Presentation on theme: "The British In India. Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people? According to this."— Presentation transcript:
The British In India
Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people? According to this map, why did the sun never set on the British Empire?
The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters
Kicking India around
End of Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire divided -Decline of the Mughals began with religious conflict between Muslims and Hindus and resulted in infighting and a divided empire
End of Mughal Rule 1600s, the British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. At first, Indias ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control. By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing. Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, broke away from Mughal control.
Mughal Opposition Battle of Plassey, 1757, 3,000 British troops defeat Mughal army of 30,000. – Mughal attempt to expel the British As a result, British East India Company obtains right to tax the local population of Calcutta (where the factories were). Battle of Buxar, 1767, British seize the emperor and install a puppet.
Spice Trade Draws Europe
The Spice Trade Pepper, cinnamon, rice, tea, cotton, indigo etc. all were in great demand in Europe Very expensive due to taxes and tariffs by Italians and Turks
15 th and 16 th centuries Vasco da Gama sailed round Cape of Good Hope and finds new trade route to India Portuguese have a monopoly on trade between India and Europe, also work to spread Christianity British and French overpower Portuguese and set up trading posts
Europeans had built trading posts along Asian, African coats, but held little territory farther inland By late 1700s, European states began expanding power in Asia, Africa Two factors that made possible: new technologies, weakening of great empires of Asia, Africa Expanding Power Arrival of British in India, example of European imperialism, the process of one people ruling, controlling another By 1700, Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal ruled vast territories in the Americas Europeans had less success ruling territory in Asia, Africa Imperialism Setting the Stage
British Expansion Trading posts become centers of power – not established by govt., but by trading companies British East India Company – monopoly over trade in India, China and East Indies – Had power to sign treaties, maintain armies and govern itself – Set up posts in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, attracted Indians to work for company
Conflict Between French and British Over India
Clash with the French French East India Company set up in 1664 at Pandichery Sepoys – Indians serving in the army of European country Indian kingdoms are competing for political power, French and British sought to strengthen their positions – Also were at war in North America (French and Indian War)
Defeat of the French Robert Clive led small British and sepoy force to defeat French Battle of Plassey – 3,200 Brits defeat 50,000 French and Indian allies Resulted in British control of richest province in India; Bengal – Clive is named governor of Bengal
Reasons for British Success in India British brought all of India under their control: – Collapse of ruling Mogul empire left India divided and disorganized – Divide and conquer policy – played on weaknesses of local rulers – Superior military and naval power; gave their sepoys modern weapons – Able administrators and governors reformed and improved local govt.
Great Britain in India 1600s Great Britain set up trading posts through out India
Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people? Why do you think the British are represented as a lion?
British East India Company First Imperialism in India was NOT done by British government!
Imperialism in India started with a trading company The British East India Company: The company was started to control trade between Britain, India, and East Asia. VERY POWERFUL!
British East India Company controlled British trade in India eventually the company gained political control over Bangladesh, Southern India, and Northern India (along Ganges River)
British East India Company Agents 1-E
British East India Co. Company that controlled trade areas in India – granted power by the Queen of England in India was ruled by many independent states (Princes) as the Mogul Empire was being weakened by internal conflicts. Opened the door for British to begin taking control.
British East India Company A British company that basically ran India Gained control after a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 Controlled an area that included modern Bangladesh, most of southern India, and nearly all the territory along the Ganges River in the north.
. Manipulated rulers of states, suggested each needed British support to keep throne Played rulers against each other, kept India in chaos Companys army took over much of India, claiming it had to restore order Kept India in Chaos British East India Company
Cotton cloth woven by Indian weavers imported into Britain in huge quantities to supply a worldwide demand for cheap, washable, lightweight fabrics for dresses and furnishings.
Coins of the British East India Co coin 1804 coin 1719 coin 1804 coin
East India Company Rule Taxes Move their operation into the interior of the continent. Built large estates in east, money now in the hands of British and sent to Britain. Local Indian industries put out of business. Famine and bankrupt countrymore taxes. Inept rule over next 100 years.
East India Company and Culture Cultural imperialism not a major concern of the company – Goal was to make money Some interest in Indian culture – Friendships and intermarriages – Officers required to learn Persian and Sanskrit – Christian missionary activity discouraged Paternalism – British educational system slowly introduced
British East India Company 1800s: company operated in India with no regulation by British government company had its own army Company army led by British army officers
I How did the British East India Company change India? 1. New Education system Teach English
How did the British East India Company change India? 2. New Laws: banned some customs like Sati- widows killing themselves by jumping into their husbands funeral fire.
