Presentation on theme: "TACTICS OF RULE Indian Voices from the 1857 Rebellion"— Presentation transcript:
1 TACTICS OF RULE Indian Voices from the 1857 Rebellion Section IIIPart 3
2 Coohill’s Article Indian Joseph Coohill The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a vastly important event in the history of the British Empire.Because history is written by the victors, few ______________ accounts of the rebellion are extant.To gain insight into the Indian consciousness during the rebellion, ____________________dives into the writings ofSita Ram,Vishnubhat Godse, andPandurang Mahipat BelsareIndianJoseph Coohill
3 JOSEPH COOHILL Sumit Guha Assistant Professor of History at Duquesne Universityco-editor of India, Britain and the Rebellion of 1857_______________worked as the other co-editor of this forthcoming workSumit Guha translated the extracts from Vishnubhat Godse and Pandurang Mahipat Belsare in this articleSumit Guha
4 The Indian Rebellion Mutiny Bengal northern The Indian Rebellion constitutes one of the most important events in the history of the British Empirealso called the Indian____________Indian soldiers in the East India Company’s ___________armyrevolted against their officerscaptured and killed civilians, almost overthrowing British rule in_____________India in the processMutinyBengalnorthern
5 Indian Voices condition tactics loyal oral PERSPECTIVES Indian ….few and far betweenPerspectives from Britons and Europeans aboundAs the adage goes, history is written by the victorsThe Indian accounts that do survive give great perspective on the rebellionreveal the _____________ of rebels’ armies as well as their fighting ________________Many Indians experienced great personal difficulties in remaining _____________ to the Britishreveal the importance of ____________ communication and rumor throughout the Indian RebellionSurviving accounts are incredibly personal, detailing narrators’ personal experiencesVery few comments regarding the wider rebellion and its legacy exist in these accountsSome native conceptions of British rule in India do seep throughA couple accounts state the involvement of the British government and Parliament in creating the conditions that led to rebellionconditiontacticsloyaloral
12 Causes of the rebellion One often-cited cause of the Indian Rebellion is the implementation of new ___________________Many sepoys believed that ______________________greased these new cartridgesSepoys needed to bite open these cartridgesThey would thus come into direct contact with pig and cow greaseMuslims and Hindus, respectively, found this action offensiveThe rifle cartridges merely served as a _________________ for grievances that lay just under the surfaceThe Indian infantrymen of the East India Company saw their ______and _________ decline in the years before the Indian RebellionBritish officers in the 1840s in the Company army did not grant the ______________and sympathy that previous generations had donerifle cartridgescow & pig fatcatalyststatuspayrespect
13 Lord ________ introduced the Doctrine of ________ to the East India Company DalhousieLAPSEGovernor General of India from 18____ to 18____The doctrine allowed the East India Company to extend its control if a native ruler died without a _____________heirThe company determined the legitimacy of heirsIndian tradition maintained that ______________ children maintained the same inheritance rights as birth childrenThe British East India Company did not recognize adopted heirsThe application of the Doctrine of Lapse in_______was the straw that broke the camel’s backThe seizure of the rich and historic Oudh constituted a cultural ________________legitimateadoptedOudhinsult
14 INDIAN DISCONTENTThe sepoys’ grievance reflected a greater discontent present throughout urban and rural _________This dissatisfaction prompted the rapid spread of the Indian Rebellion throughout IndiaBENGAL
15 Sita Ram 73 56 Oudh NOT Sita Ram served as a sepoy in the Bengal army Ram remained loyal to the British throughout 1857 and 1858In 18_____, the soldier wrote down his experiences through the Indian RebellionThis account provides the strongest opinion about the causes of mutinyRam stated that the 18____ annexation of ______caused widespread discontent with the BritishHe argues that the greased rifle cartridges were_______the primary causeRam did acknowledge the quickness with which the cartridge story spread7356OudhNOT
16 DemiTranslationThe British East India Company’s seizure of Oudh caused the sepoys to plot the Indian Rebellion. The unjust display of British imperial power over a traditional northern Indian kingdom unsettled many Indians, especially those with social and economic ties to the region. The rumor of greased rifle cartridges only reached sepoys after news of ______’s seizure had already enraged them.OUDH
17 DemiTranslation CHRISTIANS defilement The Sirkar coincidentally sent groups of men from each regiment into different garrisons for instructions on how to use the new rifle. These men performed this drill until a report surfaced that the new rifle cartridges used cow and pig fat for grease. The men in our regiment wrote letters containing these facts to the rest of us. Soon, every regiment had heard about the news. Men pointed out that the Sirkar had never insulted our religion in forty years. The sepoys, however, still had the seizure of Oudh on their minds. Some soldiers pointed out that the English strived to turn us all into _________________. These men asserted that the British instituted the greased cartridge in order to make this conversion happen. Both Muslims and Hindus experienced ______________ by using the new rifle cartridges.CHRISTIANSdefilement
