2According to this map, why did the sun never set on the British Empire? Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India?Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people?
3The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters In this image, England is shown as a huge devilfish, or some sort of octopus. Why did the artist chose to portray England in this way. What is the top hat for?Britain’s victory over France at the Battle of Trafalgar gave it a lead over other nations with regard to naval power. How does this cartoon show that control of the oceans is important?A lot of the colonies in this cartoon were taken by England in order to maintain their power in the seas: Malta, Gibraltar, Cyprus, for example. See how it is reaching out for Egypt in this cartoon. The reason they wanted Egypt was in order to secure the naval route to India.
6The Mughal Empire-Decline of the Mughals began with religious conflict between Muslims and Hindus and resulted in infighting and a divided empire
7End of Mughal Rule1600s, the British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.At first, India’s ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control.By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing.Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, broke away from Mughal control.
8Mughal OppositionBattle of Plassey, 1757, 3,000 British troops defeat Mughal army of 30,000.Mughal attempt to expel the BritishAs a result, British East India Company obtains right to tax the local population of Calcutta (where the factories were).Battle of Buxar, 1767, British seize the emperor and install a puppet.
10The Spice TradePepper, cinnamon, rice, tea, cotton, indigo etc. all were in great demand in EuropeVery expensive due to taxes and tariffs by Italians and Turks
1115th and 16th centuriesVasco da Gama sailed round Cape of Good Hope and finds new trade route to IndiaPortuguese have a monopoly on trade between India and Europe, also work to spread ChristianityBritish and French overpower Portuguese and set up trading posts
12Setting the Stage Imperialism Expanding Power Arrival of British in India, example of European imperialism, the process of one people ruling, controlling anotherBy 1700, Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal ruled vast territories in the AmericasEuropeans had less success ruling territory in Asia, AfricaImperialismEuropeans had built trading posts along Asian, African coats, but held little territory farther inlandBy late 1700s, European states began expanding power in Asia, AfricaTwo factors that made possible: new technologies, weakening of great empires of Asia, AfricaExpanding Power
13British ExpansionTrading posts become centers of power – not established by govt., but by trading companiesBritish East India Company – monopoly over trade in India, China and East IndiesHad power to sign treaties, maintain armies and govern itselfSet up posts in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, attracted Indians to work for company
15Clash with the FrenchFrench East India Company set up in 1664 at PandicherySepoys – Indians serving in the army of European countryIndian kingdoms are competing for political power, French and British sought to strengthen their positionsAlso were at war in North America (French and Indian War)
16Defeat of the FrenchRobert Clive led small British and sepoy force to defeat FrenchBattle of Plassey – 3,200 Brits defeat 50,000 French and Indian alliesResulted in British control of richest province in India; BengalClive is named governor of Bengal
17Reasons for British Success in India British brought all of India under their control:Collapse of ruling Mogul empire left India divided and disorganized“Divide and conquer” policy – played on weaknesses of local rulersSuperior military and naval power; gave their sepoys modern weaponsAble administrators and governors reformed and improved local govt.
18Great Britain in India1600’s Great Britain set up trading posts through out India
19Why do you think the British are represented as a lion? Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India?Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people?
25British East India Co.Company that controlled trade areas in India – granted power by the Queen of England in 1600.India was ruled by many independent states (Princes) as the Mogul Empire was being weakened by internal conflicts.Opened the door for British to begin taking control.
26British East India Company A British company that basically ran IndiaGained control after a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757Controlled an area that included modern Bangladesh, most of southern India, and nearly all the territory along the Ganges River in the north.
27British East India Company .British East India CompanyManipulated rulers of states, suggested each needed British support to keep thronePlayed rulers against each other, kept India in chaosCompany’s army took over much of India, claiming it had to restore orderKept India in Chaos
28British East India Company Cotton cloth woven by Indian weavers imported into Britain in huge quantities to supply a worldwide demand for cheap, washable, lightweight fabrics for dresses and furnishings.