1815 print depicting sati ritual with Western rulers critiquing
How did the British East India Company change India? 3. Religion: Christian Missionaries came to spread their beliefs in India.
Making Changes East India Company made changes to Indian society Introduced new education system, English language Destroying Society British also invited Christian missionaries to spread beliefs Some began to believe British trying to destroy their society Banning Customs Introduced British laws banning certain customs, like sati Practice of Hindu widows throwing selves on husbands funeral fires Straining Relations Thought British wanted to eliminate Indian customs, Hinduism completely Relations between Indians, British increasingly strained Changes in India
British Policies Indirect control Economic: – India produces raw materials – India buys British goods – Competition with Britain prohibited Economic system benefits Britain
How did the British rule India? Began to take over taxation of people – Used the same system as the Mughal empire Promised protection In 1850: 300,000 men in army. – Only 50,000 were British 100,000 British men ruling over 200 million Indians
Honoring the empress But the Empress did take control. And, the painter of the last comic aside, most thought it was a good idea. You can see that this picture was from 1858, right after the rebellion when the Crown took over India. What can you tell about this picture? What does the Indian woman think of the Queen? What does the Queen think of her.? It looks like she will protect Indiahelp it. And it looks like the Indian woman is grateful. What does the Indian have to be grateful for?
Tea Major Cash Crop for British Tea becomes one of Britains major exports around the world.
Opium Opium became a major source of income for the British. These opium balls are awaiting shipment to China. Opium is made from poppies grown in India
British Opium Warehouse in Patna, India Selling Patna Opium in China
The British military presence in India directly supported British trade. Multimedia Learning, LLC COPYRIGHT 2006 WRITTEN BY HERSCHEL SARNOFF & DANA BAGDASARIAN
Indian soldiers recruited to fight for the British army, In the long run, the British were active rulers in India. They kept public order and ended many local wars. The British military also trained local Indians to become soldiers. Multimedia Learning, LLC COPYRIGHT 2006 WRITTEN BY HERSCHEL SARNOFF & DANA BAGDASARIAN
Jewel in the Crown Reference
India is Britains most valuable colony, orjewel in the crown. Forced to produce raw materials for British manufacturing Also forced to buy British goods Britains Jewel in the Crown
Jewel in the Crown Great Britain considered India its most precious jewel (colony) in its Imperial crown
Jewel in the Crown Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain 300 million Indians were a large market for British products
Jewel in the Crown British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden
Jewel in the Crown Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports
Railroads move cash crops and goods faster Trade in specific crops is tied to international events British Transport Trade Goods
Raw Materials Taken from India Tea Indigo (dye for clothing)
Raw Materials Taken from India Coffee Cotton
Raw Materials Taken from India Jute (fiber for making rope) Opium (plant that heroin is made from)
Raw Materials Taken from India Britain relied more on raw materials from India as wars around the world cut off British supplies from other places example: American Civil War ( ) made Indian cotton more important to Great Britain because cotton supply from America was cut off
Indian Rebellion/Resistance to British Rule
Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India? Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people? Based on this picture, how were the Indians treated under British Rule? The Visual Aid
Indians Rebel By 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country Indians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to Christianity Indians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country Indians were angry at the constant racism expressed towards them by the British
Sepoys and Sepoy Mutiny
Sepoys Indians who joined British armies in India – Resented by other Indians
Picture of Sepoy rebellion
Sepoy Mutiny: Underlying and Immediate Causes Underlying Causes – Religious Frictions: Some British officers actively attempted to convert the sepoys to Christianity although the British East India Company discouraged it. The sepoys resented imposing Christianity and Christian laws in India. – Doctrine of the Lapse: The Company automatically seized land from a feudal leader who died without leaving an heir. – Unfair justice system toward Indians. British officers accused of crimes against Indians were granted multiple appeals and advantages when being tried. – High Caste Sepoys: The Bengal Army of sepoys were recruited from a higher caste of Indians. Therefore, if the high caste sepoys were considered to be "polluted", they would have to expend considerable sums of money on ritual purification before being accepted back into society. Immediate Cause – The Enfield Rifle: It required the solder to bite the cartridge and hold the ball in his mouth when loading the rifle. The belief that the cartridge was lubricated with animal fat (either pork or beef) offended both Muslims and Hindus.
Sepoy Rebellion:Nationalism 1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy Rebellion Sepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British army Introduction of new type British rifle set off rebellion To load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu Sepoys Muslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beef
The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket. Notice this is a flintlock musket Enfield Rifle-Musket. Notice this gun uses a percussion cap rather than a flint lock.