18 Vishnubhat Godse 57 Brahman Mau Uttar Pradesh 84 Parliament Vishnubhat Godse travelled throughout northern India in 18_____This young ____________ priest observed many important events and held discussions with countless people including native soldiersGodse met two soldiers near ____ in late February or early March 1857Mau is located in modern-day __________________Godse’s 18____recounting of this event grants scholars insight into the early turnouts of a rebellionThe rifle cartridge rumors only inflamed tensions followed the seizure of OudhThese soldiers remained convinced that ____________________ itself sanctioned the greased cartridgesParliamentary debate did not actually exist on the greased rifle cartridges prior to the Indian RebellionThe belief of a British-conceived forced conversion perpetuated itself in the armyBrahmanMauUttar Pradesh84Parliament
19 DemiTranslationWe stopped to eat and rest for the night at a settlement just three marches from a camp at Mau. No travelers were present at the settlement, but two soldiers were. These men were returning home via ________ (Bombay). A few of us went to sit by the soldiers and chew betel. We talked about all kinds of topics, and the soldiers became quite friendly. The soldiers eventually told us that a revolution would occur in just three days. Killing and looting would inevitably result from the revolution. The soldiers warned us to return home, and we asked them to tell us exactly the news they had received.MUMBAI
20 DemiTranslation corrupted jambhla DamDam Brahman Cambhar rumor The older of the two soldiers began to explain the events to us. He said, ‘‘The British have previously governed well, but they have recently become ______________.’’ Four or five months ago they sent us wonderful English guns. These guns pleased soldiers, for they used bullets the size of ___________ fruit and the balls flew 200 more paces than the old muskets. New guns and ammunition were distributed through Hindusthan. New cartridges, however, had to be bitten open. An ammunition factory has been opened at _____________(or Dum Dum) just four kosa from Calcutta in Hindusthan. One day, a ________ was taking water from a pond when a _______________a street-sweeper) approached the priest, asking to borrow his water-jug to drink. The Brahman soldier did not allow the Cambhar to drink, as the Brahman stated the water would become polluted. The Cambhar then instructed the Brahman to not talk so highly about caste superiority. The Cambhar explained that he greased the new rifles cartridges with cow and pig fat himself. The Cambhar asked, ‘‘What remains of your supposed purity when you open these cartridges with your teeth? Who needs the sham of purity in this situation?’’ The Cambhar and Brahman then began fighting. Many people, including soldiers, gathered around and heard all of these events. _____________soon spread that the new cartridges went against traditional religion.corruptedjambhlaDamDamBrahmanCambharrumor
21 Pandurang Mahipat Belsare Pandurang Mahipat Belsare found himself in a difficult position in early 1857Pandurang’s family lived well prior to 18______The British government took over the estate on which his family had worked for generations in this yearBy 1857, the ___-year-old Pandurang realized that all business ventures he had attempted with his brothers had failedPandurang sought adventure outside of his native _______His father would not grant him permission to leavePandurang secretly left with a cousin from a nearby villagePandurang wrote a memoir in _________This record gives accounts of life in the Indian rebel army5421Pathardi1900
22 Pandurang Mahipat Belsare Pandurang and his cousin were immediately taken before _________Tope worked as a rebel leader under __________________Most scholars consider Tope as the genius who kept the Indian Rebellion growingPandurang and his cousin saw major action near __________in modern-day ____________In his memoir, Pandurang demonstrates the____________of battleRebels often had struggles in the __________________and effective use of their armyRebel armies often handily defeated troops of the East India CompanyTales of ___________ and disorganization often appear, however, in Pandurang’s memoirTatya TopeNana SahibKhajuriPakistanconfusionorganiationflight
23 More tales from the Indian Rebellion Sita Ram_____________echoes the sentiments of PandurangRam was captured by rebel forces and witnessed many of their battlesRebels had to endure strenuous conditions during long campaignsThis loss of ____________partially contributed to the victory of the British East India CompanyAfter only a brief stint in Tope’s army, Pandurang complained to a fellow soldierLiving inside native fortifications did not necessarily increase living conditionsVishnubhat Godse occupied the rebel fort of _________ during the British attack in April 18_____Godse’s story only refers to the Jhansi attackMany Indians experienced similar fears of the most likely vengeful British armymoraleJhansi58
24 ____________’s Is the Only Account of a Sepoy Who Remained Loyal to the British SITA RAMOnly the personal narrative of Sita Ram gives an account of a sepoy who remained loyal to the BritishRam reported the discontent in the Company’s forces to his commander in early 1857