29Coins of the British East India Co. 1719 coin coin
30East India Company Rule TaxesMove their operation into the interior of the continent.Built large estates in east, money now in the hands of British and sent to Britain.Local Indian industries put out of business.Famine and bankrupt country—more taxes.Inept rule over next 100 years.
31East India Company and Culture Cultural imperialism not a major concern of the companyGoal was to make moneySome interest in Indian cultureFriendships and intermarriagesOfficers required to learn Persian and SanskritChristian missionary activity discouragedPaternalismBritish educational system slowly introduced
32British East India Company 1800’s: company operated in India with no regulation by British governmentcompany had its own armyCompany army led byBritish army officers
33I How did the British East India Company change India? 1. New Education systemTeach English
34How did the British East India Company change India? 2. New Laws: banned some customs like “Sati”- widows killing themselves by jumping into their husband’s funeral fire.
351815 print depicting sati ritual with Western rulers critiquing
36How did the British East India Company change India? 3. Religion: Christian Missionaries came to spread their beliefs in India.
37Changes in India Making Changes Banning Customs Destroying Society East India Company made changes to Indian societyIntroduced new education system, English languageBanning CustomsIntroduced British laws banning certain customs, like satiPractice of Hindu widows throwing selves on husbands’ funeral firesDestroying SocietyBritish also invited Christian missionaries to spread beliefsSome began to believe British trying to destroy their societyStraining RelationsThought British wanted to eliminate Indian customs, Hinduism completelyRelations between Indians, British increasingly strained
38British Policies Indirect control Economic: India produces raw materialsIndia buys British goodsCompetition with Britain prohibitedEconomic system benefits Britain
39How did the British rule India? Began to take over taxation of peopleUsed the same system as the Mughal empirePromised “protection”In 1850: 300,000 men in army.Only 50,000 were British100,000 British men ruling over 200 million Indians
40What can you tell about this picture? But the Empress did take control. And, the painter of the last comic aside, most thought it was a good idea. You can see that this picture was from 1858, right after the rebellion when the Crown took over India.What can you tell about this picture?What does the Indian woman think of the Queen?What does the Queen think of her.? It looks like she will protect India—help it.And it looks like the Indian woman is grateful.What does the Indian have to be grateful for?Honoring the empressBut the Empress did take control. And, the painter of the last comic aside, most thought it was a good idea. You can see that this picture was from 1858, right after the rebellion when the Crown took over India. What can you tell about this picture? What does the Indian woman think of the Queen? What does the Queen think of her. It looks like she will protect India—help it. And it looks like the Indian woman is grateful.What does the Indian have to be grateful for?
41Tea Tea Major Cash Crop for British Tea becomes one of Britain’s major exports around the world.
42Opium Opium became a major source of income for the British. These opium balls are awaiting shipment to China.Opium is made from poppies grown in India
43British Opium Warehouse in Patna, India Selling Patna Opium in China
44The British military presence in India directly supported British trade. Multimedia Learning, LLC COPYRIGHT 2006WRITTEN BY HERSCHEL SARNOFF & DANA BAGDASARIAN
45Indian soldiers recruited to fight for the British army, 1902. In the long run, the British were active rulers in India.They kept public order and ended many local wars.The British military also trained local Indians to become soldiers.Indian soldiers recruited to fight for the British army, 1902.Multimedia Learning, LLC COPYRIGHT 2006WRITTEN BY HERSCHEL SARNOFF & DANA BAGDASARIAN
47Britain’s Jewel in the Crown” India is Britain’s most valuable colony, or “jewel in the crown.”Forced to produce raw materials for British manufacturingAlso forced to buy British goods
48“Jewel in the Crown”Great Britain considered India its most precious jewel (colony) in its Imperial crown
49“Jewel in the Crown”Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain300 million Indians werea large market forBritish products
50“Jewel in the Crown”British forbade India from trading on its own with other countriesIndia was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only BritainIndian competition with British finished products was forbidden
51“Jewel in the Crown”Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports
52British Transport Trade Goods Railroads move cash crops and goods fasterTrade in specific crops is tied to international events
53Raw Materials Taken from India TeaIndigo (dye for clothing)
55Raw Materials Taken from India Jute (fiber for making rope)Opium (plant that heroin is made from)
56Raw Materials Taken from India Britain relied more on raw materials from India as wars around the world cut off British supplies from other placesexample: American Civil War ( )made Indian cotton more important toGreat Britain because cotton supply fromAmerica was cut off
58The Visual AidBased on this picture, how were the Indians treated under British Rule?Aim/Goal: How did British Imperialism Impact India?Do Now: Why do people feel the need to bully other people?
