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The British In India.

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1 The British In India

2 According to this map, why did the sun never set on the British Empire?
Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people?

3 The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters
In this image, England is shown as a huge devilfish, or some sort of octopus. Why did the artist chose to portray England in this way. What is the top hat for? Britain’s victory over France at the Battle of Trafalgar gave it a lead over other nations with regard to naval power. How does this cartoon show that control of the oceans is important? A lot of the colonies in this cartoon were taken by England in order to maintain their power in the seas: Malta, Gibraltar, Cyprus, for example. See how it is reaching out for Egypt in this cartoon. The reason they wanted Egypt was in order to secure the naval route to India.

4 Kicking India around Kicking India around

5 End of Mughal Empire

6 The Mughal Empire -Decline of the Mughals began with religious conflict between Muslims and Hindus and resulted in infighting and a divided empire

7 End of Mughal Rule 1600s, the British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. At first, India’s ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control. By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing. Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, broke away from Mughal control.

8 Mughal Opposition Battle of Plassey, 1757, 3,000 British troops defeat Mughal army of 30,000. Mughal attempt to expel the British As a result, British East India Company obtains right to tax the local population of Calcutta (where the factories were). Battle of Buxar, 1767, British seize the emperor and install a puppet.

9 Spice Trade Draws Europe

10 The Spice Trade Pepper, cinnamon, rice, tea, cotton, indigo etc. all were in great demand in Europe Very expensive due to taxes and tariffs by Italians and Turks

11 15th and 16th centuries Vasco da Gama sailed round Cape of Good Hope and finds new trade route to India Portuguese have a monopoly on trade between India and Europe, also work to spread Christianity British and French overpower Portuguese and set up trading posts

12 Setting the Stage Imperialism Expanding Power
Arrival of British in India, example of European imperialism, the process of one people ruling, controlling another By 1700, Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal ruled vast territories in the Americas Europeans had less success ruling territory in Asia, Africa Imperialism Europeans had built trading posts along Asian, African coats, but held little territory farther inland By late 1700s, European states began expanding power in Asia, Africa Two factors that made possible: new technologies, weakening of great empires of Asia, Africa Expanding Power

13 British Expansion Trading posts become centers of power – not established by govt., but by trading companies British East India Company – monopoly over trade in India, China and East Indies Had power to sign treaties, maintain armies and govern itself Set up posts in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, attracted Indians to work for company

14 Conflict Between French and British Over India

15 Clash with the French French East India Company set up in 1664 at Pandichery Sepoys – Indians serving in the army of European country Indian kingdoms are competing for political power, French and British sought to strengthen their positions Also were at war in North America (French and Indian War)

16 Defeat of the French Robert Clive led small British and sepoy force to defeat French Battle of Plassey – 3,200 Brits defeat 50,000 French and Indian allies Resulted in British control of richest province in India; Bengal Clive is named governor of Bengal

17 Reasons for British Success in India
British brought all of India under their control: Collapse of ruling Mogul empire left India divided and disorganized “Divide and conquer” policy – played on weaknesses of local rulers Superior military and naval power; gave their sepoys modern weapons Able administrators and governors reformed and improved local govt.

18 Great Britain in India 1600’s Great Britain set up trading posts through out India

19 Why do you think the British are represented as a lion?
Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people?

20 The British East India Company:

21 British East India Company
First Imperialism in India was NOT done by British government!

22 Imperialism in India started with a trading company
The British East India Company: The company was started to control trade between Britain, India, and East Asia. VERY POWERFUL!

23 British East India Company
● controlled British trade in India eventually the company gained political control over Bangladesh, Southern India, and Northern India (along Ganges River)

24 British East India Company Agents

25 British East India Co. Company that controlled trade areas in India – granted power by the Queen of England in 1600. India was ruled by many independent states (Princes) as the Mogul Empire was being weakened by internal conflicts. Opened the door for British to begin taking control.

26 British East India Company
A British company that basically ran India Gained control after a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 Controlled an area that included modern Bangladesh, most of southern India, and nearly all the territory along the Ganges River in the north.

