Presentation on theme: "Fwm 407: Training in Firearm and Ballistics"— Presentation transcript:
1Fwm 407: Training in Firearm and Ballistics Jayeola, O.A (Ph.D)SCOPEWhy study firearmsType and specification of firearms and ammunitionMaintenance of firearmsTypes of shooting rangesAnimal hunting methodSociology of hunting
2TEN COMMANDMENTS OF FIREARMS SAFETY Treat every gun with the respect due a loaded gunBe sure of your target before pulling the triggerAlways be sure that the barrel and action are cleared of obstructionNever point your gun at anything you do not want to shootNever leave your gun unattended unless you unload it firstAvoid alcoholic beverage both before and during shootingNever climb a tree or cross a fence with a loaded gunNever shoot at the hard / flat surface or surface of water. Make sure you have a safe back stopCarry only empty guns, taken down or with the action open into camp, or homeStore gun and ammunitions separately beyond the reach of children.
3HUNTING ETHICS Hunting has 2 laws; one is the written law . The other is the unwritten law; it is an ethical code of conduct that the fire sportsman places on himself.Ethical hunters knows his skill and respect is welcomeImproves his shot and learn about his game and rangeRespect his game and hunt fairlyHe does not waste a gameHunts only a mature gamePresent live game in prime condition to the kitchen
4HUNTER-LANDOWNER RELATION Few hunters are lucky enough personally to own land that abound with game. So for the most part when today’s hunters enter the field, he becomes someone’s guest, welcome or unwelcome. HBut no matter who the host is, the “welcome” aspect is important to the hunter because it helps determine how much land will remain open for hunting.There are three (3) separate approaches which a hunter can take to cope with this problem: Preventive, Protective and Corrective1. THE PREVENTIVE APPROACH involves nothing more than doing your best not to harm the welcome you now have to hunt on someone else’s property. Care not to hunt your welcome on farmland,Drop by to say hello.Never hunt where he didn’t indicateNever disturb his peace (“property”)On State Government landRespecting field, forest facility on corporate landAvoid fireRespect tree and facilities The PROTECTIVE approach means making sure that the land owner knows that you appreciate his allowing you to hunt.The CORRECTIVE approach can be the most difficult because it involves changing a land owners mind.
5Method of Hunting 1. STALKING 2. STILL HUNTING 3. HIDE SHOOTING 2. STILL HUNTING3. HIDE SHOOTING4. TRACKING5. DRIVE BEAT6. VARIETIES OF BEAT(a) Loud Beat.(b) Still beat –7. CHASE HUNTING8. TRAPPING9. DOG PACKS10. TRIBAL HUNTING AND RING BURNING11. NIGHT SHOOTING12. SPECIAL HUNTING METHOD FOR CROPPING
6GENERAL REMARKS(a) Do not shoot more animals than necessary i.e. do not butcher – shooting rate must not exceed natality rate of the animals. Thus certain species that can be endangered or extincted must not be shot.(b) Do not shoot for pleasure(c) Only shoot at an animal you have fully recognized to be an animal(d) Only shoot when sure of shooting(e) Spare the animal from pain – shoot to kill as quickly as possiblePROPER PLACES TO AIM AT WHEN SHOOTINGTarget classified as follows:Brain shotSpine shot (Neck)Crest shot (Neural crest)Heart shotLung shotShoulder shot (affect heart, lungs and scapula)Girth shot (kidney, liver and intestine)Leg bone shot (dislocate bone of leg)Flesh shot (does not damage bone or vital organ, but either grazes muscles or goes right through)
7AMMUNITION There are two types of bullets Soft nose (copper coated) These are the materials used for charging firearms e.g. missiles and propellants. The powder charge consists of the following:a. Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) 73%b. Charcoal 15%c. Sulphur 10%There are two types of bulletsSoft nose (copper coated)Hard nose (silver coated)Soft nose bullets are used for thin skinned animals like Hartebeest, gazelles and Oribi because of the mush rooming ability.Hard nose is used for shooting thick skinned animals like Elephant, buffalo, hippo and Rhino because of their ability to penetrate deeper.Shooting RangesFirearm Range0 – 22 riffle mile (2km)30.06 riffle 5km = 3 mileShot gun pellet metre (500 yards)Shot gun slog 2.4km, 1½mile
8DEFINITION OF BALLISTICS This the study of Ballistics, firearms and the movement of projectiles within and outside the firearms, the structure of the working mechanism of firearms behaviour of flying projectiles both in and outside firearms and the effect on the target.IMPORTANCE OF BALLISTICSgame control, capturing to check for diseases and for marking in wildlife management technique.ConservationProtection by law enforcement (anti-poaching)Research and EducationTreatment of Zoo animals include: translocation, routine medical examination and administering vitamins, antibiotics, hormones or any other liquid drugs from a safe distance.For sport hunting.
9Division of Ballistic Ballistic Internal Ballistic Barrel Time Lock TimeIgnition TimeExternal BallisticTerminal BallisticEffect on Target
10FIREARMS DESIGN AND OPERATION RIFFLE It is the shoulder firearm that fires a single projectile or bullet.Types of ActionBolt action riffles are still the most common type for hunting through out the world.Bolt action is efficient, reliable and easy to manufacture.DisadvantageThe total overall length for any given barrel is greater than brake open (shot gun) action with one or more barrel.There are three kinds of sporting riffle.Semi automatic riffleLever actionSlide or pump action weaponThe diameter of the balls (pellets) in metres or millimeter (mm) is generally called the CALIBRE. Caliber indicate a 3 inches and an original cartridge box standardized in the new caliber 6x47 means a bolt 6mm in diameter or inches and cartridge case 47mm.
11THE GUN, ITS PARTS AND FUNCTIONS A gun is a tube sealed at one end, designed for discharging a missile known as bullets or pellets. It is so designed to provide maximum safety. Its accuracy is determined by measurement of the diameter of the typical; grouped fire under ideal condition.This measurement is expressed in a Minute of Angle (MOA).A weapon that can consistently group shots within an inch circle or 2.5cm diameter at 9 metres or 100 yards MOA or a bit less is considered excellent and can be used for long range. To have a Minute of Angle (MOA) accurately, a number of factors are required:1. The bolt must fit properly and hold the cartridge correctly in the chamber2. The bolt must be very straight,3. The barrels must be properly bedded into the stock i.e. best well fedWhen fired, if the weapon set a vibration in the barrel and the pressure is wrongly placed, it may cause them to go astray and this affects the velocity and accuracy of the weapon.4. Sight must be firmly mounted and well aligning with the ball5. The trigger pull must be cleaned in order to attain fast lock time i.e. the interval of time from the gear release until the impact of firing pin on the primer.
12Types of ammunitionThe shot guns are shoulder firearms that fire a cluster of shots or pellets as opposed to a single bullet by a riffle.A Hand gun is a small firearm that can be held in one hand. It usually fires a single projectile or bullet.Many sportsmen throughout the world carry a small pistol with them when hunting or fishing generally Cal. 22mm fire weapon not practiced for use on games larger than hare or rabbit.Pistol have been manufactured as secondary weapons even against dangerous animals.Typical ones are the heavy revolver that takes magnum ammunition of cal. 44.