59Indians RebelIndians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to ChristianityBy 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country■ Indians were angry at the constant racism expressed towards them by the BritishIndians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country
61Sepoys Indians who joined British armies in India Resented by other Indians
62Picture of Sepoy rebellion A year-long rebellion against the British ensued. Although the Indian Mutiny was unsuccessful, it prompted the British government to seize total control of all British interests in India in 1858, finally establishing a seamless imperialism. Claiming to be only interested in trade, the Raj steadily expanded its influence until the princes ruled in name only.
63Sepoy Mutiny: Underlying and Immediate Causes Underlying CausesReligious Frictions: Some British officers actively attempted to convert the sepoys to Christianity although the British East India Company discouraged it. The sepoys resented imposing Christianity and Christian laws in India.Doctrine of the Lapse: The Company automatically seized land from a feudal leader who died without leaving an heir.Unfair justice system toward Indians. British officers accused of crimes against Indians were granted multiple appeals and advantages when being tried.High Caste Sepoys: The Bengal Army of sepoys were recruited from a higher caste of Indians. Therefore, if the high caste sepoys were considered to be "polluted", they would have to expend considerable sums of money on ritual purification before being accepted back into society.Immediate CauseThe Enfield Rifle: It required the solder to bite the cartridge and hold the ball in his mouth when loading the rifle. The belief that the cartridge was lubricated with animal fat (either pork or beef) offended both Muslims and Hindus.
64Sepoy Rebellion:Nationalism 1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy RebellionSepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British armyIntroduction of new type British rifle set off rebellionTo load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu SepoysMuslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beef
65The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket The old gun: an India pattern smoothbore Brown Bess Musket. Notice this is a flintlock musket.1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket. Notice this gun uses a percussion cap rather than a flint lock.
66Sepoy Mutiny1857 gossip spread amongst Sepoys (Indian soldiers for the British)the seals of their ammunition had to be bitten offthey believed the British dipped the seals of theirammunition in beef and pork(Hindus can not eat beef/ Muslims can not eat pork)
67Sepoy MutinyBritish commander was outraged when 85 Sepoys refused to accept the ammunitionThe Sepoys were jailed for disobeying ordersMay 10, 1857 Sepoys rebelled; marched on Delhi (Indian capital)rebellion spread into northern and central India
68Sepoy MutinySepoys refuse to use cartridges of new rifles for religious reasons.Many Sepoys are jailed; others start the Sepoy Mutiny against the BritishMany Indians, especially Sikhs, remain loyal to the BritishBritish put down the rebellion and take direct command of India.
69Sepoy Mutiny British government sent troops to help them Fierce fighting between British and Sepoys (aided by other Indians)East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the countryBritish government sent troops to help them
70Indians Did Not Fully Unite During Sepoy Mutiny serious splits between Hindus and Muslimsunclear inconsistent leadershipMany Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances withBritish)Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British
71Indian Uprising of 1857East India Company began hiring native troops for its private army (cheaper than British troops)—sepoys (Hindu & Muslim).In 1857, Brits issued new Enfield rifles to sepoy infantrymen.The problem? Muzzleloader that used paper cartridge covered in beef fat and pig lard.Protest turned into rebellion against British and fighting between Hindus and Muslims.Finally put down by British army.
72Sepoy Mutiny 1857East India company even had its own army, led by British officers and staffed by sepoys, or Indian soldiers.Divide and conquer strategy had worked well for the BritishReligious differences offered an easy way to divide Hindus from MuslimsUniting factorRacist, superior and paternalistic attitudes of the British in India gave the Indians something to unite against
75Sepoy Mutiny Sepoy rebelled against East India Company rule Resulted in the end of 100 years of company rule in IndiaBritish government took direct control to protect their valuable trading empire and ruled from 1858 to 1947The Indians could not unite against the British due to weak leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims.The mutiny increased distrust between the British and the Indians.
