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Tool Box Talk – Training Kit

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1 Tool Box Talk – Training Kit
Introduction Tool box talks are a simple and effective means of communicating basic health & safety information to all persons working on site. Tool box talks should be given once every two weeks or as a minimum one talk given per month. The talk is given by a member of first line management to all persons on site. In conjunction with the site programme the talks have been designed to relate to specific hazards i.e. excavation, plant & machinery. The talk to be given is decided upon by the Site Manager at that stage of the work. At any time during the construction phase a general topic may be covered to highlight or re-emphasise the basic health & safety message. The format of the talks makes them easy to understand and follow and takes the form of a checklist of basic safety points. The talks have been designed to last no longer than 10 minutes.

2 Tool Box Talk Index Tool Box Talk No 1 - Asbestos
Tool Box Talk No 2 - Lifting and Handling Tool Box Talk No 3 - Weil’s Disease (Leptospirosis) Tool Box Talk No 4 - Abrasive Wheels Tool Box Talk No 5 - Buried Services Tool Box Talk No 6 - Warning Labels and Hazard Data Sheets Tool Box Talk No 7 - Vibration Tool Box Talk No 8 - The Health & Safety Act At Work Etc Tool Box Talk No 9 - Stepladders and Trestles Tool Box Talk No 10- Scaffold Tool Box Talk No 11 - Safe Working On Roofs & At Heights Tool Box Talk No 12 - Safe Storage Of Gas Cylinders Tool Box Talk No 13 - Protection Of Skin Tool Box Talk No 14 - Protection Of Eyes Tool Box Talk No 15 - Portable Tools Tool Box Talk No 16 – Cartridge/Pressure Operated Tools Tool Box Talk No 17 - COSHH Tool Box Talk No 18 –Hypodermic Needles Tool Box Talk No 19 - Mobile Alloy Scaffold Towers Tool Box Talk No 20 - Ladders Tool box Talk No 21 - Housekeeping Tool Box Talk No 22 - Head Protection Tool Box Talk No 23 - Hand Care Tool Box Talk No 24 - The Health & Safety Executive - Factory Inspectors Tool Box Talk No 25 - Machinery Guarding Tool Box Talk No 26 - First Aid At Work Tool Box Talk No 27 - Fire Tool Box Talk No 28 - Excavations Tool Box Talk no 29 - Electricity Tool Box Talk No 30 - Hoists and Hoist Towers Tool Box Talk No Dust Tool Box Talk No 32 - Plant and Equipment Tool Box Talk No 33 - Noise - It’s Health Effects On you Tool Box Talk No 34 - Working In confined Spaces

3 Tool Box Talk No 1 - Asbestos
Asbestos is a mineral fibre that has many uses. The three most common types are Chrysotile (White) Amosite (Brown) Crocidolite (Blue) Asbestos is used in many industries for ceiling tiles, floor tiles, plastics, insulation and fire proofing. Asbestos is a useful product but presents health risks. Asbestos dust affects the lungs, causing constant irritation. It can cause cancer of the lungs after heavy exposure. Asbestos is a potential hazard for those who work with or disturb it. Demolition workers are more likely to be exposed. Controlling asbestos exposure is achieved by the HSE who put strict control limits in place and ensure those procedures are strictly followed. In addition to the HSE’s requirements, insurers also require procedures implemented by the company to be followed e.g. Asbestos must be removed by an approved licensed contractor. As employees you need to familiarise yourself with the work surroundings and take note of areas indentified by the Site Manager where asbestos is located and ensure you do not touch or disturb the material.

4 Tool Box Talk No 1 – Asbestos Cont’d
If you uncover materials suspected to contain asbestos, stop work and report it to the Site Manager immediately – don’t try to remove it. Reminder – The health effects of exposure to asbestos dust are irreversible.

5 Tool Box Talk No 2 – Lifting and Handling
In construction, approximately one fifth of all accidents involve injuries while manual handling or lifting materials. Much of the site work requires lifts of awkward and heavy objects. Strain placed on the back if lifted incorrectly, may cause serious back injury. Common injuries are sprains to muscles, joint torn ligaments, hernias, cuts and penetration of sharp objects. Where possible all loads shall be moved with the aid of mechanical assistance i.e. forklifts, wheelbarrows or trolley jacks. What a person can lift will vary according to: age, physique and practice. If the load is felt to be too heavy or cannot be lifted without strain – get help. When carrying out manual handling activities it is important to adopt a good handling technique: Stop and think. Plan the lift. Where is the load going to be placed? Use appropriate handling aids if possible. Do you need help with the load? Remove obstructions such as discarded wrapping materials. For a long lift – such as floor to shoulder height – consider resting the load mid-way on a table or bench in order to change grip. Place the feet. Feet apart, giving a balanced and stable base for lifting. Leading leg as far forward as is comfortable.

