Presentation on theme: "If too little outdoor air enters a building without dilution, pollutants can accumulate to levels that can pose health and discomfort problems. POOR VENTILATION."— Presentation transcript:
If too little outdoor air enters a building without dilution, pollutants can accumulate to levels that can pose health and discomfort problems. POOR VENTILATION Building materials and furnishings; biological products for household cleaning, personal care, or hobbies; central heating and cooling systems; pesticides; oil, gas, kerosene, wood combustion sources and people (CO2). POLLUTANT SOURCES Whats all the fuss about indoor air pollution? I always thought outdoor air pollution was the main problem? green building resource center What Causes Indoor Air Quality Problems? MERV Rating MERV RATING 1-4 NOT GOOD FOR filtering the air because they will not stop particles smaller than 10 microns. MERV RATING 5-8 better choice are commonly found in commercial buildings. Collects particles as small as 3 microns. MERV RATING 9-12 Stops particles in the 1 to 3 micron range. Clean or replace them when recommended because they will have a negative affect on the air flow. MERV RATING 13-20 Will stop particles as small as.3 microns. These filters are used in hospitals and other super clean environments. MERV Rating 5-8 1-4 13-16 9-12 103 1-3.3 Used to rate the ability of an air conditioning filter to remove dust from the air as it passes. WHAT DOES MERV STAND FOR? Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value MERV RATING CHART All Combustion smoke Carbon Dust Virus (unattached) <0.3 pm particle size Welding Fumes Auto Emissions Milled Flour Lead Dust Humidifier Dust Legionella 1.0-3.0pm Particle Size Pudding Mix Cement Dust Dusting Aids Fabric Protector Hair Spray Mold Spores 3.0-10.0 pm Particle Size Carpet Fibers Textile Fibers Spray Paint Dust Sanding Dust Dust Mites, Pollen >10.0 pm Particle Size 16-20 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 General Surgery Hospital Inpatient Care Smoking Lunges Superior Commercial Buildings Superior Residential Better Commercial Buildings Hospital Laboratories Commercial Buildings Better Residential Industrial Workplace Paint Booth Inlet Minimal Filtration Residential Window A/C Units Bag Filter- Nonsupported microfine fiberglass or synthetic media, 12-36 in. Deep,6-12 pockets. Box Filters-Rigid -Syle Cartridge 6 to 12 deep may use lofted or paper media Bag Filter- Nonsupported microfine fiberglass or synthetic media, 12-36 in. Deep,6-12 pockets. Box Filters-Rigid Syle Cartridge 6 to 12 deep may use lofted or paper media Pleated Filters- Disposable, extended surface area, thick with cotton-polyester blend media, cardboard frame Cartridge Filter-Graded density viscous coated cube or pocket filters, synthetic media. Throwaway- Disposable fiberglass or synthetic panel filter. Throwaway- Disposable fiberglass or synthetic panel filter. Washable- Aluminum Mesh Electrostatic- Self charging woven panel filter. Washable- Aluminum Mesh VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) Are a large group of carbon based chemicals that easily evaporate Most people can smell high levels of some VOCs Some VOCs have no odor MERV Rating 9-12 stops particles in the 1-3 micron range. MERV FILTER 1-4 will not stop particle smaller than 10 microns. MERV10 Micron 1 Micron0.3 Micron 13 99% 89% 49% MERV10 Micron 1 Micron0.3 Micron 10 99% 30% 19% MERV 10 Micron 1 Micron0.3 Micron 6 85-90% 0 0 MERV 10 Micron 1 Micron0.3 Micron 8 98% 12% 2% HOSPITAL INPATIENT MERV 15 OR BETTER RECOMMENDED BY LEED COMMERCIAL BUILDING MERV 13 OR BETTER COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL, SUPERIOR HOMES NOT RECOMMENDED MERV 10 Micron 1 Micron0.3 Micron 15-20 99% 98% 78% Interesting Facts Indoor air pollution is estimated to cause approximately 2 million premature deaths per year mostly in developing countries. Almost half of these deaths are due to respiratory conditions in children under 5 years of age. Urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. Many construction materials offgas for five or more years following manufacture. In homes where biomass fuels and coal are used for cooking and heating, particulate levels may be 10–50 times higher than the standard guideline values. Air pollution is the single greatest environmental threat to human health! Word Health Organization MERV Rating Microns USGBC LEED Rating System INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ) A green building should provide its occupants with superior indoor air quality to support their health, comfort and well-being. Increased Ventilation 1 POINT Intent: Provide additional outdoor air ventilation to improve indoor air quality for improved occupant comfort, will-being and productivity. For more information: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers www.ashrae (800) 527-4723 Construction IAQ Management Plan During Construction 1 POINT Intent: Reduce indoor air quality problems resulting from the construction and/or renovation process in order to help sustain the comfort and well- being of construction workers and buildings occupants For more information: Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA) www.smacna.org (703) 803-2980 Interesting Facts There are 25,400 microns in one inch. A "micron" is an abbreviated term for "micrometer A unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter Symbol: μ, m u Construction IAQ Management Plan Before Occupancy 1 Point Requirements: Develop and implement an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Plan for the preoccupancy phase. Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control 1 Point Requirements: Design to minimize and control pollutant entry into buildings and later cross-contamination of regularly occupied areas. Indoor & Outdoor Air Quality Poster Design By Dianne Polo
green building resource center Indoor & Outdoor Air Quality MERV Rating Indoor Air Pollutants Sources Where Do VOCs Come from? Many products we have in our homes release or off-gas VOCs. Some examples of sources of VOCs are : How Our Time Is Spent Automobile Exhaust Wood Smoke Emissions From Incinerators Power Plants Cigarette Smoke Plywood CosmeticsMolding PlasticFoam MattressParticle Board Cell Phone InsulationFumigant Dinnerware Disinfectants Formaldehyde is found in FORMALDEHYDE Its A Colorless Gas Pungent odor Its A VOC Its A Normal Metabolic Product Of Living Cells Probable Carcinogen Lung & eye irritant Formaldehyde 800 ppb The typical threshold for developing acute symptoms. Formaldehyde 100 ppb Some individuals demonstrate health effects. Formaldehyde 100 ppb Some individuals demonstrate health effects. Formaldehyde 50 ppb Most people can detect levels of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde 50 ppb Most people can detect levels of formaldehyde. LEVELS OF FORMALDEHYDE IN A BAD AIR DAY World Health Organization (Minnesota Dept Health) Indoor Air QualityOutdoor Air Quality median formaldehyde level 12.6 ppb.012 ppm maximum formaldehyde 120 ppb 0.120 ppm maximum formaldehydebase formaldehyde level 2.9 ppb.0029 ppm Other indoor VOC sources that are known for their hazard to health benzene carbon monoxide formaldehyde naphthalene nitrogen dioxide polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene) trichloroethylene Tetrachloroethylene Radon is not a VOC but its extremely dangerous WHO Guidelines For Indoor Air Quality World Health Organization For each VOC substance, the WHO Guidelines chapter covers a general description, the sources and pathways of exposure, the indoor– outdoor relationship, kinetics and metabolism, the health effects, a health risk evaluation, the guidelines, a summary box and references. http://www.who.int/en/ Interesting Facts LEED CERTIFIED WOOD 1 POINT Intent: Encourage environmentally responsible forest management. Forest Stewardship Councils Principles and Criteria www.fscus.org (877) 372-5646 LOW-EMITTING MATERIAL 1 POINT Requirements: All adhesives and sealants used on the interior of the building shall comply with the requirements of the reference standards: Adhesives, Sealants and Sealant Primers: South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) www.aqmd.gov/rules/reg/reg11/r116 8.pdf (909) 396-2000 The South Coast Air Quality Management District is a governmental organization in Southern California with the mission to maintain healthful air quality for its residents. Green Guard Standard Green Guard is an independent nonprofit organization that certifies products, materials,,and chemicals emissions. GGTM.P066 Standard that sets VOC limits for Formaldehyde= 0.05 ppm www.greenguard.com WHO (World Health Organization) Air quality guidelines (AQGs) are designed to offer global guidance on reducing the health impacts of air pollution. How We Measure Contaminant Concentrations? (What does parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) mean?) Poster Design By Dianne Polo Exhaust fumes from vehicles Emissions from manufacturing facilities (i.e. factories) Power generation (i.e. smoke stacks of coal fired power plants) Residential use of coal and wood for cooking and heating. This pollution takes the form of Particulates and VOCs (gases). Filters with high MERV ratings will capture many of the particulates (generally more dangerous), but not the gases. Ground level ozone (03) is unstable and ultimately breaks down to O2 oxygen in a short time, especially if it gets inside. 11.5 ppb.011 ppm FYI- FEMA Trailer Case Avg formaldehyde level 77ppb=.077ppm High formaldehyde level 590 ppb=.59 ppm Greenguard Limits Surface Materials 25 ppb=.025 ppm Building Materials 50 ppb=.05 ppm
