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Mechanical Properties Of Metals - I

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1 Mechanical Properties Of Metals - I
CHAPTER 6 Mechanical Properties Of Metals - I 6-1

2 Processing of Metals - Casting
Most metals are first melted in a furnace. Alloying is done if required. Large ingots are then cast. Sheets and plates are then produced from ingots by rolling Wrought alloy products. Channels and other shapes are produced by extrusion. Some small parts can be cast as final product. Example :- Automobile Piston. 6-2

3 Casting (Cont..) Casting mold Figure 5.2 Cast parts Casting Process
Figure 5.3 a Figure 5.3 b 6-3

4 Hot Rolling of Steel Hot rolling Greater reduction of thickness in a single pass. Rolling carried out above recrystallization temperature. Ingots preheated to about 12000C. Ingots reheated between passes if required. Usually, series of 4 high rolling mills are used. 6-4

5 Cold Rolling of Metal Sheet
Cold rolling is rolling performed below recrystallization temperature. This results in strain hardening. Hot rolled slabs have to be annealed before cold rolling. Series of 4 high rolling mills are usually used. Less reduction of thickness. Needs high power. Figure 5.8 6-5

6 Cold Rolling (Cont..) Initial metal thickness – Final metal thickness
Figure 5.6 Initial metal thickness – Final metal thickness % Cold work = x 100 Initial metal thickness 6-6

7 Extrusion Metal under high pressure is forced through opening
in a die. Common Products are cylindrical bar, hollow tubes from copper, aluminum etc. Normally done at high temperature. Indirect extrusion needs less power however there is a limit on load applied Die Container Metal Direct Extrusion Container Metal indirect Extrusion Figure 5.9 6-7

8 Forging Metal, usually hot, is hammered or pressed into desired shape.
Types:- Open die: Dies are flat and simple in shape * Example products: Steel shafts Closed die: Dies have upper and lower impresion * Example products: Automobile engine connection rod. Forging improves structural properties, removes porosity and increases homogeneity. Direct Forging Metal Indirect Forging Dies 6-8

9 Drawing Wire drawing :- Starting rod or wire is drawn through several drawing dies to reduce diameter. Deep drawing:- Used to shape cup like articles from flats and sheets of metals Figure 5.13 Change in cross-sectional area % cold work = X 100 Original area Wire or rod Carbide nib Figure 5.14 6-9

10 Stress and Strain in Metals
Metals undergo deformation under uniaxial tensile force. Elastic deformation: Metal returns to its original dimension after tensile force is removed. Plastic deformation: The metal is deformed to such an extent that it cannot return to its original dimensions Elastic deformation Plastic deformation 6-10

11 Engineering Stress and Strain
F (Average uniaxial tensile force) Engineering stress σ = A0 (Original cross-sectional area) Units of Stress are PSI or N/M2 (Pascals) Δl A0 1 PSI = 6.89 x 103 Pa Change in length Engineering strain = ε = Original length A Units of strain are in/in or m/m. Figure 5.15 6-11

12 Poisons Ratio . Poisons ratio = w0 w Usually poisons ratio ranges from
0.25 to 0.4. Example: Stainless steel Copper 6-12

13 Shear Stress and Shear Strain
V (Shear force) τ = Shear stress = A (Area of shear force application) Figure 5.17 Amount of shear displacement Shear strain γ = Distance ‘h’ over which shear acts. Elastic Modulus G = τ / γ 6-13

14 Tensile test Strength of materials can be tested by pulling the metal to failure. Load Cell Specimen Extensometer Force data is obtained from Load cell Strain data is obtained from Extensometer. Figure 5.18 6-14

15 Tensile Test (Cont) Commonly used Test specimen Typical Stress-strain
Figure 5.21 Commonly used Test specimen Typical Stress-strain curve Figure 5.22 6-15

