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Major Disasters Fire Initiated Toxic Release.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Disasters Fire Initiated Toxic Release."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Disasters Fire Initiated Toxic Release

2 HAZARD RISK ANYTHING WITH POTENTIAL FOR PRODUCING AN ACCIDENT.
PROBABILITY OF HAZARD RESULTING AN ACCIDENT.

3 Operations Management
Strategic Management Operations Management Risk Management

4 MAJOR FIRE RISK IDENTIFICATION
RISK ANALYSIS TRANSACTIONAL DECISION NO YES No Risk Management Risk Control Transfer Reduce Retain

5 For any Industrial Process Plant
Following questions must be asked and answered What are the Hazards ? What can go wrong and how? What are the chances? What are the consequences?

6 CONESQUENCES OF HAZARDOUS EVENT
FIRE/ EXPLOSION VAPOUR CLOUD EXPLOSION FORMATION OF TOXIC ATMOSPHERE

7 Different Terminologies of Hazardous Situations
Pool Fire Jet Fire Flash/ Cloud Fire Vapour Cloud Explosion (VCE) High Pressure Rupture BLEVE Release of Toxic Gases/ Liquids

8 Heat Radiation levels and Damage Effects
(As per API 521) Radiation Level (kW/Sq.m) Observed Effect 4.0 Sufficient to cause pain to personnel within 20 second 12.5 Minimum Energy required for piloted ignition of Wood and melting of Plastic Tubing 37.5 Sufficient to cause damage to Process Equipment

9 Explosion Over Pressure Level and Damage Effects
Overpressure (bar) Damage produced by Blast Effect 0.02 No considerable damage except shattering of few glass panes 0.13 Partial collapse of Buildings 0.20 Steel framed building distorted and pulled away from the foundation

10 THE FIRST STAGE OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN A PROCESS PLANT ESSENTIALLY CONSISTS OF THREE STEPS:
IDENTIFYING THE HAZARD ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OR CONSEQUENCES OF THE HAZARD DETERMINING PROBABILITY OR LIKELIHOOD OF OCCURRENCE OF HAZARDOUS EVENT

11 THE NEXT STEP OF RISK ASSESSMENT
TO DETERMINE WHETHER EFFECTS OF THE CONSEQUENCE AND THE PROBABAILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE HAZARD IS WITHIN THE ACCEPTABLE LIMIT OR NOT.

12 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGY
HAZARDS IN PROCESS PLANTS ARE PRIMARILY IDENTIFIED BASED ON FOLLOWING INFORMATION: HAZARDOUS PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS TYPE OF UNIT PROCESS/ OPERATION OPERATING PARAMETERS ANY OTHER RELEVENT DATA NFPA CODE NO. 325 M CHECK-LIST DOW INDEX

13 COMMONLY USED STRUCTURED HAZARD IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES
WHAT IF ? ANALYSIS: What if the Raw Material contains impurities? What if Cooling Water is Lost? What if the Vessel Agitation Stops? What if Power Supply Fails? What if the Temp./ Press. Sensor Fail? What if the Pump Stops? etc.

14 HAZOP STUDY GUIDE WORDS NO MORE LESS AS WELL AS PART OF REVERSE
OTHER THAN, etc.

15 3. FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA)
FMEA evaluates the ways in which an Equipment can Fail and the Effects of such Failures on an Installation 4. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS (FTA) Deductive Reasoning Process 5. EVENT TREE ANALYSIS (ETA) Inductive Process

16 RISK ACCEPTABILITY CRITERIA Statistical Experience Shows
Chance of Death due to Risk of Driving, Flying or Smoking is 1 in or 10 –5 Chance of Death from Lightning or Falling of Aircraft is around 10 –7 or 1 in It is therefore generally accepted that the Risk of Death 1 in or 10 –5 per Year is Alarming. Action needs to be taken to Reduce the Risk BELOW the level 1 in or 10 –6 per Year and it is generally accepted without concern for Industrial People.