6 Tool Box Talk No 2 – Lifting and Handling Cont’d
Adopt a good posture. Bend the knees so that they are as nearly level with the waist as possible. But do not kneel or over flex the knees. Keep the back straight (tucking in the chin helps) Lean forward a little over the load if necessary to get a good grip. Keep shoulders level and facing in the same direction as the hips. Get a firm grip. Try to keep the arms within the boundary formed by the legs. The optimum position and nature of the grip depends on the circumstances and individual preference, but it must be secure. A hook grip is less fatiguing than keeping the fingers straight. If it is necessary to vary the grip as the lift proceeds, do this as smoothly as possible. Don’t jerk. Carry out the lifting movement smoothly, keeping control of the load. Move the feet. Don’t twist the trunk when turning to the side. Keep close to the load. Keep the load close to the body for as long as possible. Keep the heaviest side of the load next to the body. If a close approach to the load is not possible try sliding it towards you before attempting to lift it. Put down, then adjust. If precise positioning of the load is necessary, put it down first, then slide it into desired position.

7 Tool Box Talk No 3 – Weil’s Disease (Leptospirosis)
Weil’s disease is a bacterial infection caught from contact with rat’s urine. Where water is stagnant or flowing i.e. near rivers, rats may be present. The bacteria enters by cuts in the skin, swallowing dirty water or through the eye. Typical symptoms are flu-like, headaches, fever, sore throat and excessive sweating. If rats are spotted, report this to your Site Manager. Good personal hygiene is essential. Wash your hands before and after eating or going to the toilet. Always wear the protective clothing supplied and look after it – it could save your life. If you attend your doctor’s for any reason, tell them you have been working on a site with rats present so they can eliminate the symptoms of Weil’s disease early.

8 Tool Box Talk No 4 – Abrasive Wheels
An abrasive wheel is defined as a ‘wheel, cylinder, disc or point’. It has abrasive particles and is intended to be power driven. Abrasive wheels must only be mounted and operated by competent persons who must be appointed by the Site Manager. Details must be entered in the site register which is located in the Site Managers Office. On fitting abrasive wheels, the correct disc must be fitted to the spindle and secured fully. All machines must be fitted with a guard, which cannot be removed – these are designed to contain fragments if the blade brakes. If no guard is present report it to the Site Manager immediately – do not use it. Operator’s of the equipment must report all defects in the abrasive wheel, guards or tool rests to the Site Manager. All persons using abrasive wheels must wear ear defenders & goggles. Ensure when using abrasive wheel’s other’s are not working in close vicinity as flying objects may cause them harm. Ensure any loose clothing, hair etc is tied back to ensure you do not become entangled in the equipment. Never exceed usage times and record time used on the Vibration Log

9 Tool Box Talk No 5 – Buried Services
Buried Services are, to a great extent, out of sight, out of mind, until the time comes for someone to dig a hole or start excavating. Prior to any digging on site, buried services must be found and located. This can be done by using drawings produced by the Statutory Authorities. Cables can be located using a ‘CAT’ and ‘GENNY’ equipment which works using a radio frequency to identify the location of pipes and cables. Once pipes / cables are located, they should be marked to identify and secure their position. When digging for cables, a trial hole should be carefully dug by hand to establish the exact position – this will determine the type of soil, type and the depth of the service. Power tools must never be used directly over an indicated cable, unless it has been made dead or isolated. When a service is exposed in the bottom of a trench or excavation, it should be protected with a suitable timber or other material. This will prevent damage to the cable / service. Services across a trench should be supported by slings or props.

10 Tool Box Talk No 5 – Buried Services Cont’d
Cables and services must never be used as a jack or anchorage point. If a service pipe or cable needs to be moved to allow the work to progress, then inform the Site Manager. Never use a mechanical excavator within 0.5m of a service If you damage or uncover service pipes or cables stop work and inform the Site Manager immediately.

11 Tool Box Talk No 6 – Warning Labels and Hazard Data Sheets
Warning labels give basic information about hazardous chemicals. Hazard Safety data sheets give details about chemicals and their hazards – they are provided by manufacturers and suppliers. Millions of people work with hazardous chemicals which can cause health problems and safety hazards such as fires and explosions. Never assume a chemical will be the same. Always read the label before use. Warning labels provide information about the chemical content, first aid requirements, storage, handling precautions, methods of disposal and any special needs. Never colour over, rip or destroy a label on a can or bottle – remember others may assume the contents to be different. E.g. white spirits – water ! If you find a container with no label, report it. Do not handle it without knowing what it is or how to handle it safely. Prior to use, check the hazard data sheet. The information will include health hazard data, i.e. potential harmful effects on you. Your employer should have a COSHH Assessment for a substance. Ask to see it before using a substance. If you have any questions, ask your supervisor.