16 Mechanical Properties
Modulus of elasticity (E) : Stress and strain are linearly related in elastic region. (Hooks law) Higher the bonding strength, higher is the modulus of elasticity. Examples: Modulus of Elasticity of steel is 207 Gpa. Modulus of elasticity of Aluminum is 76 Gpa σ (Stress) Δσ E = E = Strain Δε ε (Strain) Δσ Δε Stress Linear portion of the stress strain curve 6-17

17 Yield Strength Yield strength is strength at which
metal or alloy show significant amount of plastic deformation. 0.2% offset yield strength is that strength at which 0.2% plastic deformation takes place. Construction line, starting at 0.2% strain and parallel to elastic region is drawn to fiend 0.2% offset yield strength. Figure 5.23 6-18

18 Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is the maximum strength reached by the engineering stress strain curve. Necking starts after UTS is reached. More ductile the metal is, more is the necking before failure. Stress increases till failure. Drop in stress strain curve is due to stress calculation based on original area. Al 2024-Tempered S T R E Mpa Figure 5.24 Necking Point Al 2024-Annealed Strain Stress strain curves of Al 2024 With two different heat treatments. Ductile annealed sample necks more 6-19

19 Percent Elongation Percent elongation is a measure of ductility of a material. It is the elongation of the metal before fracture expressed as percentage of original length. % Elongation = Measured using a caliper fitting the fractured metal together. Example:- Percent elongation of pure aluminum is 35% For 7076-T6 aluminum alloy it is 11% Final length – initial Length Initial Length 6-20

20 Percent Reduction in Area
Percent reduction area is also a measure of ductility. The diameter of fractured end of specimen is meas- ured using caliper. Percent reduction in area in metals decreases in case of presence of porosity. % Reduction Area Initial area – Final area = Final area Figure 5.14 Stress-strain curves of different metals 6-21

21 True Stress – True Strain
True stress and true strain are based upon instantaneous cross-sectional area and length. True Stress = σt = True Strain = εt = True stress is always greater than engineering stress. F Ai (instantaneous area) 6-22

22 Hardness and Hardness Testing
Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a metal to permanent (plastic) deformation. General procedure: Press the indenter that is harder than the metal Into metal surface. Withdraw the indenter Measure hardness by measuring depth or width of indentation. Rockwell hardness tester Figure 5.27 6-27

23 Hardness Tests Table 5.2 6-28

24 Plastic Deformation in Single Crystals
Plastic deformation of single crystal results in step markings on surface slip bands. Atoms on specific crystallographic planes (slip planes) slip to cause slip bands. Slip bands Figure 5.28 6-29

25 Slip Bands and Slip Planes
Slip bands in ductile metals are uniform (occurs in many slip planes). Slip occurs in many slip planes within slip bands. Slip planes are about 200A thick and are offset by about 2000A Figure 5.30 6-30

26 Slip Mechanism During shear, atoms do not slide over each other.
The slip occurs due to movement of dislocations. Wall of high dislocation density Figure 5.33 Dislocation cell structure in lightly deformed Aluminum Figure 5.32 6-31

27 Slip in Crystals Slip occurs in densely or close packed planes.
Lower shear stress is required for slip to occur in densely packed planes. If slip is restricted in close planes, then less dense planes become operative. Less energy is required to move atoms along denser planes. Close packed plane Non-close-packed plane Figure 5.34 6-32

28 Slip Systems Slip systems are combination of slip planes and slip direction. Each crystal has a number of characteristic slip systems. In FCC crystal, slip takes place in {111} octahedral planes and <110> directions. 4 (111) type planes and 3 [110] type directions. 4 x 3 = 12 slip systems. Table 5.3 6-33

29 Slip Systems in BCC Crystal
BCC crystals are not close packed. The slip predominantly occurs in {110} planes that has highest atomic density. Table 5.3 6-34

30 Slip Systems in HCP Crystal
If HCP crystals have high c/a ratio, slip occurs along basal planes {0001}. For crystals with low c/a ratio, slip also occurs in {1010} and {1011} planes. Table 5.3 6-35