25 Sita Ram’s Is the Only Account of a Sepoy Who Remained Loyal to the British Sita Ram felt like he was being watched after this incidentFellow sepoys believed that Ram was betraying them because he had discussed their emotions with British officersIndian rebels captured Ram during the uprisingThese sepoys tested Ram’s resolve in remaining loyal to British troopsThey ___________ to and _______________ him as he was kept in chainsRam believed these actions were either to force British intelligence from him or to convert him to the rebel side of the Indian RebellionThe most effective strategy was to show him the famous proclamation from the King of __________ from May ____This method almost converted Sita RamthreatenedpreachedDelhi11
26 Sita Ram’s Loyalty Ram remained loyal throughout his captivity British irregular _____________ eventually rescued Sita RamRam’s rescue may have increased his desire to ___________ traitorous sepoysThe writings of Sita Ram mention a _____________felt when fighting among the irregularscavalrypunishfraternity
27 A Test of LoyaltyRam experienced a severe test to that loyalty near the end of the rebellionHe found himself in charge of the _______________ of rebellious sepoys in early 1858One day, Ram realized that one of the prisoners was his _________The two had not seen each other for many yearsRam pleaded with his superiors to not have to kill his own sonRam was _____________of the duty of execution after his son was questionedNevertheless, his son was shot along with the rest of the prisonersexecutionsonrelieved
28 THE PASSAGEThe following passage ends the mutiny portion of Ram’s memoirThis passage symbolizes boththe personal _____________ of sepoys as the rebellion ended and alsothe way in which first-hand accounts of the rebellion have survivedMuch more Indian evidence would likely be present if the Indians had succeeded in the Indian RebellionDefeated sepoys feared ________________ from the BritishThese men were most likely hesitant to tell their side of the storyThe accounts presented in this article surviveThe rest have been scattered throughout historytragedyretribution
29 DemiTranslation funeral rites The kind Major allowed me to perform ___________________ over my misguided son. He was the only prisoner to receive such rites, as the rest were thrown to the jackals and the vultures.funeral rites
30 WORKBOOKNothing unites like a common enemy. Circle the choice that best completes the sentences here about the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
31 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) ______ ______ _____________ ______ 1. Most of the accounts of the Indian Rebellion or Mutiny of 1857 are told from British or (INDIAN, EUROPEAN) perspectives. Since history is written by the (WINNERS, LOSERS), very few accounts—except a few (DENIALS, PROCLAMATIONS) from the leaders themselves—tell the (BRITISH, INDIAN) perspective on the events of this important event in the history of the British empire._______________________________
32 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) __________ ______ ______ ______ 2. The few Indian narratives which survive tell about four things: (1) the condition of the rebels’ armies and (ENCAMPMENTS, MORALE), (2) the nature of (INDIAN, BRITISH) fighting techniques, (3) the extent and importance of (WRITTEN, ORAL) communication and rumor during the rebellion, and (4) the great (PERSONAL, COLLECTIVE) difficulties of remaining loyal to the British.____________________________
33 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) ______ ______ 3. The Indian accounts were highly personal with (MUCH, LITTLE) comment about the rebellion as a whole. They do, however, explain the native point of view of British rule in India and the part the (GOVERNMENT, MILITARY) played in provoking the rebellion.____________
34 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) ____ ______ ______ 4. The catalyst to the revolt was the introduction of rifle cartridges greased by cow and pig fat. Since the Indian soldiers, called sepoys, were to (BITE, TEAR) open the cartridges this was offensive to both the (HINDUS, MUSLIMS) who don’t believe in eating pig products and (HINDUS, MUSLIMS) who don’t eat beef.________________
35 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) ______ ______ ______ 5. Sepoys were also angry about other things too, including a (DECLINE, INCREASE) in salary, (BENEFITS, STATUS), and respect from their company (OFFICERS, PEERS).__________________
36 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 6. Another policy, one of taking over territories where a native ruler died (WITHOUT, WITH) a legitimate heir, called the Doctrine of (LAPSE, CONTROL) greatly angered the sepoys. Some, including Sita Ram, a (PRIEST, SEPOY) in the (BENGAL, BOMBAY) army, even argued that the application of the Doctrine of Lapse in Oudh was actually the (SECONDARY, MAIN) cause of the rebellion.______________________________
37 3.24 EITHER/OR (p. 95) ______ ______ ____ ______ 7. When the British claimed Oudh through the Doctrine of Lapse they greatly (ANGERED, EMPOWERED) the Indians because Oudh was a (POOR, RICH) (HISTORIC, NEWLY ADDED) part of India. The British seizure of such an area was seen as a clear (CULTURAL, RELIGIOUS) insult.______________________
38 3. 25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97) Rebel yell 3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp ) Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.Who was Vishnubhat Godse and how was he related to the rebellion of 1857?He was a young Brahman priest from a village north of Bombay who travelled extensively talking with native soldiers and others including two soldiers near Mau who told him of the coming rebellion.
