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CH-4: Imperfections in Solids

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Presentation on theme: "CH-4: Imperfections in Solids"— Presentation transcript:

1 CH-4: Imperfections in Solids
Why STUDY Imperfections in Solids? Many of the important properties of materials are due to the presence of imperfections. Pure metals experience significant alterations when alloyed: Sterling silver: 92.5% Ag & 7.5% Cu. Cartridge brass: 70% Cu & 30% Zn. Impurities play important roles in semiconductors. Steel (composition ) and (making) Atomic defects are responsible for reducing gas pollutant emissions in automobiles: Catalytic Converters Molecules of pollutant gases become attached to surface defects of crystalline metallic materials ((Ce0.5Zr0.5)O2) in the catalytic converter. While attached to these sites, chemical reactions convert them into other non- or less-polluting substances.

2 Catalyst: (Ce0.5Zr0.5)O2 Catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without participating in the reaction itself. Catalyst adsorbs on its surface gas pollutants (CO and NOX) and molecules of unburned hydrocarbons, which are converted to CO2 and H2O. Schematic representation of surface defects that are potential adsorption sites for catalysts. High-resolution transmission electron micrograph of single crystal (Ce0.5Zr0.5)O2,which is used in catalytic converters.

3 Catalysts and Surface Defects
A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed Active sites on catalysts are normally surface defects Fig. 4.10, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. Single crystals of (Ce0.5Zr0.5)O2 used in an automotive catalytic converter Fig. 4.11, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

4 Types of Imperfections
• Vacancy atoms • Interstitial atoms • Substitutional atoms Point defects • Dislocations Line defects • Grain Boundaries Area defects

5 Point Defects in Metals
• Vacancies: -vacant atomic sites in a structure. Vacancy distortion of planes • Self-Interstitials: -"extra" atoms positioned between atomic sites. self- interstitial distortion of planes

6 Equilibrium Concentration: Point Defects
• Equilibrium concentration varies with temperature! No. of defects Activation energy N æ Q ö v v = exp ç No. of potential N è k T ø defect sites Temperature Boltzmann's constant -23 (1.38 x 10 J/atom-K) -5 (8.62 x 10 eV/atom-K) Each lattice site is a potential vacancy site

7 Measuring Activation Energy
æ ç N v = exp - Q k T è ö ø • We can get Qv from an experiment. • Measure this... N v T exponential dependence! defect concentration • Replot it... 1/ T N v ln - Q /k slope

8 Estimating Vacancy Concentration
• Find the equil. # of vacancies in 1 m3 of Cu at 1000C. • Given: r = 8.4 g / cm 3 A = 63.5 g/mol Cu Q = 0.9 eV/atom N = 6.02 x 1023 atoms/mol v A = 2.7 x 10-4 8.62 x 10-5 eV/atom-K 0.9 eV/atom 1273 K ç N v = exp - Q k T æ è ö ø For 1 m3 , N = N A Cu r x 1 m3 = 8.0 x 1028 sites • Answer: N v = (2.7 x 10-4)(8.0 x 1028) sites = 2.2 x 1025 vacancies

9 Impurities in Solids A pure metal consisting of only one type of atom just isn’t possible. Even with sophisticated techniques, it is difficult to refine metals to a purity in excess of %. Very few metals are used in the pure or nearly pure state: 1. Electronic wires % purity Cu; Very high electrical conductivity. % purity Al (super-pure Al) is used for decorative purposes-- Very bright metallic surface finish. Most engineering metals are combined with other metals or nonmetals to provide increased strength, higher corrosion resistance, etc. Cartridge brass: 70% Cu & 30% Zn. Sterling silver: 92.5% Ag & 7.5% Cu. Inconel 718, Ni-base super-alloy, used for jet engine parts, has 10 elements.

10 Solid Solutions Simplest type of alloy is that of solid solution.
Two types: 1. Substitution Solid Solution 2. Interstitial Solid Solution.

11 Conditions for Solid Solubility
Conditions for substitutional solid solution (S.S.) W. Hume – Rothery rule 1. r (atomic radius) < 15% 2. Proximity in periodic table i.e., similar electronegativities 3. Same crystal structure for pure metals 4. Valency All else being equal, a metal will have a greater tendency to dissolve a metal of higher valency than one of lower valency

12 Application of Hume–Rothery rules – Solid Solutions
Element Atomic Crystal Electro- Valence Radius Structure nega- (nm) tivity Cu FCC C H O Ag FCC Al FCC Co HCP Cr BCC Fe BCC Ni FCC Pd FCC Zn HCP 4.4: Which of these elements would you expect to form the following with copper: (a) A substitutional solid solution having complete solubility (b) A substitutional solid solution of incomplete solubility (c) An interstitial solid solution Table on p. 118, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

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