27 British East India Company
. British East India Company Manipulated rulers of states, suggested each needed British support to keep throne Played rulers against each other, kept India in chaos Company’s army took over much of India, claiming it had to restore order Kept India in Chaos

28 British East India Company
Cotton cloth woven by Indian weavers imported into Britain in huge quantities to supply a worldwide demand for cheap, washable, lightweight fabrics for dresses and furnishings.

29 Coins of the British East India Co.
1719 coin coin

30 East India Company Rule
Taxes Move their operation into the interior of the continent. Built large estates in east, money now in the hands of British and sent to Britain. Local Indian industries put out of business. Famine and bankrupt country—more taxes. Inept rule over next 100 years.

31 East India Company and Culture
Cultural imperialism not a major concern of the company Goal was to make money Some interest in Indian culture Friendships and intermarriages Officers required to learn Persian and Sanskrit Christian missionary activity discouraged Paternalism British educational system slowly introduced

32 British East India Company
1800’s: company operated in India with no regulation by British government company had its own army Company army led by British army officers

33 I How did the British East India Company change India?
1. New Education system Teach English

34 How did the British East India Company change India?
2. New Laws: banned some customs like “Sati”- widows killing themselves by jumping into their husband’s funeral fire.

35 1815 print depicting sati ritual with Western rulers critiquing

36 How did the British East India Company change India?
3. Religion: Christian Missionaries came to spread their beliefs in India.

37 Changes in India Making Changes Banning Customs Destroying Society
East India Company made changes to Indian society Introduced new education system, English language Banning Customs Introduced British laws banning certain customs, like sati Practice of Hindu widows throwing selves on husbands’ funeral fires Destroying Society British also invited Christian missionaries to spread beliefs Some began to believe British trying to destroy their society Straining Relations Thought British wanted to eliminate Indian customs, Hinduism completely Relations between Indians, British increasingly strained

38 British Policies Indirect control Economic:
India produces raw materials India buys British goods Competition with Britain prohibited Economic system benefits Britain

39 How did the British rule India?
Began to take over taxation of people Used the same system as the Mughal empire Promised “protection” In 1850: 300,000 men in army. Only 50,000 were British 100,000 British men ruling over 200 million Indians

40 What can you tell about this picture?
But the Empress did take control. And, the painter of the last comic aside, most thought it was a good idea. You can see that this picture was from 1858, right after the rebellion when the Crown took over India. What can you tell about this picture? What does the Indian woman think of the Queen? What does the Queen think of her.? It looks like she will protect India—help it. And it looks like the Indian woman is grateful. What does the Indian have to be grateful for? Honoring the empress But the Empress did take control. And, the painter of the last comic aside, most thought it was a good idea. You can see that this picture was from 1858, right after the rebellion when the Crown took over India. What can you tell about this picture? What does the Indian woman think of the Queen? What does the Queen think of her. It looks like she will protect India—help it. And it looks like the Indian woman is grateful. What does the Indian have to be grateful for?

41 Tea Tea Major Cash Crop for British
Tea becomes one of Britain’s major exports around the world.

42 Opium Opium became a major source of income for the British.
These opium balls are awaiting shipment to China. Opium is made from poppies grown in India

43 British Opium Warehouse in Patna, India
Selling Patna Opium in China

44 The British military presence in India directly supported British trade.

45 Indian soldiers recruited to fight for the British army, 1902.
In the long run, the British were active rulers in India. They kept public order and ended many local wars. The British military also trained local Indians to become soldiers. Indian soldiers recruited to fight for the British army, 1902. Multimedia Learning, LLC COPYRIGHT 2006 WRITTEN BY HERSCHEL SARNOFF & DANA BAGDASARIAN

46 Jewel in the Crown Reference

47 Britain’s Jewel in the Crown”
India is Britain’s most valuable colony, or “jewel in the crown.” Forced to produce raw materials for British manufacturing Also forced to buy British goods

48 “Jewel in the Crown” Great Britain considered India its most precious jewel (colony) in its Imperial crown

49 “Jewel in the Crown” Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain 300 million Indians were a large market for British products

50 “Jewel in the Crown” British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden

51 “Jewel in the Crown” Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports

52 British Transport Trade Goods
Railroads move cash crops and goods faster Trade in specific crops is tied to international events

53 Raw Materials Taken from India
Tea Indigo (dye for clothing)

54 Raw Materials Taken from India
Coffee Cotton

55 Raw Materials Taken from India
Jute (fiber for making rope) Opium (plant that heroin is made from)

56 Raw Materials Taken from India
Britain relied more on raw materials from India as wars around the world cut off British supplies from other places example: American Civil War ( ) made Indian cotton more important to Great Britain because cotton supply from America was cut off

57 Indian Rebellion/Resistance to British Rule

58 The Visual Aid Based on this picture, how were the Indians treated under British Rule? Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people?