77The Sepoy Rebellion Indians Rebel Results Sepoys refuse to use cartridges due to religious reasonsThey had to bite them open – greased with pork fatConsidered unclean by MuslimsMany sepoys were jailed, others rebelledBritish put down the rebellionResultsBritain takes direct control of IndiaIncreased distrust between Indians and British
78Results British GOVERNMENT began to rule India directly. But the Indians still didn’t trust the British
79Results of Sepoy Rebellion British ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny.British government ruled India directlyBritish moved away from some social regulations that angered many IndiansDistrust still continued between British, Indians
80Protest and Punishment Violence and Atrocities The Sepoy Mutiny1857, strained relations exploded into rebellion, the Sepoy MutinySepoys were Indian soldiers who fought in British armyIntroduction of new type British rifle set off rebellionTo load rifle, soldier had to bite off end of ammunition cartridge greased with pork, beef fat; offended Muslim, Hindu sepoysMuslims did not eat pork; Hindus did not eat beefSepoys in Meerut refused to use cartridges; thought it plot to make them abandon Hinduism, IslamSepoys punished for protestingIn response, northern Indian sepoys rose up against BritishEventually gained control of DelhiProtest and PunishmentViolence of rebellion ferociousBoth sides committed atrocitiesSepoys killed British officers, as well as wives, childrenCaptured mutineers strapped to cannons and shot; villages burnedFighting continued two yearsViolence and Atrocities
81Results of MutinyBritish ended the rule of East India Company in 1858 as result of mutiny.British government ruled India directlyBritish moved away from some social regulations that angered many IndiansDistrust still continued between British, Indians
82British-Indian Relations As a result, the Crown takes power away from the East India Company.India becomes a colony in 1858.Creation of the British RajBritish presence largely brutal and impersonal.India fully integrated into British economy as a market for goods and provider of raw materials.Paternalism
83Who do you think the female figure stands for? Justice!But the memories of the 1857 rebellion could not die fast. There were stories of atrocities against the British committed by the Indians, and the British, in return, committed atrocities back. This cartoon portrays the British response to the supposed massacre of British civilians during the 1857 uprising.Who do you think the female figure stands for?Do you think the cartoon is a fair depiction?What does the cartoon say about England’s attitude towards India? Ideas about race at that time?
91Turning Point1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny)Raj (time period whenIndia was under GreatBritain’s control:)
92The British RajRaj—refers to British rule after India came under the British crown.Uprising increases distrust between British and Indians.
93Raj India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts sometimes a handful ofofficials would be the onlyBritish amongst millions ofIndians in a districtMutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians
94India as a British Colony Colony of colony—the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, with political and financial rewards, national prideFor Indians, British rule source of frustration and humiliationFrustration gave rise to powerful feelings of nationalismEra of British rule in India often called British Raj, Hindi word meaning “rule”Administration carried out by government agency, Indian Civil Service (ICS)The RajThough ruling India, most ICS officials BritishICS employed very few IndiansMany educated Indians frustrated at having no say in own governmentICSMany British thought they were superiorSegregated neighborhoods; exclusive clubsWesternized IndiansPrejudiced, thought Indians incapable of governing selvesWesternization
95Life under the British Raj Raj Building ProjectsDuring Raj, British built railroads, roads, canals in IndiaBy 1910, India had fourth-largest railroad network in worldBritish invested in transportation to move troops; help sell British productsRaj CommerceIndia important market for British manufactured goodsAlso source of raw materials like cotton, tea, indigo, juteTaxes from Indian landowners paid for administration of India, Indian armyRaj ImpactBritish manufactured goods devastated India’s pre-existing textile industryHad been major exporter; British closed factories to prevent competitionMid-1800s, India primarily exported raw materials, not manufactured goods
96Life Under the Raj Stability and surprisingly honest government. Modernization:Many Indians educatedWomen even allowed to attend college.Modernized the country—railroads, highways, telegraph, postal service, etc.Religious reformOutlawed sati and female infanticide.Reigned in the thuggee cult (“thugs”).
