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Measuring techniques of building façades Rak-43.3312 Repair Methods of Structures II (4 cr) Esko Sistonen.

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring techniques of building façades Rak-43.3312 Repair Methods of Structures II (4 cr) Esko Sistonen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring techniques of building façades Rak Repair Methods of Structures II (4 cr) Esko Sistonen

2 Information is needed: the surface area of the façade to berepaired -the whole façade dimensions, the original drawings (inaccurate or missing) Information about the facade dimensional tolerances, especially important in the repair of the old facade in which it is covered with a cartridge or shell element solution Tachymeter+ GPS Laser Distance Meter DVP-photogrammetric method (stereo pairs of images)

3 The Use of ICT 3D Measuring Techniques for Visual Inspection of Building Facades KITARA- Rakentamisen laadun parantaminen 3D-mittaustekniikan avulla

4 – Background Building envelope Deterioration of building facades Visual inspection Similar laser-scanning research (different fields) – Research focus – Methodology – Some expected results

5 Objective to develop ICT-based tools to automatically retrieve dimensions of factory-made elements and their surface quality as well as deformations after installation and automatic comparison of these variables against 3D CAD models

6 The work consists of the following tasks: 1. To develop methods for analytic and visual inspection of deviations between planned and measured dimensions of component units. 2. To develop methods for verification of the skeletal structure of a building and surface quality of the facade. 3. To identify measuring devices and establish the tolerances for the new up-to-date component technology and to study the propagation of precision through the whole measurement process, considering both instrumental properties and measurement geometry. 4. To improve the measuring process at the construction site. 5. To study the potential of terrestrial laser scanner in construction monitoring. 6. To develope image based methods to extract geometric information from buildings and to create methods to produce image data suitable for CAD-overlaying.

7 Research focus The research will focus on the building envelope facades, windows and outer doors. Brick and concrete wall façades will be investigated. The research doesnt involve glass or steel facades (future work?).

8 Research procedure Selecting of building facades (concrete and bricks facades) Field work (Laser scanning and tacheometry as reference) Image processing (Scanning software) Model creation (AutoCAD) Database design (include modeling data + photos?) Develop condition surveying methods (feature extraction and inspection of the model)

9 Building envelope

10 Deterioration of building facades Spalling of concrete cover due to corrosion Frost damage Cracking of concrete panels Bending of concrete panels due to frost action

11 Deformations and bending of concrete elements Delamination of bricks and rendering coatings Windows and doors cracks and paints etc (?) Reconstitution (interpretation) of building facades and balconies (comparing to original drawings) Visual inspection of building facades

12 Literature review Road surface texture inspection using high resolution Transverse profile measurements C. MAYS et al 2006, Phoenix Scientific Inc.

13 Literature review Feature Extraction And Modeling Of Urban Building From Vehicle-Borne Laser Scanning Data B.J. Li, 2004 Hong Kong, China DoPP = Density of Projected points

14 Literature review Deformation Measurement using Terrestrial Laser Scanning at the Hydropower Station of Gabčíkovo Thomas SCHÄFER, 2004 Slovakia

15 Selecting building facades

16 Raiviosuonmäki 7, Vantaa. Kohteessa on kaksi rakennusta 5- ja 4-kerrosta

17 FARO LS 880 laser scanner. Scanning The tacheometer Leica TCA2003

18 Potential research idea Before earthquakeAfter earthquake Current methods for evaluating earthquake damage for load bearing structures are visual Laser scanning is a potential measurement method for forming a database of load bearing structures of important buildings, like airports, train stations, governmental buildings etc. Quick scanning of damage after earthquake secure the safety of buildings & people

19 Results Examples from the literature review

20 Results Examples from the literature review (quality control in the metal industry using laser scanning)

21 Detecting the Deterioration of Building Facades Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technique Field measurements (TLS & Tachymeter) Bowing of marble cladding building facades Crack in the building facade footing The surface structure of the marble panel

22 Bowing Potential Test

23 Bow-meter

24 Field measurements (LTS & Tachymeter)

25 Anna Erving

26 KITARA- Rakentamisen laadun parantaminen 3D-mittaustekniikan avulla Building Quality

27 KITARA- Rakentamisen laadun parantaminen 3D-mittaustekniikan avulla Building Quality

28 KITARA- Rakentamisen laadun parantaminen 3D-mittaustekniikan avulla Building Quality

29 KITARA- Rakentamisen laadun parantaminen 3D-mittaustekniikan avulla Building Quality

30 Antero Kukko

31 Crack in the building facade footing KITARA- Rakentamisen laadun parantaminen 3D-mittaustekniikan avulla Nina Heiska

32 The surface structure of the marble panel Antero Kukko

33 Conclusions Laser scanning is a new technology for acquiring building facade data in three dimensions with high accuracy and low processing time. The rapid collection of 3D information serves several purposes including historical documentation, building condition documentation, construction as-built development, and BIM development. The result will be: –Methods to automatically extract geometric information from laser scanner data –CAD-tools for analytical and visual monitoring of the building condition laser scanner instrumental and methodological errors!!