12 Tool Box Talk No 7- Vibration
Vibration is associated with noise. The louder a noise, the more irritable it is. The greater the exposure to vibration, the more likely there is to be damage. Vibration occurs in four ways:- • Whole Body – Vibration through the body e.g. from a rough terrain vehicle. • Part Body – Through a certain part e.g. hands. • Direct Contact – Through a certain part e.g. hands. • Indirect Contact – Vibration transmitted through a substance, e.g. metal sheeting. Vibration is most common in portable hand-held equipment, e.g. Kango’s, Hilti guns, Stihl saw’s and pneumatic drills. The vibration from this equipment can cause Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) All new equipment should be fitted with anti-vibration handles, insulation to cases that absorbs vibration and notices to inform that potential long term use can lead to vibration effects. Excessive exposure to intense vibration leads to excessive sweating, fatigue and muscle cramps.

13 Tool Box Talk No 7 – Vibration Cont’d
Vibration white Finger (VWF) is a known industrial condition. It results from excessive use of vibratory tools. Finger tips become whitened due to lack of blood circulation and there is a loss of sensation and numbness at nerve endings which can result in permanent damage. Keep hands warm, massage and exercise fingers during work breaks. Take short breaks and reduce the time using the tool to reduce the risk of getting HAVS. Do not exceed usage times detailed in the risk assessment or manufacturers' instructions. Avoid or cut down smoking as this reduces blood circulation. When using vibrating tools details must be entered in the vibration log located in the Site Managers Office. Report defects to the Site Manager, poorly maintained tools can increase vibration levels.

14 Tool Box Talk No 8 – The Health & Safety At Work etc Act 1974
The Act provides a comprehensive framework to promote and encourage high standards of Health & Safety at the workplace. The Act involves everyone and places specific duties on management, employees, self-employed, manufacturers and designers. The Act deals with all safety, health and welfare risks. The Act places responsibility on every employer to ensure as far as reasonably practicable the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. The employer is required to: provide and maintain plant and safe systems of work; provide a safe access and egress at work; and provide a safe place to work. The employer has other duties to his employees to provide adequate welfare facilities, to provide a safety policy and most important to ensure the Health & Safety of his employees.

15 Tool Box Talk No 8 – The Health & Safety At Work etc Act 1974 Cont.
Under the Act, responsibilities are placed on the employee (this means you!). To exercise reasonable care for the health and safety of themselves or others who may be affected by their acts or omissions at work To co-operate with the employer, as far as may be necessary, to enable them to carry out their legal duties in health and safety matters – Obey the Site Rules Not intentionally or recklessly to interfere with anything provided in the interests of health, safety and welfare – Do not remove machine guards, safety barriers etc In addition the Management of Health and Safety at Work regulations 1999 requires employees to use all tools and equipment safely , in accordance with instructions, and to report any and all defects or potential hazards to their employer.

16 Tool Box Talk No 9 – Work at Height - Ladders and Stepladders
Ladders and stepladders are among the most commonly used pieces of access equipment on site and perhaps the most misused. When work at height is necessary a risk assessment will be carried out to ensure the most suitable equipment is selected. If it is not practical to use podium steps, mobile tower,MEWP etc then ladders or step ladders may be used. Only Class One – Industrial ladders and stepladders can be used. Stepladders if selected should always be positioned as far apart as the retaining cord allows with all four legs firmly on the ground. Check prior to use, inspect the stiles and rungs for damage. Check the hinges for lack of repair or missing screws. Never stand on the top step or work of the top three steps. Check where they are being placed, for example, in an access corridor or near a door. Watch out for electric leads hanging across the steps or hindrance of access. Avoid side-on working and do not over reach

17 Tool Box Talk No 9 – Stepladders and Trestles Cont’d
Access ladders should extend at least 1m above the landing point. Ladders must be secured at all times. Ladders must be only used with a ladder stay, anti slip device or footed. Have a strong upper resting point-not plastic guttering All work at height equipment must be inspected before use and weekly (recorded in the Site Register) Report all defects immediately to the Site Manager.

18 Tool Box Talk No 10 - Scaffold
All scaffolds / working platforms to be properly constructed to provide adequate working space and comply with statutory regulations. Scaffold must only be erected, modified or dismantled by an trained and competent person e.g. scaffolder. All scaffolders must be registered with the CISRS Scheme. All materials to be free from defects and inspected before use. Scaffold must be constructed of sound, strong material. Tubes are not to be bent, rusty or distorted. No scaffold shall be left partly erected or dismantled unless adequate notices are displayed and access blocked. Access onto scaffolding must be prevented during out of working hours-board up or remove the ladders. Bricks, thermal blocks, scraps of odd timber MUST NOT be used under sole plates or for foundations. Boards to be free from splits, knots, concrete, etc and NOT painted to conceal defects. Guardrails and toe boards to be fitted to all areas where falls of operatives or materials may result in injury. Ladder accesses; to be kept clear of materials. Ladder to extend approx’ 1m (4 rungs) above the working platform. Check the ladder is secure before ascending.