59 Indians Rebel Indians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to Christianity By 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country ■ Indians were angry at the constant racism expressed towards them by the British Indians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country

60 Sepoys and Sepoy Mutiny

61 Sepoys Indians who joined British armies in India
Resented by other Indians

62 Picture of Sepoy rebellion
A year-long rebellion against the British ensued. Although the Indian Mutiny was unsuccessful, it prompted the British government to seize total control of all British interests in India in 1858, finally establishing a seamless imperialism. Claiming to be only interested in trade, the Raj steadily expanded its influence until the princes ruled in name only.

63 Sepoy Mutiny: Underlying and Immediate Causes
Underlying Causes Religious Frictions: Some British officers actively attempted to convert the sepoys to Christianity although the British East India Company discouraged it. The sepoys resented imposing Christianity and Christian laws in India. Doctrine of the Lapse: The Company automatically seized land from a feudal leader who died without leaving an heir. Unfair justice system toward Indians. British officers accused of crimes against Indians were granted multiple appeals and advantages when being tried. High Caste Sepoys: The Bengal Army of sepoys were recruited from a higher caste of Indians. Therefore, if the high caste sepoys were considered to be "polluted", they would have to expend considerable sums of money on ritual purification before being accepted back into society. Immediate Cause The Enfield Rifle: It required the solder to bite the cartridge and hold the ball in his mouth when loading the rifle. The belief that the cartridge was lubricated with animal fat (either pork or beef) offended both Muslims and Hindus.

64 Sepoy Rebellion:Nationalism
1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy Rebellion Sepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British army Introduction of new type British rifle set off rebellion To load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu Sepoys Muslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beef

65 The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket
The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket. Notice this is a flintlock musket. 1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket. Notice this gun uses a percussion cap rather than a flint lock.

66 Sepoy Mutiny 1857 gossip spread amongst Sepoys (Indian soldiers for the British) the seals of their ammunition had to be bitten off they believed the British dipped the seals of their ammunition in beef and pork (Hindus can not eat beef/ Muslims can not eat pork)

67 Sepoy Mutiny British commander was outraged when 85 Sepoys refused to accept the ammunition The Sepoys were jailed for disobeying orders May 10, 1857 Sepoys rebelled; marched on Delhi (Indian capital) rebellion spread into northern and central India

68 Sepoy Mutiny Sepoys refuse to use cartridges of new rifles for religious reasons. Many Sepoys are jailed; others start the Sepoy Mutiny against the British Many Indians, especially Sikhs, remain loyal to the British British put down the rebellion and take direct command of India.

69 Sepoy Mutiny British government sent troops to help them
Fierce fighting between British and Sepoys (aided by other Indians) East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the country British government sent troops to help them

70 Indians Did Not Fully Unite During Sepoy Mutiny
serious splits between Hindus and Muslims unclear inconsistent leadership Many Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances with British) Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British

71 Indian Uprising of 1857 East India Company began hiring native troops for its private army (cheaper than British troops)—sepoys (Hindu & Muslim). In 1857, Brits issued new Enfield rifles to sepoy infantrymen. The problem? Muzzleloader that used paper cartridge covered in beef fat and pig lard. Protest turned into rebellion against British and fighting between Hindus and Muslims. Finally put down by British army.