17 PROBABILITY ESTIMATION Failure Rate data for Some Equipment
Failure Rate (Failures/ Year) Process Pressure Vessel 2.7x 10 -3 Pressure Storage Vessel 1.8x 10 -3 Heat Exchangers 1.7x 10 -3 Fired Heaters 405x 10 –3 High Temperature vessel, except Fired Heater 7.4x 10 -3 Low Temperature Vessel 1.5x 10 -3

18 CONSEQUENCE ESTIMATION
Software Package Organisation EFFECTS TNO, Netherlands CISCOM CISRA, CLRI, CHENNAI CHARM Radian Corporation POOL FIRE/ BLEVE/ EXPLOSION Package IIT, Kanpur EAHAP Energy Analyst Corporation HASTE ERT Inc SLAB Lawrence Livermore National Lab TRACE Safer Corporation PHAST DNV Technica Ex- TOOL Swiss Re

19 Public or Societal Risk FN Curve for Societal Risk
Expected Frequency 103 F Unacceptable 105 F.N. Lines Reduction Desired Acceptable 102 103 Nos. of Probable Fatalities N

20 Procedural Protection Educational Protection
RISK CONTROL MEASURES Physical Protection Procedural Protection Educational Protection

21 Physical Protection Strict & Rigorous approach in following the Relevant Standards , Codes & Practices Built in Safety Devices and Safety System Venting through Tall stacks Field Monitors for Different Toxic Gases Burning Waste gases in a Flare System Provision of Wind Cones Fire Proofing of Steel Structures PPE Passive Protection System Active Protection system Automatic Protection system Improved Waste Water Management

22 PROCEDURAL PROTECTION
Fire Emergency Procedure Disaster Preparedness Plan Mutual Aid Scheme No Smoking Policy Investigation of All Accidents Hazard Identification through Safety Committee, House Keeping Committee, Safety audit Committee Conducting Plant Survey, safety survey Work Permit System Statutory Requirement Safety Promotional Activities

23 Contd. Information notes on Unsafe conditions MSDS Annual Medical Check up of Employees Safe Start up & Shut Down Procedure Regular and Preventive Maintenance Periodic testing of Fire Fighting Appliances

24 EDUCATIONAL PROTECTION
Periodic Training Programme on Safety, Fire Safety and Hazardous properties of materials Mock Fire Drill Safety Manuals Health & Safety News Bulletins Safety Motivation schemes Plant Operating Manual

25 GROWING IMPORTANCE OF RISK MANAGEMENT DUE TO
LEGISLATION CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS MANAGEMENT ATTITUDES

26 The Science of Fire vkx dk foKku

27 EXTINGUISHING MECHANISM
* STARVATION * SMOTHERING * COOLING FIRE TRIANGLE vfXu f=Hkqt Air Heat vkx cq>kus ds rjhds * Hkw[kk ekjuk * xyk ?kksVuk * BaMk djuk Fuel Toyu’khy inkFkZ It takes three things to cause a fire Heat - something that is hot Fuel - something that will burn Oxygen - the air all around us If we take any one of these things away, the fire cannot survive ;fn ge fdlh ,d Hkqtk dks gVk nsxsa rks vkx cq> tk,xhA

28 Remember when we talked about the Fire Triangle?

29 If you remove any one element, you prevent the chemical chain reaction that results from fire
;fn ge fdlh ,d Hkqtk dks gVk nsxsa rks psu fj,D’ku can gks tk,xk rFkk vkx cq> tk,xhA Removing Heat (Cooling/ BaMk djuk) Control of smoking materials matches and lighters heating appliances candles Suppression water cools a fire Oxygen - or the air all around us Fuel - or something that will burn / Toyu’khy inkFkZ