19 Tool Box Talk No 10 – Scaffold, Cont’d
Scaffolds must not be overloaded. Materials must not be stored above the height of the handrail and brick guard. Warning notices to be displayed on partially completed scaffold and access blocked. Scaffolds should be inspected:- prior to handover, every 7 days, after adverse weather and after alteration or substantial modification. Immediately report any defects to the Site Manager. Do not throw (bomb) materials from the scaffold.

20 Tool Box Talk No 11– Safe Working On Roofs & At Heights
Almost one in five workers killed in construction accidents are doing roof work. The main causes of accidents are falling of the edges of roofs and falling through holes, roof lights and other fragile surfaces. Many more people are seriously injured or crippled. It must be emphasised that there is no ‘safe height’. Anyone who is off the ground is at risk of falling. Compliance with well established safety procedures and existing legislation could save lives and prevent injuries. All roof work and work at height requires a risk assessment and, if the work is extensive method statement detailing the safe system of work should be produced. Most accidents could be avoided if the most suitable equipment was used and those carrying out the work were given adequate information, instruction , training and supervision. If possible avoid work at height e.g. use extendable equipment. The following must be provided when working on any roof: Safe access and egress e.g. scaffold Safe means of moving across the roof A means of preventing falls (workers and materials) Measures to prevent falls through fragile materials and mitigate the consequences should a fall occur e.g. nets

21 Tool Box Talk No 11 – Safe Working On Roofs & At Heights, Cont’d
When installing roof trusses a safe working platform around the perimeter of the roof must be provided along with a measures to mitigate the distance and consequences of a fall. Fall arrest equipment e.g. harnesses should be inspected prior to use for defects and wear and tear. Defects must be reported to the Site Manager. Special precautions must be implemented during adverse weather. Do not allow waste/debris to build up on the working platform. Everyone who works at height must be trained and competent.

22 Tool Box Talk No 12 – Safe Storage Of Gas Cylinders
Store cylinders in a well ventilated area – preferably in the open air. Store cylinders away from fire risk and away from sources of heat and ignition. The area should be marked ‘No Smoking’. All cylinders must be stored upright on a firm, level surface and cylinders must be secured to prevent them falling. Store nothing else in the cylinder storage area. In particular, avoid oil, paint or corrosive or flammable liquids. Segregate full and empty cylinders in the store. Liquid petroleum gases (propane or butane) must be stored in a minimum of 3m away from ANY other gas cylinder type. If there is any chance of fire, a dry powder fire extinguisher must be present. Cylinders should never be lifted by the cylinder regulator or screw thread – it causes excessive damage to occur. Never roll cylinders along the ground as markings become non-identifiable and cylinders get damaged. At all times be aware of persons working around you with LPG/gas cylinders – knowing a little bit more information could help prevent an accident.

23 Tool Box Talk No 13 – Protection Of Skin
The skin is the largest organ in the human body and comes under the most attack from chemicals and dusts in the industry. Dermatitis is a skin condition caused when skin comes into contact with an irritant substance. Anyone may be affected and the result may be redness, swelling or septic ulcers. Do not use solvents to clean the skin. Ensure any cuts and grazes are covered up. Never wear oil contaminated clothes next to your skin. Some substances such as sulphuric acid burn the skin quickly; mineral oils cause oil acne or cancer and solvents degrease, i.e. remove the fat layer. Employers can reduce the risk by eliminating a substance from the workplace, substituting a known harmful substance for a less harmful one and supplying gloves and other personal protective equipment. Employees must co-operate with employers – if PPE must be worn, then do so. It is supplied for your protection. Always read the label of the container. If in doubt, ask your manager or supervisor for advice on what should be done or contact the H & S Dept for expert advice. If gloves are supplied, look after them. It is essential that PPE is maintained to provide 100% protection.

24 Tool Box Talk No 14 – Protection Of Eyes
Each day in the construction industry there are about 1000 eye injuries, 75% by impact, 10% ingress of dust and 15% by burns or chemicals. You have a legal obligation to use eye protection provided in accordance with the regulations. Employers have a legal duty to supply eye protection. The employee has a legal duty to wear eye protection as required. Employees (i.e. YOU) must look after the eye protection, be it goggles, face shield or safety spectacles. When using tools make sure others will not be affected by your work e.g. sparks from cutting/grinding If there are any defects in the eye protection, you must report it to your employer. The place for eye protection is over your eyes – not on your head or round your neck. If you get something in your eyes seek immediate first aid. Goggles may save your eyes. They must be worn if signs and labels on pieces of equipment show this. If unsure seek advice from the Site Manager. We all have a responsibility for health and safety.

