREA OF THE MEMBRANE WITH THE SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND CAKE VOLUME HELD CONSTANT Figure: Created by Group 7 Source for Filtration equation: 27

28 Desalinization using RO Industrial water treatment Biopharmaceutic al manufacturing Clarification steps in cellulosic ethanol production COMMON MEMBRANE APPLICATIONS Picture: aerobic-systems-inc/membrane-bioreactors-mbr- wastewater-treatment html 28

29 Cost-effective Produce clean water from seawater in regions with limited access to fresh water Removes salts, organic substances, algae, bacteria, and suspended particles DESALINATION FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS Picture: "Understand the Basics of Membrane Filtration." Wang, Hua. Hongyi, Zhou. GE Global Research. 29

30 Boiler feed water Cooling tower water Process water in many industries INDUSTRIAL WATER TREATMENT High purity water needed for: Picture: 30

31 Conventional Treatment MEMBRANE FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY MINIMIZES LAND, CONSTRUCTION, AND OPERATING COSTS: Picture: "Understand the Basics of Membrane Filtration." Wang, Hua. Hongyi, Zhou. GE Global Research. Membrane Treatment 31

32 INDUSTRIAL MICROFILTRATION USES Picture: 32

33 For biological products: Recovery Purification Concentration BIOPHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING Picture: "Understand the Basics of Membrane Filtration." Wang, Hua. Hongyi, Zhou. GE Global Research. 33

34 Used for: Buffer exchange Final product concentration Virus filtration ULTRAFILTRATION Picture: Created by Group 7 34

35 CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION Source: mbrane_filtration_ethanol.asp Clarification of the pretreated liquor prior to hydrolysis Clarification of the hydrolyzate stream prior to fermentation Concentration fermentation pre- cursors 35

36 CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION: CLARIFICATION USES Picture: 36

37 Membrane filtration has lots of applications! Several types of driving forces for membrane filtration: Pressure Difference Concentration Difference Temperature Difference Used in many industrial processes: Desalination Wastewater and process water treatment Biopharmaceutical applications CONCLUSION Different types of membranes can be applied to various applications based on particle size: Reverse Osmosis (Smallest constituent) Nanofiltration Ultrafiltration Microfiltration (Largest constituent) 37

38 Add a chemical to the solution being filtered to make membrane more durable Combine multiple driving forces Introduce turbulent flow to prevent clotting SUGGESTED WORK FOR IMPROVEMENTS tabid/115/language/en-GB/Default.aspx 38


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