Sepoy Mutiny 1857 gossip spread amongst Sepoys (Indian soldiers for the British) the seals of their ammunition had to be bitten off they believed the British dipped the seals of their ammunition in beef and pork (Hindus can not eat beef/ Muslims can not eat pork)
Sepoy Mutiny British commander was outraged when 85 Sepoys refused to accept the ammunition The Sepoys were jailed for disobeying orders May 10, 1857 Sepoys rebelled; marched on Delhi (Indian capital) rebellion spread into northern and central India
Sepoy Mutiny Sepoys refuse to use cartridges of new rifles for religious reasons. Many Sepoys are jailed; others start the Sepoy Mutiny against the British Many Indians, especially Sikhs, remain loyal to the British British put down the rebellion and take direct command of India.
Sepoy Mutiny Fierce fighting between British and Sepoys (aided by other Indians) East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the country British government sent troops to help them
Indians Did Not Fully Unite During Sepoy Mutiny serious splits between Hindus and Muslims unclear inconsistent leadership Many Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances with British) Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British
Indian Uprising of 1857 East India Company began hiring native troops for its private army (cheaper than British troops)sepoys (Hindu & Muslim). In 1857, Brits issued new Enfield rifles to sepoy infantrymen. – The problem? Muzzleloader that used paper cartridge covered in beef fat and pig lard. Protest turned into rebellion against British and fighting between Hindus and Muslims. Finally put down by British army.
Sepoy Mutiny 1857 East India company even had its own army, led by British officers and staffed by sepoys, or Indian soldiers. Divide and conquer strategy had worked well for the British – Religious differences offered an easy way to divide Hindus from Muslims Uniting factor – Racist, superior and paternalistic attitudes of the British in India gave the Indians something to unite against
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857
The Attack of Mutineers, July 30, 1857
Sepoy Mutiny Sepoy rebelled against East India Company rule – Resulted in the end of 100 years of company rule in India British government took direct control to protect their valuable trading empire and ruled from 1858 to 1947 The Indians could not unite against the British due to weak leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims. The mutiny increased distrust between the British and the Indians.
The Sepoy Rebellion Indians Rebel – Sepoys refuse to use cartridges due to religious reasons They had to bite them open – greased with pork fat Considered unclean by Muslims – Many sepoys were jailed, others rebelled – British put down the rebellion Results – Britain takes direct control of India – Increased distrust between Indians and British
Results British GOVERNMENT began to rule India directly. But the Indians still didnt trust the British
Results of Sepoy Rebellion British ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny. British government ruled India directly – British moved away from some social regulations that angered many Indians – Distrust still continued between British, Indians
1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy Mutiny Sepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British army Introduction of new type British rifle set off rebellion To load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu sepoys Muslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beef Sepoys in Meerut refused to use cartridges; thought it plot to make them abandon Hinduism, Islam Sepoys punished for protesting In response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against British Eventually gained control of Delhi Protest and Punishment Violence of rebellion ferocious Both sides committed atrocities Sepoys killed British officers, as well as wives, children Captured mutineers strapped to cannons and shot; villages burned Fighting continued two years Violence and Atrocities The Sepoy Mutiny
Results of Mutiny British ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny. British government ruled India directly – British moved away from some social regulations that angered many Indians – Distrust still continued between British, Indians
British-Indian Relations As a result, the Crown takes power away from the East India Company. India becomes a colony in – Creation of the British Raj British presence largely brutal and impersonal. India fully integrated into British economy as a market for goods and provider of raw materials. Paternalism
Areas under British control 1836
Areas under British control 1857
Areas under British control
Role of Sikhs in Resistance to British Imperialism
Sikhs Minority Indian religious group Sikhs feared Muslims would regain control of the country during Sepoy Mutiny Muslim Mughals ruled India before Britain
Sikhs Sikhs replaced Sepoys in Britains Indian army after the Sepoy Mutiny Mughals did not allow religious freedom Great Britain allowed some religious freedom in India
The British Raj
Turning Point 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) Raj (time period when India was under Great Britains control: )
The British Raj Rajrefers to British rule after India came under the British crown. Uprising increases distrust between British and Indians.
