Presentation on theme: "Fwm 407: Training in Firearm and Ballistics Jayeola, O.A (Ph.D) SCOPE Why study firearms Type and specification of firearms and ammunition Maintenance."— Presentation transcript:
Fwm 407: Training in Firearm and Ballistics Jayeola, O.A (Ph.D) SCOPE Why study firearms Type and specification of firearms and ammunition Maintenance of firearms Types of shooting ranges Animal hunting method Sociology of hunting
TEN COMMANDMENTS OF FIREARMS SAFETY Treat every gun with the respect due a loaded gun Be sure of your target before pulling the trigger Always be sure that the barrel and action are cleared of obstruction Never point your gun at anything you do not want to shoot Never leave your gun unattended unless you unload it first Avoid alcoholic beverage both before and during shooting Never climb a tree or cross a fence with a loaded gun Never shoot at the hard / flat surface or surface of water. Make sure you have a safe back stop Carry only empty guns, taken down or with the action open into camp, or home Store gun and ammunitions separately beyond the reach of children.
HUNTING ETHICS Hunting has 2 laws; one is the written law. The other is the unwritten law; it is an ethical code of conduct that the fire sportsman places on himself. Ethical hunters knows his skill and respect is welcome Improves his shot and learn about his game and range Respect his game and hunt fairly He does not waste a game Hunts only a mature game Present live game in prime condition to the kitchen
HUNTER-LANDOWNER RELATION Few hunters are lucky enough personally to own land that abound with game. So for the most part when todays hunters enter the field, he becomes someones guest, welcome or unwelcome. H But no matter who the host is, the welcome aspect is important to the hunter because it helps determine how much land will remain open for hunting. There are three (3) separate approaches which a hunter can take to cope with this problem: Preventive, Protective and Corrective 1.THE PREVENTIVE APPROACH involves nothing more than doing your best not to harm the welcome you now have to hunt on someone elses property. Care not to hunt your welcome on farmland, Drop by to say hello. Never hunt where he didnt indicate Never disturb his peace (property) On State Government land Respecting field, forest facility on corporate land Avoid fire Respect tree and facilities The PROTECTIVE approach means making sure that the land owner knows that you appreciate his allowing you to hunt. The CORRECTIVE approach can be the most difficult because it involves changing a land owners mind.
Method of Hunting 1.STALKING 2.STILL HUNTING 3.HIDE SHOOTING 4.TRACKING 5.DRIVE BEAT 6.VARIETIES OF BEAT (a)Loud Beat. (b)Still beat – 7.CHASE HUNTING 8.TRAPPING 9.DOG PACKS 10.TRIBAL HUNTING AND RING BURNING 11.NIGHT SHOOTING 12.SPECIAL HUNTING METHOD FOR CROPPING
GENERAL REMARKS (a)Do not shoot more animals than necessary i.e. do not butcher – shooting rate must not exceed natality rate of the animals. Thus certain species that can be endangered or extincted must not be shot. (b)Do not shoot for pleasure (c)Only shoot at an animal you have fully recognized to be an animal (d)Only shoot when sure of shooting (e)Spare the animal from pain – shoot to kill as quickly as possible PROPER PLACES TO AIM AT WHEN SHOOTING Target classified as follows: Brain shot Spine shot (Neck) Crest shot (Neural crest) Heart shot Lung shot Shoulder shot (affect heart, lungs and scapula) Girth shot (kidney, liver and intestine) Leg bone shot (dislocate bone of leg) Flesh shot (does not damage bone or vital organ, but either grazes muscles or goes right through)
AMMUNITION These are the materials used for charging firearms e.g. missiles and propellants. The powder charge consists of the following: a.Potassium Nitrate (KNO 3 )73% b.Charcoal15% c.Sulphur10% There are two types of bullets Soft nose (copper coated) Hard nose (silver coated) Soft nose bullets are used for thin skinned animals like Hartebeest, gazelles and Oribi because of the mush rooming ability. Hard nose is used for shooting thick skinned animals like Elephant, buffalo, hippo and Rhino because of their ability to penetrate deeper. Shooting Ranges FirearmRange 0 – 22 riffle1.25 mile (2km) riffle5km = 3 mile Shot gun pellet457 metre (500 yards) Shot gun slog2.4km, 1½mile
DEFINITION OF BALLISTICS This the study of Ballistics, firearms and the movement of projectiles within and outside the firearms, the structure of the working mechanism of firearms behaviour of flying projectiles both in and outside firearms and the effect on the target. IMPORTANCE OF BALLISTICS game control, capturing to check for diseases and for marking in wildlife management technique. Conservation Protection by law enforcement (anti-poaching) Research and Education Treatment of Zoo animals include: translocation, routine medical examination and administering vitamins, antibiotics, hormones or any other liquid drugs from a safe distance. For sport hunting.
Division of Ballistic Ballistic Internal Ballistic Barrel TimeLock Time Ignition Time External Ballistic Terminal Ballistic Effect on Target
FIREARMS DESIGN AND OPERATION RIFFLE It is the shoulder firearm that fires a single projectile or bullet. Types of Action Bolt action riffles are still the most common type for hunting through out the world. Bolt action is efficient, reliable and easy to manufacture. Disadvantage The total overall length for any given barrel is greater than brake open (shot gun) action with one or more barrel. There are three kinds of sporting riffle. Semi automatic riffle Lever action Slide or pump action weapon The diameter of the balls (pellets) in metres or millimeter (mm) is generally called the CALIBRE. Caliber indicate a 3 inches and an original cartridge box standardized in the new caliber 6x47 means a bolt 6mm in diameter or inches and cartridge case 47mm.
THE GUN, ITS PARTS AND FUNCTIONS A gun is a tube sealed at one end, designed for discharging a missile known as bullets or pellets. It is so designed to provide maximum safety. Its accuracy is determined by measurement of the diameter of the typical; grouped fire under ideal condition. This measurement is expressed in a Minute of Angle (MOA). A weapon that can consistently group shots within an inch circle or 2.5cm diameter at 9 metres or 100 yards MOA or a bit less is considered excellent and can be used for long range. To have a Minute of Angle (MOA) accurately, a number of factors are required: 1.The bolt must fit properly and hold the cartridge correctly in the chamber 2.The bolt must be very straight, 3.The barrels must be properly bedded into the stock i.e. best well fed When fired, if the weapon set a vibration in the barrel and the pressure is wrongly placed, it may cause them to go astray and this affects the velocity and accuracy of the weapon. 4.Sight must be firmly mounted and well aligning with the ball 5.The trigger pull must be cleaned in order to attain fast lock time i.e. the interval of time from the gear release until the impact of firing pin on the primer.
Types of ammunition The shot guns are shoulder firearms that fire a cluster of shots or pellets as opposed to a single bullet by a riffle. A Hand gun is a small firearm that can be held in one hand. It usually fires a single projectile or bullet. Many sportsmen throughout the world carry a small pistol with them when hunting or fishing generally Cal. 22mm fire weapon not practiced for use on games larger than hare or rabbit. Pistol have been manufactured as secondary weapons even against dangerous animals. Typical ones are the heavy revolver that takes magnum ammunition of cal. 44.