25 Tool Box Talk No 15 – Portable Tools
Used correctly, portable tools can help do many jobs quickly, efficiently and safely. Used incorrectly they may lead to serious injuries. Most accidents are caused by the person using the tool, NOT by the tool itself. Use tools correctly and for what they are designed to do, not for something else. E.g. A stanley knife is not a screwdriver. Always plan ahead, secure all work to keep it steady, concentrate on the job, avoid distractions and take a break. Only use tools for their intended use and in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Always check the tool, before using it for damage e.g. for cracks or splits in casings. Never use damaged or faulty tools. Do not leave power tools running – switch off and disconnect first. Keep all tools in a good condition. Report defects/faults immediately Maintain all tools on a regular basis, i.e. remove rust and lubricate. Well maintained tools will give you years of safe dependable service. Keep your work area clear. Do not leave tool unattended Store tools correctly. Use PPE in accordance with the risk assessment and safe system of work.

26 Tool Box Talk No 16 – Cartridge/Pressure Operated Tools
Cartridge and Pressure Propelled tools are potentially lethal if used incorrectly by untrained persons. Persons using these tools must be over 18 years of age and have received proper formal training. Many manufacturers offer this type of training i.e. Hilti/Paslode. Cartridge are powered by a small powered cartridge, usually in strips (like caps in a cap gun). The strength of the cartridge is shown by the colour of the strip. When using cartridges, they must not be used loose but kept in their strip. Cartridges which are not used must NOT be thrown away, as they are still ‘live’. The cartridges must not be disposed of on a fire due to the explosive element. Pressure operated tools are powered by a gas cylinder. When using these tool be aware of what you are fixing to, or if persons are working behind the material. It may be that a safe working zone may have to be put in place around the work area. Cartridge/Pressure operated tools must not be carried with your finger on the trigger. Hearing and eye protection must always be worn when using this type of tool, many hazards exist, e.g. ricochets, misfires, fragments from flying up into the face. Always check for defects prior to use Be aware of working surroundings, e.g. the gun may recoil which may lead to a loss of balance on a scaffold or working platform. Operators not familiar with the tool should test for recoil at ground level prior to working at height. At the end of a working day, the tools must be put back into a box and checked by a competent person responsible for the issue and maintain of equipment.

27 Tool Box Talk No 17 - COSHH COSHH stands for Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health. All persons at work need to know the risk to health from exposure to substances. Your employer has a legal duty to provide information to you about the dangers that can rise from exposure to harmful substances. Always read the label prior to use or disposal of a substance and ask to see the Safety Data Sheet and the COSHH assessment. Contain any spillages (Spill Kits) and report immediately. Hazardous substances include:- cement, hard wood dust, solvents and epoxy resins You can be affected by a hazardous substance by:- Ingestion-eating contaminated food Inhalation-breathing harmful dusts or fumes Absorption-chemicals entering through broken skin Labels show the extent of harm from the substances:- Skull & Cross Bones – Toxic – poisonous Liquid Causing Burn – Corrosive Black Cross on Orange Background – Harmful or Irritant PPE is a last but must be worn. Always wash at the end of each day and before eating

28 Tool Box Talk No 17 – COSHH, Cont’d
Remember that even the most commonly used materials can kill: Oil – carcinogen (potential to cause cancer) Cement- Lung Damage Concrete – Skin Burns/Dermatitis Epoxy Materials – Highly Flammable and can damage your lungs by inhalation. COSHH is important – be aware and work safely.

29 Tool Box Talk No 18 – Hypodermic Needles

30 Tool Box Talk No 19 – Mobile Alloy Scaffold Towers
Only trained and competent operatives to erect/dismantle tower scaffolds. Always ensure that the correct components are available to use, prior to erecting a tower. Always read the manufacturer’s /supplier’s instruction pamphlet prior to the erection of the tower. At height, guardrails must be fitted at all times. On all towers, toebaords must be fitted into position to prevent materials being kicked off. Always use the internal ladder, never climb up the outside of the tower. Never use ladders, boxes, etc on the tower to gain additional height. Never use the tower in the vicinity of live electrical appliances or near unguarded materials. If the tower has to be used or moved, no persons must be on the tower when it is moved. Towers can fall over. If outriggers and brakes are fitted to wheels, then use them – they are a safety feature. Do not drop equipment during assembly or dismantling of the tower. Always use a hoist line; do not carry materials up ladders.

31 Tool Box Talk No 20 - Ladders
Use only clear varnish to protect a ladder – paint may cover up defects. Never use a damaged or defective ladder. Make sure the ladder is set on a firm level base. Tie the ladder at the top – if it cannot be tied, it should be footed. Make sure the ladder is long enough to reach the working platform or at the point at which you must stand. The correct pitch of ladder is 4 to 1 (1foot out at the base for every 4 feet high). Use the correct length of ladder for the job. Never lash two ladders together to make a longer one. Do not carry loads on ladders – use a hoist line. If working from a ladder, do not overreach – move the ladder. Ladders should only be used as a means of access and for short duration works only. Beware of wet, muddy or icy rungs. Inspect ladders before use. Remember a ladder is a means of access, not a working place. Only Class 1 ladders must be used.