39 3. 25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97) Rebel yell 3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp ) Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.2. What do the young soldiers say about the new guns and bullets sent to them by the English?The soldiers were pleased with the new equipment because it carried further—then the soldiers found out the cartridges were greased in cow and pig fat.
40 3. 25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97) Rebel yell 3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp ) Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.3. How did the soldiers find out about the fact that the cartridge packets were made with cow and pig fat?One day a street sweeper, a Cambhar, came upon a Brahman who was taking water from a pond. The Cambhar asked the man to lend him a water-jug so that he could drink. The Brahman wouldn’t, replying that the water would be polluted if he did. The Cambhar told him not to talk about being so much better since the cartridges the Brahman was tearing open with his own teeth were greased with cow and pig fat.
41 3. 25 SHORT ANSWER (pp. 95-97) Rebel yell 3.25 SHORT ANSWER (pp ) Rebel yell. Answer the questions in short answer form.4. How did the soldiers in Godse’s story believe the British Parliament responded to the cartridge controversy? Was this accurate?They believed that parliament planned the use of the cartridges. They believed that a saheb1 vowed before Parliament to force the sepoys to accept the cartridges. The truth was that no military debate about the cartridges came up before Parliament prior to May 1857.
42 3.26 CAUSE/EFFECT (p.97)An initial confrontation ensues and their commander accepts their demands and withdraws the cartridgesHe fails and is captured and executed on April 9th.
43 3.26 CAUSE/EFFECT (p.97)They are sentenced to 10 years hard labor, stripped of their uniforms, and humiliated.The siege of Delhi ends with the British capture of the city, and the military tide turns against the rebelsNana Sahib issues proclamation for all Indians to join the rebellion
44 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )1. This twenty-one year old Indian left his home in Pathardi seeking adventure in 1857.Who was Pandurang Mahipat Belsare?
45 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )2. This man was a great rebel leader under the command of Nana Sahib.Who was Tatya Tope?
46 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )3. Pandurang and his cousin were employed as a part of the rebel army after they were proven to not be working as this.What are spies?
47 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )4. In Pandurang’s account of a battle near Khajuri, he describes the struggles that the Indian army had with this aspect of battle.What is organization?
48 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )5. Pandurang’s stories about the rebel armies often involve these two themes.What are disorganization and flight?
49 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )6. This man also wrote of the weak fighting of the sepoys who had the English greatly outnumbered at Delhi and yet lost.Who was Sita Ram?
50 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )7. Vishnubhat Godse also wrote of the conditions within the rebel armies, particularly the attack here.Where is Jhansi?
51 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )8. Of all the personal narratives that survive, only Sita Ram’s gives us an account of this phenomenon.What is an Indian soldiers who remained loyal to the British?
52 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )9. Sita Ram almost turned against the British when he was shown this.What is the proclamation of May 11th from the King of Delhi?
53 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )10. Sita Ram remained loyal to the British and was given this task by the British in the early 1858.What is the execution of rebellious sepoys?
54 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )11. In the most troubling account of the rebellion, Sita Ram wrote of being asked to execute this man.Who was his son?
55 3.27 JEOPARDY (pp )12. According to Ram’s accounts, this was the fate of the bodies of the rebel soldiers.What is that they were left out in the open, thrown to the jackals and vultures—except for Ram’s son who was allowed to receive proper funeral rites?
56 3.28 QUOTING (pp )Sita RamThe seizure of Oudh using the British policy of Doctrine of LapseThe account he received from two soldiers he met near Mau.VishnubhatGodse
57 3.28 QUOTING (pp )Sita RamThe speed with which objections to the new cartridges spread amongst the sepoys.The Indian belief that the British Parliamenthad sanctioned the useof the cartridges.VishnubhatGodse
58 3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100) Pandurang Mahipat Belsare The encounter Pandurang and his cousinhad with rebel leader Tatya Tope who atfirst believed the men to be spies.The conditions of the rebel army—their confusion, disorganization,and inefficiency.PandurangMahipatBelsareSita RamThe poor organization and fighting inefficiency of the Indian rebelarmy, who lost even battles where they seemingly had the advantage
59 3.28 QUOTING (pp. 95-100) Pandurang MahipatBelsareThe decision he made to join Tope’s rebel army where there was suffering (not enough food, clothing, adequate shelter, etc.)VishnubhatGodseThe British siege of Jhansi in April 1858 where a brutal massacretook place
60 3.28 QUOTING (pp )Sita RamRam’s decision to stay loyal to the British governmentRam’s burial of his son’s body after his son was executed for rebelling against the British government.Sita Ram