Presentation on theme: "Major Disasters Fire InitiatedToxic Release. ANYTHING WITH POTENTIAL FOR PRODUCING AN ACCIDENT. PROBABILITY OF HAZARD RESULTING AN ACCIDENT. HAZARD RISK."— Presentation transcript:
MAJOR FIRE RISK IDENTIFICATION RISK ANALYSIS TRANSACTIONAL DECISION YES NO No Risk Management Risk Control TransferReduceRetain
For any Industrial Process Plant Following questions must be asked and answered 1.What are the Hazards ? 2.What can go wrong and how? 3.What are the chances? 4.What are the consequences?
CONESQUENCES OF HAZARDOUS EVENT FIRE/ EXPLOSION VAPOUR CLOUD EXPLOSION FORMATION OF TOXIC ATMOSPHERE
Different Terminologies of Hazardous Situations Pool Fire Jet Fire Flash/ Cloud Fire Vapour Cloud Explosion (VCE) High Pressure Rupture BLEVE Release of Toxic Gases/ Liquids
Heat Radiation levels and Damage Effects (As per API 521) Radiation Level (kW/Sq.m) Observed Effect 4.0Sufficient to cause pain to personnel within 20 second 12.5Minimum Energy required for piloted ignition of Wood and melting of Plastic Tubing 37.5Sufficient to cause damage to Process Equipment
Explosion Over Pressure Level and Damage Effects Overpressure (bar)Damage produced by Blast Effect 0.02No considerable damage except shattering of few glass panes 0.13Partial collapse of Buildings 0.20Steel framed building distorted and pulled away from the foundation
THE FIRST STAGE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN A PROCESS PLANT ESSENTIALLY CONSISTS OF THREE STEPS : 1.IDENTIFYING THE HAZARD 2.ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OR CONSEQUENCES OF THE HAZARD 3.DETERMINING PROBABILITY OR LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE OF HAZARDOUS EVENT
THE NEXT STEP OF RISK ASSESSMENT TO DETERMINE WHETHER EFFECTS OF THE CONSEQUENCE AND THE PROBABAILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE HAZARD IS WITHIN THE ACCEPTABLE LIMIT OR NOT.
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGY HAZARDS IN PROCESS PLANTS ARE PRIMARILY IDENTIFIED BASED ON FOLLOWING INFORMATION : HAZARDOUS PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS TYPE OF UNIT PROCESS/ OPERATION OPERATING PARAMETERS ANY OTHER RELEVENT DATA NFPA CODE NO. 325 M CHECK-LIST DOW INDEX
COMMONLY USED STRUCTURED HAZARD IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES 1.WHAT IF ? ANALYSIS : What if the Raw Material contains impurities? What if Cooling Water is Lost? What if the Vessel Agitation Stops? What if Power Supply Fails? What if the Temp./ Press. Sensor Fail? What if the Pump Stops? etc.
2.HAZOP STUDY GUIDE WORDS NO MORE LESS AS WELL AS PART OF REVERSE OTHER THAN, etc.
3. FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) FMEA evaluates the ways in which an Equipment can Fail and the Effects of such Failures on an Installation 4. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS (FTA) Deductive Reasoning Process 5. EVENT TREE ANALYSIS (ETA) Inductive Process
RISK ACCEPTABILITY CRITERIA Statistical Experience Shows Chance of Death due to Risk of Driving, Flying or Smoking is 1 in 100000 or 10 –5 Chance of Death from Lightning or Falling of Aircraft is around 10 –7 or 1 in 10000000 It is therefore generally accepted that the Risk of Death 1 in 100000 or 10 –5 per Year is Alarming. Action needs to be taken to Reduce the Risk BELOW the level 1 in 1000000 or 10 –6 per Year and it is generally accepted without concern for Industrial People.