32 Tool Box Talk No 21 - Housekeeping
Don’t leave rubbish lying about – deposit all rubbish into the designated bins and skips provided. Keep all walkways, aisles and stairways clear. Wipe up split oil, grease or liquids. Clear up turnings, chippings, and off cuts. Store all oily or greasy rags in metal containers. Stack goods and materials clear of gangways and paths. Store tools and hazardous substances away safely when not in use. Keep work areas uncluttered. Don’t accumulate scrap or waste. Ensure that access to the extinguishers and fire exits are not obstructed. Keep all doorways and exit routes clear of obstructions. A tidy site is a safe site – be aware!

33 Tool Box Talk No 22 – Head Protection
Safety helmets are required to be worn at all times whilst on site – it is company policy and a requirement by law. A safety helmet need not be worn in a vehicle cab or whilst in the site canteen Falling materials and objects can result in serious injuries. Wearing a safety helmet reduces the risk of such injuries – it can save your life. Check your own helmet regularly for cracks, splits or any signs of damage. If the helmet is damaged then replace it. Adjust the internal harness to fit your head comfortably, firm enough to prevent the helmet falling off. Stickers and paint may damage your helmet – they can cause the outer shell to weaken. Strong sunlight may weaken your helmet. A helmet on the rear parcel shelf of a car is not a good idea. A helmet is for use on your head, do not use it as a storage point for nails or screws. It is provided as protection from injury.

34 Tool Box Talk No 23 – Hand Care
One of the most important factors is personal cleanliness. An appropriate industrial skin protection cream should be used unless gloves can be worn. Wear gloves when there is a risk of a hand injury or when handling rough/sharp/hazardous materials. Cuts and punctures can turn septic – always get first aid promptly. Change soiled dressings regularly. Jewellery – especially rings – can be dangerous. Don’t wear them at work. Never remove guards from machinery. Wash before eating – there may be harmful materials on your hands. Do not use solvent to clean your hands. At the end of the working day, wash your hands thoroughly with warm water and soap, or use a hand cleaner, rinse and dry well. Remember, many materials used at work can cause dermatitis. Clean habits prevent diseases.

35 Tool Box Talk No 24 – The Health & Safety Executive – Factory Inspectors
The inspectors are responsible for enforcing the HASAWA 1974 and regulations. They have certain powers to carry out their job, the power to enter any site or premises, to close sites down, to take statements, photographs and records, and to order that plant and equipment be tested. If a rule is broken, they may issue a PROHIBITION NOTICE if they are of the opinion that the circumstances present a serious risk to personal safety. They may issue an IMPROVEMENT NOTICE if a specific rule or regulation has been broken. They may prosecute a person who contravenes a requirement or fails to comply with a prohibition notice or an improvement notice (including an employee) Successful prosecutions attract a maximum fine of £5,000 or 6 months imprisonment. In 1992, penalties of £20,000 were introduced. Presently, the largest fine recorded for breach of health and safety legislation is £500,000. The HSE are an advisory service to you on site in dealing with health and safety concerns.

36 Tool Box Talk No 25 – Machinery Guarding
Many serious accidents at work involve the use of machinery. Guards are normally used to protect the operator from moving parts. Four types of machinery injury:- TRAPS - Body or limbs get trapped in machine parts CONTACT - Contact with sharp or abrasive surfaces ENTANGLEMENT- Entanglement of hair, ties, jewellery in rotating machinery parts. EJECTION - Parts being thrown from the machine. Machinery is only to be used by persons who are competent and who have been trained in its use. If any defects are noted these must be brought to the attention of your employer. Faults can be rectified, injuries cannot. Guards must never be removed at any time other than for maintenance. Then and only then can guards be removed. All machines must be switched off and / or disconnected to prevent accidental starts. Machinery safety can be achieved by eliminating the cause of the danger, reducing the need to operate the machine at close range and making access to parts difficult. The last resort is to provide Personal Protective Equipment for use with machinery, only if no other measures have been put in place, i.e. guarding.

37 Tool Box Talk No 25 – Machinery Guarding, Cont’d
Goggles must be worn when using stihl saws and abrasive wheels – this is a statutory requirement.

38 Tool Box Talk No 26 – First Aid At Work
A duty is placed on the employer to provide adequate first aid equipment and facilities. He must appoint a sufficient number of trained persons to administer first aid. The employer must inform employees of first aid arrangements including the location of equipment and personnel. If you do not know where these are, ask your manager or supervisor. First Aiders must have received training and hold a current first aid certificate issued by an approved organisation, e.g. British Red Cross. The numbers of first aiders required depends on the numbers of persons on a site. Where 50 people are working, at least one first aider must be present. Unless other arrangements have been made, each contractor or sub-contractor on site will have to make their own provisions. Every employer must provide one or more first aid boxes. They are found in green boxes, usually with a white cross on the front. The container holds first aid equipment and nothing else. The first aid box is located in the Site Managers Office. First aid certificates are valid for 3 years. All accidents on site must be reported to the Site Manger. If first aid treatment is required, a first aider can then give you treatment. All accidents must be recorded in the accident book (yellow book – B1510) and on the companies standard accident report form.