98World War IGreat Britain got 1 Million Indians to enlist in the British army to fight in World War IBritain promised Indians self-government in exchange for them enlisting in the British army1918 Indian troops returned home: expected Britain to fulfill its promise
99Rowlatt Act (1919)instead Indian troops were treated as second class citizens again by Great Britainmany Indians committed acts ofviolence against British in Indiain responseGreat Britain passes Rowlatt Act (1919) in response
100Rowlatt Act (1919)allowed British gov’t to jail protestors for 2 years with no trialviolent protests by Indians in Punjab (province with most Indian World War I veterans)
103Amritsar Massacre Causes Ridiculous Rules forced against the Indians All Indians must crawl on their hands and knees on a city streetIndiscriminate whippings
104British Reaction: 1919 Amritsar massacre British fears of a general revolt in the Punjab led to arrests of Indian politicians in Amritsar, one of the main cities in northern India.Indians protested and the authorities called for army reinforcements, led by General Dyer.Dyer ordered his men to open fire on a large crowd of unarmed Indians attending a meeting in the city.No warning was given, and 10 minutes continuous fire left 379 dead and 1200 wounded.Dyer said ‘My idea….was to make a wide impression throughout the Punjab. It was a merciful act, though a horrible act and they ought to be thankful to me for doing it’.
105The Story Behind THE AMRITSAR MASSACRE The Amritsar Massacre occurred a few months after the end of WWI when a British female missionary reported that she had been molested on a street in the city of Amritsar. Britain issued an order requiring all Indians using that street to crawl its length on their hands and knees, and the public whipping of natives who came within a certain distance of British policemen.In 1919, Indians gathered in Amritsar to protest these extraordinary measures. The throng, penned in a narrow space, had been peacefully listening to the story of victims when, without warning, 50 British troops fired into the gathering. For 15 minutes 1,650 rounds of ammunition were unloaded into the screaming, terrified crowd, some of whom were trampled by those desperately trying to escape.
106Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) alliance of Hindus and Muslims scared the British10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar (capital of Punjab Province): festival to pray and hear political speeches
107“The Indians were ‘packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies’; the people ‘ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and fire was then directed on the ground. This continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion…” Winston Churchill
108Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) Britain had earlier banned public protests: Britain issued the ban without informing most Indians!British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed crowd without warningShooting lasted 10 minutes: 400 Indians Killed; 1200 woundednews of the massacre spread rapidly across India: Indians demanded independence
109Amritsar MassacreBritish Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was honored at home for crushing the IndiansRattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."
110Amritsar Massacre, 1919379 dead; over 1200 wounded!
111Alley that prevented the use of tanks Site of massacre todayAlley that prevented the use of tanks
112General Dyer intended to have an impact on all of India General Dyer intended to have an impact on all of India. He killed 379 men, women and children. He wounded 1,100. He showed no mercy and gave no warning."I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself.“— Dyer's responseto the Hunter Commission Enquiry
114At Dyer’s inquiry, did he show remorse for his actions? No –He said he would have used a machine gun if he could.
115Results of Amritsar Massacre 379 Indians dead>1,100 Indians injuredBritish General Dyer, honored at homeAll Indians united against BritishNationalist movement took off
116Following the massacre…. Dyer set up a series of punishments for the Indians. These included the ‘crawling order’, whereby Indians wishing to use a particular street in Amritsar were forced to crawl on their hands and knees as a mark of respect for the British.The Amritsar Massacre was a turning point.After it, Gandhi became the leader of the Indian nationalists in the Indian Congress party.He resolved to work towards Indian independence by a series of major campaigns against the British.
117Amritsar Massacre 1919The turning point in India’s struggle for freedomViolence increased in IndiaIt began the call for many Indian to call for complete separation from Britain