30 Fire Triangle Removing Oxygen (Smothering/ xyk ?kksVuk) Stop, drop and roll Smothering action Blanketing effect And when we remove any one side of the triangle, like taking away the oxygen, the fire cannot survive

31 Oxygen/Air Heat Removing Fuel (Starvation / Hkw[kk ekjuk)
Education messages good housekeeping practices storage of flammable liquids in approved containers away from heat sources

32 FIRE EXTINGUISHING MECHANISM
FIRE TETRAHEDRON FIRE EXTINGUISHING MECHANISM Ø  STARVATION / Hkw[kk ekjuk Ø  SMOTHERING / xyk ?kksVuk Ø  COOLING / BaMk djuk Ø  CHAIN REACTION INHIBITION / psu fj,D’ku jksduk

33 FIRE EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
WATER ikuh CARBON DIOXIDE dkcZu Mkb vkDlkbM % lh- vks- Vw DRY CHEMICAL POWDER MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj SAND jsr FIRE FIGHTING FOAM Qkse vkx cq>kus dk HALON ALTERNATIVES gSyksu ds le:i

34 D Fire Classes Wood /ydMh Cloth / diMk Paper / dkxt
A Trash Wood Paper C Electrical Equipment / Flammable gas Wood /ydMh Cloth / diMk Paper / dkxt rubber many plastics energized electrical equipment fctyh ds midj.k flammable gases xSlsa Gasoline / isVzksy Oil / rsy grease tar oil-based paint lacquer COMBUSTIBLE magnesium sodium potassium titanium zirconium other combustible metals /kkrq B Liquids Grease DESCRIBE THE FIVE FIRE CLASSES ON THIS AND NEXT SLIDE. POINT OUT OLD AND NEW FIRE SYMBOLS--USED TO MARK EXTINGUISHERS FOR SUITABILITY FOR USE ON FIRE CLASSES. TO DECIDE IF EXTINGUISHER IS APPROPRIATE, MATCH SYMBOL TO TYPE OF FIRE BEING ENCOUNTERED. D METALS

35 Fire Classes (cont.) CLASS K FIRES K Cooking Media
Recently recognized by NFPA 10. Fires involving combustible vegetable or animal non-saturated cooking fats in commercial cooking equipment. [kkus ds rsy esa vkx dks ,d vyx Js.kh nh xbZ gS ] ds Dykl Qk;jA RECENT ADDITION TO NFPA 10. DESIGNED FOR USE WITH HOTTER BURNING NON-SATURATED FAT FIRES.

36 CLASSES OF FIRE CLASS “A” FIRE: - CARBONIOUS FIRE Toyu’khy Bksl oLrq
EX.- WOOD, PAPER, COAL, PLASTIC, CLOTH, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - WATER cq>k,a & ikuh ls CLASS “B” FIRE: - FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE Toyu’khy nzo oLrq EX. – PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, GREASE, SOLVENT,PAINT, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - FOAM, DCP cq>k,a & dsfedy ikoMj ls CLASS “C” FIRE: - INFLAMMABLE GAS FIRE / ELECTRICAL FIRE Toyu’khy xSls ,oa fctyh dh vkxA EX. – LPG, METHANE, PROPANE, ACETYLENE, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - DCP / CO2 cq>k,a & MzkbZ dsfedy ls CLASS “D” FIRE: - METAL FIRE /kkrq dh vkx EX. – MAGNESIUM, ALLUMINIUM, ZINC, ETC EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: - SPECIAL DRY POWDER (TEC) cq>k,a & Lis’ky MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj ls

37 FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM FIXED FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEM FLOODING SYSTEM MULSIFIRE SYSTEM WATER SPRINKLER/ SPRAY SYSTEM PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS, ETC MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM FIRE TENDER TRAILER PUMP, ETC FIX-CUM- MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM FOAM CHAMBER SYSTEM FOAM POURER SYSTEM, ETC