34 Conclusions 3D laser scanning has become an emergingly prominent vehicle for acquiring building spatial data in three dimensions with high fidelity and low processing time. The rapid collection of 3D information serves several purposes across GSA business lines, including historical documentation, facility condition documentation, construction as- built development, and BIM development.

35 The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for detecting the deterioration of building facades Concrete Solutions rd International Conference on Concrete Repair Venice/Padova, Italy 29 June-2 July 2009.

36 Outline of the presentation o Introduction Research project Laser scanning Building facades inspection o Field measurements o Results o Conclusions o Future work Page 36 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work

37 Research project o This paper is a part of the research project: Use of ICT 3D measuring techniques for high quality construction o Research group: Structural Engineering and Building Technology, TKK: Fahim Al-Neshawy; Susanna Peltola; Jukka Piironen and Prof. Jari Puttonen Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, TKK: Anna Erving; Nina Heiska; Pano Salo and Milka Nuikka Finnish Geodetic Institute: Antero Kukko Page 37 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work

38 How laser scanning works Page 38 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work o Laser scanners use either the Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement method or phase-based measurement to obtain target point distance. o Time-of-Flight measurement is based upon the principle of sending out a laser pulse and observing the time taken for the pulse to reflect from an object and return to the instrument. o Advanced high-speed electronics are used to measure the small time difference and compute the distance range to the target. o The distance range is combined with high resolution angular encoder measurements to provide the three-dimensional (X,Y,Z) location of a point. o Laser scanner is capable of measuring up to 50,000 distances per second.

39 Laser scanning data processing Page 39 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work Raw XYZ formatting and exporting the raw data into raw XYZ data from the scanning system Raw XYZ formatting and exporting the raw data into raw XYZ data from the scanning system Aligned XYZ determined by processing third-party software Aligned XYZ determined by processing third-party software Processed model is the basis for the interpretation and decision making Processed model is the basis for the interpretation and decision making Raw observations collected by the scanner Raw observations collected by the scanner

40 Laser scanning for building facades inspection Page 40 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work Examples: Deformations and bending of concrete elements Delamination of bricks and rendering coatings Reconstruction of building facades drawings (comparing to original drawings)

41 Field measurements Page 41 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work FARO LS 880HE80 terrestrial laser scanning system Leica TCA2003 tachymeter Measurement distance to the façade 4.5 m to the center of the facade About 5 m to the corners Sketch of the bow-meter and the location of the measuring points on the marble panel.

42 Bowing of marble panels Page 42 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work Terrestrial laser scanning data, colored by the magnitude of the deformation in meters from the planarity.

43 Bowing of marble panels Page 43 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work The bowing of marble panels was calculated according the following formula: where B is the bowing magnitude (mm/m) d is the measured value of bowing (mm L is the measuring distance between the supports of the marble panel in (mm). The bowing of the convex and concave marble panels was calculated by fitting a second order curve to the laser scanning point cloud data from the centre line of the panel both in the vertical and the horizontal direction.

44 Bowing of marble panels: examples Page 44 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work

45 Bowing of marble panels Page 45 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work MethodMarble panelType of bowing B (mm/m) Laser scanning Mar–R4–C2 (Hal)Convex6 Mar–R4–C2 (Val)Convex9 Mar–R4–C4 (Hal)Concave-6 Mar–R4–C4 (Val)Concave-9 Tachymeter Mar–R4–C2 (Hal)Convex8 Mar–R4–C2 (Val)Convex8 Mar–R4–C4 (Hal)Concave-9 Mar–R4–C4 (Val)Concave-10 Manual measurement (Bow-meter) Mar–R4–C2 (Hal)Convex5 Mar–R4–C2 (Val)Convex7 Mar–R4–C4 (Hal)Concave-6 Mar–R4–C4 (Val)Concave-7 Results of measurements carried out on the marble facade using terrestrial laser scanning system tachymeter and bow-meter

46 Surface delamination of bricks Page 46 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work Aligned XYZ GeoMagic studio software

47 Surface delamination of bricks Page 47 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work Example of the delamination of bricks and the deterioration of joints detected from the laser scanning data. The maximum delamination of the bricks (red colour) was about 10 mm from the outer surface. The depth of the weathered plaster of the joint is about 10 mm.

48 Reconstruction of building facades drawings Page 48 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work

49 Conclusions o Laser scanning is not a replacement for existing condition survey techniques, but an alternative, which provides location based information on the building defects and deterioration o Terrestrial laser scanning technique gives a reasonable method for measuring the bowing of marble and many other kinds of cladding panels o The extracting of the deterioration features of building facades like surface delamination of bricks and joint failures can be performed from the laser scanning data o Due to large amount of three dimensional data, efficient computing and analysis tools are needed to be developed and tested Page 49 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work

50 Future work: 4D concept Page 50 Introduction Field measurements Results Conclusions Future work Measurement technology (Real world) Laser scanning Photogrammetry Visual inspection Automatic evaluation of the condition of the structure Condition survey database Analysis Time (years)


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