39 Tool Box Talk No 27 - Fire The risk of fire during construction increases as more materials are placed inside the structure. It is not unusual for fire damage on a building site to exceed £250,000. Fire can be spread in four ways:- CONDUCTION: Heat being transmitted from one place to another. CONVECTION: Heat rises and carries burning matter into the air. RADIATION: Heat is transferred through a material, igniting combustibles at a distance. DIRECT BURN: Fire ignites combustibles close by. Fires must never be started on construction sites. Smoking is not allowed in offices, stores, canteen facilities and toilets. However, a designated area must be allowed for smokers. Different types of extinguishers are available, these are colour coded on the front of the extinguishers and are easily identifiable. RED - WATER BLUE - DRY POWDER CREAM - FOAM BLACK - CARBON DIOXIDE

40 Tool Box Talk No 27 – Fire, Cont’d
If you are undertaking hot works on site you must obtain a hot work permit from the Site Manager. If in doubt, contact the Safety Dept’ for further information and advice. Keep all emergency exits and emergency access corridors clear. Clear up waste after use – remember good housekeeping will reduce the risk of fire. In case of fire – no matter how small: Raise the alarm Call the fire brigade Close all doors and windows to prevent fire spread Evacuate the building Await the arrival of the fire brigade Do not re-enter the building unless authorised to do so. Familiarise yourself with on-site fire procedure – ask your Site Manager for further information.

41 Tool Box Talk No 28 - Excavations
Every year, on average, 7 people are killed when working in excavations. Many others are seriously injured. A relatively small collapse might involve 1m³ of soil: Therefore 1m³ of soil = 1 tonne Deep trenches look dangerous but most accidents take place in trenches less than 2.5m deep. Where a person can fall 1.5m or more, suitable barriers must be erected, i.e. physical barrier. Less than 1.5m excavations must be protected by netlon fencing. Barriers keep plant and materials away from edges of trenches. They must be at least 1.20m from the edge. Spoil heaps can serve as an effective barrier, as long as they are away from the edge as excessive weight causes ground collapse. Barriers may be removed to permit access of men, plant and equipment but are to be replaced as soon as possible. Where vehicles tip materials, well anchored stop-blocks are to be used. Before entering an excavation, check for soil slip, that shoring is in place and that it is safe to enter. Ensure adequate access / egress is provided i.e. secure ladder.

42 Tool Box Talk No 29 - Electricity
Always treat electrical installations and electricity with the utmost care and attention – it is a potential killer. Do not touch or work on electrical installations if not authorised to do so. Only 110v equipment to be used on site. Distribution cables must not cause a hazard at openings, corridors, stairs, bottom of ladders – where possible, hang cables up out of the way. Never allow unprotected or damaged cables to lie on the ground in wet conditions of where they are prone to physical damage. Ensure cables are protected from sharp edges, use packing for added protection. If plugs and connectors are damaged or split, they must be replaced by a competent, trained person, i.e. an electrician. Never improvise plugs or connections by using nails, matches, silver paper, etc. If leads are required to be made up, get an electrician to do it. Ensure trailing leads are not cut or frayed, do not tape up broken cables – replace and get them fixed. Bound cables get hot, eventually causing fires – fires kill, don’t allow it.

43 Tool Box Talk No 30 – Hoists and Hoist Towers
Hoists of various types are available in construction. They include: goods, passengers, mobile and inclined hoists. They have become an essential part of any construction operation. All hoists must be erected by competent persons, fully aware of the legal requirements. Special attention must be paid to ground conditions (support). Hoist operators to be trained. They must ensure that the hoist is not overloaded or abused in its use. Every hoist must be free of defects, constructed of sound materials and strong enough for the work intended. They must:- - be kept in good condition - be properly inspected and records kept A hoist is only to be erected on a firm base. All support materials must be: - strong enough for the work - free from defects All chains and ropes must be in good condition. They must be examined and certified by a competent person. Hoistways must be protected by a suitable enclosure at ground level to prevent persons being struck by moving parts. Access gates must be kept closed at all times. A LEGAL duty is placed on persons to close the gates after use.

44 Tool Box Talk No 30 – Hoists and Hoist Towers, Cont’d
The platform of goods hoist must carry a notice stating: - the safe working load - that passengers must not ride on the hoist All loads must be secured to prevent any part slipping or falling. All hoists must be tested and thoroughly examined by a competent person before use on site and at least every 6 months.

45 Tool Box Talk No 31 – Dust Dust in its many forms causes ill health in building and construction. Dust is anything which forms a powder or cloud and is a nuisance. Dusts include cement, silica, fillers, plastics, wood, etc. Dust in confined spaces causes additional risk to health and there is the potential risk of explosions. Dust causes health problems from simple skin irritation to respiratory problems, some types of cancer and nasal problems. If you are unaware of a dust hazard created from a material, then ask your supervisor to explain the risks via a COSHH assessment. When creating a dust, wear protective equipment; goggles, gloves, respiratory equipment. Dust masks are freely available; if levels are high, change the masks frequently. Use other forms of ventilation and ensure good ventilation. Maintain a good level of personal hygiene, before and after work. Wash your hands before eating, drinking or smoking. Dust enters the body by inhalation or the nose and throat. Observe good working practices to reduce the effects and damage of dust – in its various forms!