green building resource center Indoor & Outdoor Air Quality MERV Rating The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common U.S. air pollutants: 1. Particle pollution (often referred to as particulate matter) 2. Ground-level Ozone 3. Carbon monoxide 4. Sulfur oxides 5. Nitrogen oxides 6. Lead These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage. Of the six pollutants, particle pollution and ground-level ozone are the most widespread health threats. Deaths from urban air pollution Todays AQI Forecast Saturday, August 27, 2011 The Air Quality Index (AQI) is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. While levels of many pollutants have been decreasing in recent years. For every 75 deaths per year due to air pollution in the U.S. health scientists have estimated that there are 505 hospital admissions for asthma and other respiratory diseases 3,500 respiratory emergency doctor visits 180,000 asthma attacks 930,000 restricted activity 2,000,000 acute respiratory symptom USGBC LEED Rating System Leadership in Energy And Environmental Design Redefining the way we think about the places. where we live, work and learn. LEED works throughout a building's life cycle. LEED certification provides independent, third-party verification that a building, home or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at achieving high performance in key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. LEED-certified buildings are designed to: Lower operating costs and increase asset value Reduce waste sent to landfills Conserve energy and water Be healthier and safer for occupants Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities Average Savings Of Green BuildingsFour Certification Levels Points 40-40 50-59 60-79 80+ Low-Emitting Materials Painting and Coating 1 Point Requirements: Paints, coating, and primers applied to interior wall and ceilings; Anti- corrosive and anti-rust paints applied to interior ferrous metal substrates Do not exceed the VOC content limits established in Green Seal Standard. Low-Emitting Materials Carpet Systems 1 Point Requirements: All carpet and cushion installed shall meet the testing and product requirements of The Carpet and Rug Institutes green Label Plus Program. Carpet and Rug Institute Green Label Plus Testing Program All carpet adhesive shall meet the requirements for EQ Credit 4.1: VOC limits. Carpet and Rug Institute www.carpet-rug.com (800) 882-8846 Low-Emitting Materials Composite Wood & Agrifiber Products 1 Point Requirements: Specify wood and agrifiber products that contain no added urea- formaldehyde resin. Specify laminating adhesives for field and shop applied assemblies that contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins. An update on Formaldehyde Consumer Product Safety Commission www.cpsc.gov Interesting Facts FOR THE FAMILY VOC Concentrations in the air Analysis of chemical concentration in residences, daycare centers and school buildings indicate that VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) are the most prevalent pollutants, with significantly higher levels in indoor air than in the outdoor atmosphere. Poster Design By Dianne Polo What causes air pollution deaths? Stratosphere Good Ozone Troposphere Bad Ozone Sunlight http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/gooduphigh/ozone.pdf What is Happening to the Good Ozone Layer? Ozone is produced naturally in the stratosphere and reflects UV rays. But this good ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances. These substances are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants and when broken down by the intensity of the suns UV rays release chlorine and bromine molecules, which destroy the good ozone. What Causes Bad Ozone? Ground-level or bad ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC. At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant. How Does the Depletion of Good Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment? skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. Overexposure to UV is believed to be contributing to the increase in melanoma, the most fatal of all skin cancers. Since 1990, the risk of developing melanoma has more than doubled. UV can also damage sensitive crops, such as soybeans, and reduce crop yields. If the United States and other countries stop producing ozone-depleting substances, natural ozone production should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050 What is Ozone? Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the level. Ozone can be good and bad for your health and the environment, depending on its location in the atmosphere. Earths upper atmosphere and at ground How Does Bad Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment? Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems including chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion. It can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Bad ozone also can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs. Ground-level or bad ozone also damages vegetation and ecosystems. It leads to reduced agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased susceptibility to diseases, pests and other stresses such as harsh weather. Air pollution from smoke and various chemicals kills 3 million people a year. In the United States alone about 3 million tons of toxic chemicals are released into the environment -- contributing to cancer, birth defects, immune system defects and many other serious health problems.