Raj India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts sometimes a handful of officials would be the only British amongst millions of Indians in a district Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians
Colony of colonythe jewel in the crown of the British Empire, with political and financial rewards, national pride For Indians, British rule source of frustration and humiliation Frustration gave rise to powerful feelings of nationalism Era of British rule in India often called British Raj, Hindi word meaning rule Administration carried out by government agency, Indian Civil Service (ICS) The Raj Though ruling India, most ICS officials British ICS employed very few Indians Many educated Indians frustrated at having no say in own government ICS Many British thought they were superior –Segregated neighborhoods; exclusive clubs –Westernized Indians Prejudiced, thought Indians incapable of governing selves Westernization India as a British Colony
Raj Building Projects During Raj, British built railroads, roads, canals in India By 1910, India had fourth-largest railroad network in world British invested in transportation to move troops; help sell British products Raj Impact British manufactured goods devastated Indias pre-existing textile industry Had been major exporter; British closed factories to prevent competition Mid-1800s, India primarily exported raw materials, not manufactured goods Raj Commerce India important market for British manufactured goods Also source of raw materials like cotton, tea, indigo, jute Taxes from Indian landowners paid for administration of India, Indian army Life under the British Raj
Life Under the Raj Stability and surprisingly honest government. Modernization: – Many Indians educated – Women even allowed to attend college. – Modernized the countryrailroads, highways, telegraph, postal service, etc. Religious reform – Outlawed sati and female infanticide. – Reigned in the thuggee cult (thugs).
Role of World War One Rowlatt Act
World War I Great Britain got 1 Million Indians to enlist in the British army to fight in World War I Britain promised Indians self- government in exchange for them enlisting in the British army 1918 Indian troops returned home: expected Britain to fulfill its promise
Rowlatt Act (1919) instead Indian troops were treated as second class citizens again by Great Britain many Indians committed acts of violence against British in India in response Great Britain passes Rowlatt Act (1919) in response
Rowlatt Act (1919) allowed British govt to jail protestors for 2 years with no trial violent protests by Indians in Punjab (province with most Indian World War I veterans)
Amritsar Massacre Date: April 13, 1919
Amritsar Massacre Causes – Ridiculous Rules forced against the Indians All Indians must crawl on their hands and knees on a city street Indiscriminate whippings
British Reaction: 1919 Amritsar massacre British fears of a general revolt in the Punjab led to arrests of Indian politicians in Amritsar, one of the main cities in northern India. Indians protested and the authorities called for army reinforcements, led by General Dyer. Dyer ordered his men to open fire on a large crowd of unarmed Indians attending a meeting in the city. No warning was given, and 10 minutes continuous fire left 379 dead and 1200 wounded. Dyer said My idea….was to make a wide impression throughout the Punjab. It was a merciful act, though a horrible act and they ought to be thankful to me for doing it.
The Story Behind THE AMRITSAR MASSACRE The Amritsar Massacre occurred a few months after the end of WWI when a British female missionary reported that she had been molested on a street in the city of Amritsar. Britain issued an order requiring all Indians using that street to crawl its length on their hands and knees, and the public whipping of natives who came within a certain distance of British policemen. In 1919, Indians gathered in Amritsar to protest these extraordinary measures. The throng, penned in a narrow space, had been peacefully listening to the story of victims when, without warning, 50 British troops fired into the gathering. For 15 minutes 1,650 rounds of ammunition were unloaded into the screaming, terrified crowd, some of whom were trampled by those desperately trying to escape.
Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar (capital of Punjab Province): festival to pray and hear political speeches alliance of Hindus and Muslims scared the British
The Indians were packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies; the people ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and fire was then directed on the ground. This continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion… Winston Churchill
Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) Britain had earlier banned public protests: Britain issued the ban without informing most Indians! British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed crowd without warning Shooting lasted 10 minutes: 400 Indians Killed; 1200 wounded news of the massacre spread rapidly across India: Indians demanded independence
Amritsar Massacre British Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was honored at home for crushing the Indians Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."
Amritsar Massacre, dead; over 1200 wounded!
Site of massacre today Alley that prevented the use of tanks
General Dyer intended to have an impact on all of India. He killed 379 men, women and children. He wounded 1,100. He showed no mercy and gave no warning. "I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself. Dyer's response to the Hunter Commission Enquiry
At Dyers inquiry, did he show remorse for his actions? No – He said he would have used a machine gun if he could.
Results of Amritsar Massacre 379 Indians dead >1,100 Indians injured British General Dyer, honored at home All Indians united against British Nationalist movement took off
Following the massacre…. Dyer set up a series of punishments for the Indians. These included the crawling order, whereby Indians wishing to use a particular street in Amritsar were forced to crawl on their hands and knees as a mark of respect for the British. The Amritsar Massacre was a turning point. After it, Gandhi became the leader of the Indian nationalists in the Indian Congress party. He resolved to work towards Indian independence by a series of major campaigns against the British.
Amritsar Massacre 1919 The turning point in Indias struggle for freedom Violence increased in India It began the call for many Indian to call for complete separation from Britain