46 Tool Box Talk No 32 – Plant and Equipment
When plant is constantly moving on or around a site, pedestrians must be aware of the routes a forklift or dumper must take. On site, fixed routes and access points will be laid down to emphasise where pedestrians only may go. They will be away from plant movement. Only trained, certified persons (CPCS) may operate mechanical plant of any type. If your mate asks you to move a piece of plant, don’t do it unless you are trained to do so. The consequences could be disastrous. Operatives must not ride on pieces of plant. This may only be done if there is a seat or place provided for that purpose. Persons must not remain on a vehicle being mechanically loaded with loose material, unless adequate protection is provided. If machines are left running for a short time, the handbrake must be applied and the machine taken out of gear. Before using a piece of plant or equipment, familiarise yourself with its operation, where the controls are and what they do. Check for repairs or any defects and report these to your employer. Plant and Equipment must be regularly inspected and the results recorded in the site register. Plant movements should be co-ordinated by a trained and competent banksman.

47 Tool Box Talk No 32 – Plant and Equipment, Cont’d
If a driver cannot see you or your workmates, get into a clear position where you are not vulnerable or can come to harm. Make sure the driver is aware of your position at all times. Where plant travels near holes or excavations, then these should be fenced or guarded. Timber balks or sleepers may be used to provide protection against wheel slippage or vehicles running over the edge.

48 Tool Box Talk No 33 – Noise – It’s Health Effects On You
Noise is unwanted sound. It comes from all different places (sources) – portable tools, machines, compressors. The extent of noise damage is related to the type of noise, loudness and the amount of time exposed to it. Noise is measured in decibels from 0 – 160 decibels. The higher the noise level, the greater the damage on the human ear. The human ear collects the noise and converts the vibrations into nerve messages to the brain via the cochlea. The cochlea is a fluid filled tube with thousands of tiny hairs which waft the noise exposure. The noise is converted to electrical messages to the brain. Excessive noise energy causes a protection reflex known as threshold shift. It may last minutes or hours, slight deafness is typical. Tinnitus is continual ringing in the ears resulting from intense noise exposure and is often irreversible (i.e. no cure). Presbycusis is hearing loss in old age (natural loss of hearing). Every effort must be made to use the least noisy reasonably practicable work methods. All plant/equipment must be maintained sufficiently and used in such a way as to keep noise levels as low as reasonably practicable.

49 Tool Box Talk NO 33 – Noise – It’s Health Effects On You, Cont’d
All plant/equipment must be maintained sufficiently and used in such a way as to keep noise levels as low as reasonably practicable. Wear ear protection if the noise is such that you have to shout to someone 1m away to be heard. Hands should be clean when handling ear protection, only use disposable ear plugs once. The sub-contractor must provide the Site Manager with a copy of all appropriate noise assessments made under the Noise At Work Regs 1989.

50 Tool Box Talk No 34 – Working In Confined Spaces
Every entry into a confined space is potentially hazardous. Entry may only proceed if it is in accordance with a proper safe system of work (permit to work). Places which are known as confined spaces include chambers, manholes, sewers, boilers, shafts, lofts etc. Many dangers exist and these include oxygen deprivation or suffocation. Air contains approximately 21% oxygen. At a level below 17% oxygen, breathing becomes difficult and death may occur. In toxic atmospheres due to toxic (poisonous) gases, e.g. hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, and inflammable atmospheres, some gases need only be present in small quantities, e.g. methane, white spirit. Prior to entry into a confined space, everyone must be aware of the dangers that exist. There will be a need for a safe system of work and the procedures in order to carry out the work safely. Any person entering a confined space must be trained. The extent of training needed will vary according to the circumstances. Entry into a confined space must not be made unless a special gas monitor is present to monitor gases in the space. If a danger, exists, an alarm will sound.

51 Tool Box Talk No 34 – Working In confined Spaces, Cont’d
For work to be done safely in a confined space, the use of Personal Protective Equipment must be considered. This includes overalls, respirators (not paper masks), gloves and wellingtons. For work to be done safely in a confined space, great care has to be taken over the detail of each step of the procedure. Common causes of accidents are:- Failure to set up a safe system of work Failure to follow an established system of work Incorrect use of respiratory equipment Use of an incorrect type of respirator Failure to use safety harness and lifelines ill– conceived rescue attempts If in doubt, ask your employer for help. Remember, entry into a confined space is extremely dangerous, it requires everyone’s involvement to ensure that procedures are followed. Ensure Emergency procedures are in place prior to entry.

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