PROBABILITY ESTIMATION Failure Rate data for Some Equipment EquipmentFailure Rate (Failures/ Year) Process Pressure Vessel2.7x 10 -3 Pressure Storage Vessel1.8x 10 -3 Heat Exchangers1.7x 10 -3 Fired Heaters405x 10 –3 High Temperature vessel, except Fired Heater 7.4x 10 -3 Low Temperature Vessel1.5x 10 -3
CONSEQUENCE ESTIMATION Software PackageOrganisation EFFECTSTNO, Netherlands CISCOMCISRA, CLRI, CHENNAI CHARMRadian Corporation POOL FIRE/ BLEVE/ EXPLOSION Package IIT, Kanpur EAHAPEnergy Analyst Corporation HASTEERT Inc SLABLawrence Livermore National Lab TRACESafer Corporation PHASTDNV Technica Ex- TOOLSwiss Re
Public or Societal Risk FN Curve for Societal Risk Acceptable Unacceptable Reduction Desired F.N. Lines 10 2 10 3 10 5 10 3 Nos. of Probable Fatalities N E x p e ct e d F re q u e n c y F
RISK CONTROL MEASURES Physical Protection Procedural Protection Educational Protection
Physical Protection Strict & Rigorous approach in following the Relevant Standards, Codes & Practices Built in Safety Devices and Safety System Venting through Tall stacks Field Monitors for Different Toxic Gases Burning Waste gases in a Flare System Provision of Wind Cones Fire Proofing of Steel Structures PPE Passive Protection System Active Protection system Automatic Protection system Improved Waste Water Management
PROCEDURAL PROTECTION Fire Emergency Procedure Disaster Preparedness Plan Mutual Aid Scheme No Smoking Policy Investigation of All Accidents Hazard Identification through Safety Committee, House Keeping Committee, Safety audit Committee Conducting Plant Survey, safety survey Work Permit System Statutory Requirement Safety Promotional Activities
Contd. Information notes on Unsafe conditions MSDS Annual Medical Check up of Employees Safe Start up & Shut Down Procedure Regular and Preventive Maintenance Periodic testing of Fire Fighting Appliances
EDUCATIONAL PROTECTION Periodic Training Programme on Safety, Fire Safety and Hazardous properties of materials Mock Fire Drill Safety Manuals Health & Safety News Bulletins Safety Motivation schemes Plant Operating Manual
GROWING IMPORTANCE OF RISK MANAGEMENT DUE TO LEGISLATION CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS MANAGEMENT ATTITUDES
FIRE TRIANGLE vfXu f=Hkqt Heat rki@fpaxkjh Air gok@vkDlhtu Fuel Toyukhy inkFkZ EXTINGUISHING MECHANISM * STARVATION * SMOTHERING * COOLING It takes three things to cause a fire – Heat - something that is hot – Fuel - something that will burn – Oxygen - the air all around us If we take any one of these things away, the fire cannot survive ;fn ge fdlh,d Hkqtk dks gVk nsxsa rks vkx cq> tk,xhA vkx cq>kus ds rjhds * Hkw[kk ekjuk * xyk ?kksVuk * BaMk djuk
Remember when we talked about the Fire Triangle?