38 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS fofHkUu izdkj ds NksVs vfXu’kked midj.k
WATER TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ikuh okyk vfXu’kked CO2 CARTRIDGE TYPE STORED PRESSURE FOAM TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Qkse okyk vfXu’kked MECHANICAL FOAM TYPE DRY CHEMICAL POWDER TYPE MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj okyk vfXu’kked STORED PRESSURE TYPE CARBON DIOXIDE TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS lh-vks- Vw vfXu’kked

39 WATER TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER ikuh okyk vfXu’kked (STORED PRESSURE TYPE)
SQUEEZE GRIP SAFETY CLIP/PIN PRESSURE GAUGE SIPHON TUBE PURE WATER DISCHARGE HOSE NOZZLE

40 MECHANICAL FOAM FIRE EXTINGUISHER Qkse okyk vfXu’kked
PLUNGER HANDLE CO2 CARTRIDGE FOAM MAKING BRANCH

41 MECHANICAL FOAM FIRE EXTINGUISHER Qkse okyk vfXu’kked (STORED PRESSURE TYPE)
SQUEEZE GRIP SAFETY CLIP/PIN PRESSURE GAUGE SIPHON TUBE DISCHARGE HOSE AFFF SOLUTION FOAM MAKING BRANCH

42 DCP FIRE EXTINGUISHER MzkbZ dsfedy ikoMj okyk vfXu’kked (CO2 GAS CARTRIDGE TYPE)
PLUNGER SAFETY PIN/CLIP CO2 CARTRIDGE PIERCER CO2 CARTRIDGE INNER CONTAINER DISCHARGE HOSE SIPHON TUBE DCP NOZZLE

43 CARBON-DI-OXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHER lh-vks- Vw vfXu’kked
SAFETY PIN WHEEL VALVE HIGH PRESSURE DISCHARGE HOSE CYLINDER HANDLE DISCHARGE HORN SIPHON TUBE LIQUEFIED CO2

44 Fire Emergency Response
Rescue A Alarm C Contain ASK “WHAT DO I DO IF I SEE A FIRE?” RESCUE VICTIMS. ALARM ACTIVATION TO SUMMON HELP. CONTAIN FIRE TO PREVENT SPREAD--CLOSE DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUT OFF EXHAUST, ETC. EXTINGUISH THE FLAMES--PUT THE FIRE OUT. E Extinguish

45 P A S S Fighting the Fire Pull the pin Aim low at the base of flames
Squeeze the handle IF YOU DECIDE TO FIGHT FIRE, USE “P.A.S.S.” ACRONYM TO REMEMBER HOW TO OPERATE THE EXTINGUISHER PROPERLY. S Sweep side to side

46 Definitions FIRE FLASH POINT FIRE POINT IGNITION TEMPERATURE
AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE SPONTANEOUS IGNITION FLAMMABLE LIMIT FLAMMABLE RANGE

47 Flash point The flash point of a liquid fuel is the temperature at which vapour given off by fuel will ignite momentarily when an external flame is applied At flash point the liquid fuel vapour will not continue to burn Determines the risk in storing a given liquid fuel at given temperature

48 Fire point The fire point of a liquid fuel is the temperature at which vapour given off by fuel will ignite and continue to burn when an external flame is applied In most of liquid fuels, fire point is not as clearly demarcated as flash point

49 Ignition point The ignition temperature is the lowest temperature at which the liquid fuel will spontaneously combust in a normal atmosphere, such as a flame or spark. This temperature is required to supply the activation energy needed for combustion.

50 Flammability limit The minimum concentration of vapor of liquid fuel in air below which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. This is known as lower flammability limit ( LFL). There is also upper flammability limit (UFL) Flammability is generally expressed as percentage of vapour volume in air

51 Flammability limit cont.
If the vapour –air mixture temperature is higher, the LFL is reduced. increasing the temperature by 100 C decreases the LFL value about 8%. Lower flammability for HSD is approximately 9 %


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