72 Sepoy Mutiny 1857 East India company even had its own army, led by British officers and staffed by sepoys, or Indian soldiers. Divide and conquer strategy had worked well for the British Religious differences offered an easy way to divide Hindus from Muslims Uniting factor Racist, superior and paternalistic attitudes of the British in India gave the Indians something to unite against

73 Sepoy Mutiny, 1857

74 The Attack of Mutineers, July 30, 1857

75 Sepoy Mutiny Sepoy rebelled against East India Company rule
Resulted in the end of 100 years of company rule in India British government took direct control to protect their valuable trading empire and ruled from 1858 to 1947 The Indians could not unite against the British due to weak leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims. The mutiny increased distrust between the British and the Indians.


77 The Sepoy Rebellion Indians Rebel Results
Sepoys refuse to use cartridges due to religious reasons They had to bite them open – greased with pork fat Considered unclean by Muslims Many sepoys were jailed, others rebelled British put down the rebellion Results Britain takes direct control of India Increased distrust between Indians and British

78 Results British GOVERNMENT began to rule India directly.
But the Indians still didn’t trust the British

79 Results of Sepoy Rebellion
British ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny. British government ruled India directly British moved away from some social regulations that angered many Indians Distrust still continued between British, Indians

80 Protest and Punishment Violence and Atrocities
The Sepoy Mutiny 1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy Mutiny Sepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British army Introduction of new type British rifle set off rebellion To load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu sepoys Muslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beef Sepoys in Meerut refused to use cartridges; thought it plot to make them abandon Hinduism, Islam Sepoys punished for protesting In response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against British Eventually gained control of Delhi Protest and Punishment Violence of rebellion ferocious Both sides committed atrocities Sepoys killed British officers, as well as wives, children Captured mutineers strapped to cannons and shot; villages burned Fighting continued two years Violence and Atrocities

81 Results of Mutiny British ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny. British government ruled India directly British moved away from some social regulations that angered many Indians Distrust still continued between British, Indians

82 British-Indian Relations
As a result, the Crown takes power away from the East India Company. India becomes a colony in 1858. Creation of the British Raj British presence largely brutal and impersonal. India fully integrated into British economy as a market for goods and provider of raw materials. Paternalism

83 Who do you think the female figure stands for?
Justice! But the memories of the 1857 rebellion could not die fast. There were stories of atrocities against the British committed by the Indians, and the British, in return, committed atrocities back. This cartoon portrays the British response to the supposed massacre of British civilians during the 1857 uprising. Who do you think the female figure stands for? Do you think the cartoon is a fair depiction? What does the cartoon say about England’s attitude towards India? Ideas about race at that time?

84 Areas under British control 1836

85 Areas under British control 1857

86 Areas under British control 1919-1947

87 Role of Sikhs in Resistance to British Imperialism

88 Sikhs Minority Indian religious group
Sikhs feared Muslims would regain control of the country during Sepoy Mutiny ■ Muslim Mughals ruled India before Britain

89 Sikhs Mughals did not allow religious freedom Sikhs replaced Sepoys in Britain’s Indian army after the Sepoy Mutiny Great Britain allowed some religious freedom in India

90 The British Raj

91 Turning Point 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) Raj (time period when India was under Great Britain’s control: )

92 The British Raj Raj—refers to British rule after India came under the British crown. Uprising increases distrust between British and Indians.

93 Raj India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts
sometimes a handful of officials would be the only British amongst millions of Indians in a district Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians

94 India as a British Colony
Colony of colony—the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, with political and financial rewards, national pride For Indians, British rule source of frustration and humiliation Frustration gave rise to powerful feelings of nationalism Era of British rule in India often called British Raj, Hindi word meaning “rule” Administration carried out by government agency, Indian Civil Service (ICS) The Raj Though ruling India, most ICS officials British ICS employed very few Indians Many educated Indians frustrated at having no say in own government ICS Many British thought they were superior Segregated neighborhoods; exclusive clubs Westernized Indians Prejudiced, thought Indians incapable of governing selves Westernization

95 Life under the British Raj
Raj Building Projects During Raj, British built railroads, roads, canals in India By 1910, India had fourth-largest railroad network in world British invested in transportation to move troops; help sell British products Raj Commerce India important market for British manufactured goods Also source of raw materials like cotton, tea, indigo, jute Taxes from Indian landowners paid for administration of India, Indian army Raj Impact British manufactured goods devastated India’s pre-existing textile industry Had been major exporter; British closed factories to prevent competition Mid-1800s, India primarily exported raw materials, not manufactured goods

96 Life Under the Raj Stability and surprisingly honest government.
Modernization: Many Indians educated Women even allowed to attend college. Modernized the country—railroads, highways, telegraph, postal service, etc. Religious reform Outlawed sati and female infanticide. Reigned in the thuggee cult (“thugs”).