If you remove any one element, you prevent the chemical chain reaction that results from fire ;fn ge fdlh,d Hkqtk dks gVk nsxsa rks psu fj,Dku can gks tk,xk rFkk vkx cq> tk,xhA Fuel - or something that will burn / Toyukhy inkFkZ Oxygen - or the air all around us gok@vkDlh tu Removing Heat (Cooling/ BaMk djuk) –Control of smoking materials matches and lighters heating appliances candles –Suppression water cools a fire
And when we remove any one side of the triangle, like taking away the oxygen, the fire cannot survive Fire Triangle Removing Oxygen (Smothering/ xyk ?kksVuk) –Stop, drop and roll –Smothering action –Blanketing effect
Removing Fuel (Starvation / Hkw[kk ekjuk) –Education messages good housekeeping practices storage of flammable liquids –in approved containers –away from heat sources Heat Oxygen/Air
FIRE EXTINGUISHING MEDIA WATER ikuh CARBON DIOXIDE dkcZu Mkb vkDlkbM % lh- vks- Vw DRY CHEMICAL POWDER MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj SAND jsr FIRE FIGHTING FOAM Qkse vkx cq>kus dk HALON ALTERNATIVES gSyksu ds le:i
Fire Classes A Trash Wood Paper C Electrical Equipment / Flammable gas B Liquids Grease COMBUSTIBLE METALS D Wood / ydMh Cloth / diMk Paper / dkxt rubber many plastics Gasoline / isVzksy Oil / rsy grease tar oil-based paint lacquer energized electrical equipment fctyh ds midj.k flammable gases xSlsa magnesium sodium potassium titanium zirconium other combustible metals /kkrq
Fire Classes (cont.) K Cooking Media Recently recognized by NFPA 10. Fires involving combustible vegetable or animal non- saturated cooking fats in commercial cooking equipment. [kkus ds rsy esa vkx dks,d vyx Js.kh nh xbZ gS ] ds Dykl Qk;jA CLASS K FIRES
CLASSES OF FIRE 1.CLASS A FIRE: - CARBONIOUS FIRE Toyukhy Bksl oLrq EX.- WOOD, PAPER, COAL, PLASTIC, CLOTH, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - WATER cq>k,a & ikuh ls 2.CLASS B FIRE: - FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE Toyukhy nzo oLrq EX. – PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, GREASE, SOLVENT,PAINT, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - FOAM, DCP cq>k,a & Qkse@MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj ls 3.CLASS C FIRE: - INFLAMMABLE GAS FIRE / ELECTRICAL FIRE Toyukhy xSls,oa fctyh dh vkxA EX. – LPG, METHANE, PROPANE, ACETYLENE, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - DCP / CO2 cq>k,a & MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj @lh- vks-Vw ls 4.CLASS D FIRE: - METAL FIRE /kkrq dh vkx EX. – MAGNESIUM, ALLUMINIUM, ZINC, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - SPECIAL DRY POWDER (TEC) cq>k,a & Lisky MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj ls
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM 1.FIXED FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM FLOODING SYSTEM MULSIFIRE SYSTEM WATER SPRINKLER/ SPRAY SYSTEM PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS, ETC 2.MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM FIRE TENDER TRAILER PUMP, ETC 3.FIX-CUM- MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM FOAM CHAMBER SYSTEM FOAM POURER SYSTEM, ETC
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS fofHkUu izdkj ds NksVs vfXukked midj.k 1.WATER TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ikuh okyk vfXukked CO 2 CARTRIDGE TYPE STORED PRESSURE 2.FOAM TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Qkse okyk vfXukked MECHANICAL FOAM TYPE 3.DRY CHEMICAL POWDER TYPE MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj okyk vfXukked CO 2 CARTRIDGE TYPE STORED PRESSURE TYPE 4.CARBON DIOXIDE TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS lh-vks- Vw vfXukked STORED PRESSURE TYPE
WATER TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER ikuh okyk vfXukked (STORED PRESSURE TYPE) SQUEEZE GRIP SAFETY CLIP/PIN PRESSURE GAUGE SIPHON TUBE PURE WATER DISCHARGE HOSE NOZZLE
MECHANICAL FOAM FIRE EXTINGUISHER Qkse okyk vfXukked PLUNGER HANDLE CO2 CARTRIDGE FOAM MAKING BRANCH
Flash point The flash point of a liquid fuel is the temperature at which vapour given off by fuel will ignite momentarily when an external flame is applied At flash point the liquid fuel vapour will not continue to burn Determines the risk in storing a given liquid fuel at given temperature
Fire point The fire point of a liquid fuel is the temperature at which vapour given off by fuel will ignite and continue to burn when an external flame is applied In most of liquid fuels, fire point is not as clearly demarcated as flash point
Ignition point The ignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which the liquid fuel will spontaneously combust in a normal atmosphere, such as a flame or spark. This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion.
Flammability limit The minimum concentration of vapor of liquid fuel in air below which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. This is known as lower flammability limit ( LFL). There is also upper flammability limit (UFL) Flammability is generally expressed as percentage of vapour volume in air
Flammability limit cont. If the vapour –air mixture temperature is higher, the LFL is reduced. increasing the temperature by 100 C decreases the LFL value about 8%. Lower flammability for HSD is approximately 9 %