31 Critical Resolved Shear Stress
Critical resolved shear stress is the stress required to cause slip in pure metal single crystal. Depends upon Crystal Structure Atomic bonding characteristics Temperature Orientation of slip planes relative to shear stress Slip begins when shear stress in slip plane in slip direction reaches critical resolved shear stress. This is equivalent to yield stress. Example :- Zn HCP % pure MPa Ti HCP % pure MPa Ti HCP % pure MPa 6-36

32 Schmid’s Law The relationship between uniaxial stress action on a single cylinder of pure metal single crystal and resulting resolved shear stress produced on a slip system is give by Normal to Slip plane Shear Force τr= τr= Shear Area Slip direction A1=Area of Slip plane 6-37

33 Twinning In twinning, a part of atomic lattice is deformed and forms mirror image of lattice next to it. Distance moved by atoms is proportional to their distance from twinning plane. Deformation from twinning is small. Twinning reorients the slip system. Twining is important for deformation in HCP crystals due to lesser slip planes. 6-38

34 Effects of Grain Boundaries on Strength
Grain boundaries stop dislocation movement and hence strengthen the metals. Fine grain size is desirable, and hence metals are produced with finer grains. Figure 5.40 Figure 5.40 Figure 5.40 Stress-strain curve of single and polycrystalline copper Slip bands in polycrystalline aluminum grains Dislocations piled up against grain boundaries in stainless steel 6-39

35 sy = so + k / (d)1/2 sy = Yield strength
Hall Petch Equation The Finer the grains, the better the mechanical properties (at room temperature). More isotropic properties Less resistant to corrosion and creep Hall-Petch equation - Empirical sy = so + k / (d)1/ sy = Yield strength d = average grain diameter so and k are constants for a metal. so = 70 Mpa and k = 0.74 Mpam1/2 for mild steel.

36 Effects of Plastic Deformation
Plastic deformation results in shearing of grains relative to each other. The grains elongate in rolling direction. Dislocations get rearranged. Grain structure at different regions of cartridge brass rolled into a wedge 6-40

37 Effect of Cold Work on Tensile Strength
Number of dislocations are increased by cold work. Dislocation movements are hindered by both grain boundaries and other dislocations Strain Hardening 1018-Cold Rolled 1018-Annealed Stress-Strain curves of 1018 steel Figure 5.45 6-41

38 Solid Solution Strengthening
Addition of one or more metals can increase the strength of metals. Solute atoms, in the case of substitutional solid solution, create stress fields around themselves and hinder dislocation movement. Distortion of lattice and clustering of like atoms also impedes dislocation movement. Example: Solid solution of 70 wt % Cu & 30 wt % Zn (cartridge brass) has tensile strength of 500 MPa. Tensile strength of unalloyed copper is 330 MPa 6-42

39 Superplasticity in Metals
At elevated temperature and slow loading, some alloys deform 2000%. Annealed Ti alloy Elongates 12% at room temperature Elongates up to 1170% at 870oC and 1.3x10-4/s loading rate. Conditions: very fine grain size (5-10 microns) * Highly strain sensitive * Temperature above 0.5 Tm * Slow strain rate

40 Mechanism of Superplasticity
Very limited dislocation activity Deformation mechanism: Grain boundary sliding Grain boundary diffusion Sliding and rotation of individual grains. Applications: Metal forming operations. Blow forming to produce automobile hoods. Grains before and after deformation

41 Nanocrystalline Metals
Average grain diameter < 100 nm Results in high strength and hardness, and Superplasticity If grain diameter reduces from 10 microns to 10 nm, yield strength of copper increases 31 times. Very difficult to produce nanocrystalline metals. If d < 5 nm, elastic modulus drops as more atoms are in grain boundary Hall-Petch equation is invalid in lower nanocrystalline range. Negative Hall-Petch effect might take place

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