97 Role of World War One Rowlatt Act

98 World War I Great Britain got 1 Million Indians to enlist in the British army to fight in World War I Britain promised Indians self-government in exchange for them enlisting in the British army 1918 Indian troops returned home: expected Britain to fulfill its promise

99 Rowlatt Act (1919) instead Indian troops were treated as second class citizens again by Great Britain many Indians committed acts of violence against British in India in response Great Britain passes Rowlatt Act (1919) in response

100 Rowlatt Act (1919) allowed British gov’t to jail protestors for 2 years with no trial violent protests by Indians in Punjab (province with most Indian World War I veterans)

101 Amritsar Massacre

102 Amritsar Massacre Date: April 13, 1919

103 Amritsar Massacre Causes Ridiculous Rules forced against the Indians
All Indians must crawl on their hands and knees on a city street Indiscriminate whippings

104 British Reaction: 1919 Amritsar massacre
British fears of a general revolt in the Punjab led to arrests of Indian politicians in Amritsar, one of the main cities in northern India. Indians protested and the authorities called for army reinforcements, led by General Dyer. Dyer ordered his men to open fire on a large crowd of unarmed Indians attending a meeting in the city. No warning was given, and 10 minutes continuous fire left 379 dead and 1200 wounded. Dyer said ‘My idea….was to make a wide impression throughout the Punjab. It was a merciful act, though a horrible act and they ought to be thankful to me for doing it’.

The Amritsar Massacre occurred a few months after the end of WWI when a British female missionary reported that she had been molested on a street in the city of Amritsar. Britain issued an order requiring all Indians using that street to crawl its length on their hands and knees, and the public whipping of natives who came within a certain distance of British policemen. In 1919, Indians gathered in Amritsar to protest these extraordinary measures. The throng, penned in a narrow space, had been peacefully listening to the story of victims when, without warning, 50 British troops fired into the gathering. For 15 minutes 1,650 rounds of ammunition were unloaded into the screaming, terrified crowd, some of whom were trampled by those desperately trying to escape.

106 Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919)
alliance of Hindus and Muslims scared the British 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar (capital of Punjab Province): festival to pray and hear political speeches

107 “The Indians were ‘packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies’; the people ‘ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and fire was then directed on the ground. This continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion…” Winston Churchill

108 Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919)
Britain had earlier banned public protests: Britain issued the ban without informing most Indians! British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed crowd without warning Shooting lasted 10 minutes: 400 Indians Killed; 1200 wounded news of the massacre spread rapidly across India: Indians demanded independence

109 Amritsar Massacre British Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was honored at home for crushing the Indians Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."

110 Amritsar Massacre, 1919 379 dead; over 1200 wounded!

111 Alley that prevented the use of tanks
Site of massacre today Alley that prevented the use of tanks

112 General Dyer intended to have an impact on all of India
General Dyer intended to have an impact on all of India. He killed 379 men, women and children. He wounded 1,100. He showed no mercy and gave no warning. "I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself.“ — Dyer's response to the Hunter Commission Enquiry


114 At Dyer’s inquiry, did he show remorse for his actions?
No – He said he would have used a machine gun if he could.

115 Results of Amritsar Massacre
379 Indians dead >1,100 Indians injured British General Dyer, honored at home All Indians united against British Nationalist movement took off

116 Following the massacre….
Dyer set up a series of punishments for the Indians. These included the ‘crawling order’, whereby Indians wishing to use a particular street in Amritsar were forced to crawl on their hands and knees as a mark of respect for the British. The Amritsar Massacre was a turning point. After it, Gandhi became the leader of the Indian nationalists in the Indian Congress party. He resolved to work towards Indian independence by a series of major campaigns against the British.

117 Amritsar Massacre 1919 The turning point in India’s struggle for freedom Violence increased in India It began the call for many Indian to call for complete separation from Britain

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