2Problems That Lead to School Violence MediaViolence in movies & television programsViolent music which contains wild rhythms and loud noisesEasy access to guns and other weapons.No or inappropriate punishments for acts of violence.Lack of ability to cope with emotions and societal problemsSeeing violence as a means of dealing with situations that youth cannot cope with.Dysfunctional family.Psychological disorders.The degradation of morality in all aspects of lifeTelevisionMusicIn schoolPoor Role ModelsSchoolLeadersSchool officialsConflict with teachers
3Facts About Youth Violence Less than 1% of all homicides among school-aged children (5-19 years of age) occur in or around school grounds or on the way to and from school.65% of school-associated violent deaths involve students11% involve teachers or other staff members23% involve community members who were killed on school property.83% of school homicide or suicide victims are males.28% of the fatal injuries occur inside the school building36% of fatal injuries occur outdoors on school property35% of fatal injuries occur off campus.
11Causes of School Violence Depreciating social and moral valuesSocial pressuresAcademic pressuresSchool StandardsDepressionIsolation and peer rejectionBreakdown in communicationPoor parentingEmotional DisturbanceProof of ManhoodRevengeAlcohol or drugsEmotional GratificationSchool bullyingverbal & physical abuseLack of counselingVictim of violenceMediaby age 18, a child has seen 40,000 murdersmost of one’s life is spent watchingPovertyTV Internet pornViolent computer gamesTemptation of accessible gun
12Economic Makeup of Where School Shootings Occurred
15Bullet found at Crime Scene BULLET COMPARISONSA gun leaves its markings on the bullet as the bullet passes through the gun.Bullet comparisons are made between the bullet found at the crime scene and the test fired bullet to link suspect to crime.The diameter of the gun barrel is measured between opposite lands.If a bullet found at the crime scene has the same caliber as the firearm, it most probably was fired from the gun.If rifling impressions found on the bullet match the rifling pattern found in the barrel of the question firearm, attempts are made to make a match between the individual markings of the barrel and the bullet.Bullet StriationsBullet found at Crime SceneTest-Fire bullet
16Types of Striation Marks Chamber MarksThe most common type of striation marks.Develops after a cartridge is fired.Produced when guns are fired and the cases expand and press against the walls of the chamber.Sides are scratched as the bullet exits the chamber.Shear MarksMade by GLOCK pistolsFound on cartridge case primers.Marks are produced when the case moves backwards from recoil and the primer sets in the firing pinhole.Sliding Chamber MarkShear Mark
17Properties of Cartridge Cases Most cartridge cases are made out of plastic, steel, and brass.Materials used to make cartridge cases are softer than the ones used to make the firearm.Any surface of the cartridge case that comes in contact with the interior of the firearm may be scratched.Pulling the trigger releases the weapon’s firing pin, causing it to strike the primer, which in turn ignites the powder.Expanding gases generated by the burning gunpowder propel the bullet forward through the barrel.As the bullet is marked on its passage through the barrel so is the shell impressed with markings by its contact with the metal surfaces of the weapon’s firing and loading mechanisms.With the use of a comparison microscope, test fired cartridges are compared with cartridges recovered from a crime sceneUnknown Cartridge Cases
18Identifying Marks on Cartridge Cases Loading a cartridge into the firearm would lead to the transfer of unique identifiable marks.Marks can be transferred without the firing of the cartridge.Two types:Striated Action Marks“Scratches” are formed as the cartridge case collides against the the firearm’s inner surface.Impressed Action Marks“Scratches” produced when the cartridge case impacts the firearm with enough velocity or pressure to leave an indented mark.Image of pieces of recovered bullets.
19PRIMER RESIDUE ON HANDS As a weapon is fired, gunpowder and primer residue are deposited.Primers begin the ignition process in cartridges.Primers commonly contain lead styphnate, barium nitrate, and antimony sulfide compounds.Most modern primer compounds are lead and/or barium free.Detection of residues provides information as to whether or not an individual recently fired a weapon.Dermal Nitrate TestRequires the application of hot paraffin to the suspect’s hand.After drying into a solid crust, the paraffin is tested with the chemical diphenylamine.Measuring the Amount of Barium and Antimony on Relevant HandSwab hands with cotton moistened with 5% nitric acidTest for barium and antimony.Major Elements of Primer Residue on HandAntimony (Sb)Barium (Ba)Lead (Pb)Less Common Elements of Primer ResiduesAluminum (Al)Sulfur (S)Tin (Sn)Calcium (Ca)Potassium (K)Chlorine (Cl)Silicon (Si)Gunshot residue, containing lead, antimony, and barium
20GUNPOWER RESIDUESPressure behind the bullet as it exits the muzzle blows the gunshot residues out of the barrel under high velocity.Gunshot residues are ejected from the barrel in a cone-shaped pattern.The farther the gun was fired, the wider and less concentrated the “smoky cone-shaped pattern” becomes.Different Forms of Gunpowderball- more aerodynamic, travels quicklyflakediscothersThe distance from which a gun or rifle was fired is determined by comparison of the powder residue pattern located on the victim’s clothing or skin against test patterns made when a suspect’s weapon is fired at varying distances from the target.Powder residue left on fabric.
21Gunpowder Residues Used to Determine the Distance From Which the Weapon Was Fired At distances of less than12 inches heavy concentrations of visible gunshot residues will usually be deposited.As the firearm gets closer to its target the residue concentrations increase and the actual size or diameter to the pattern gets smaller.At around inches most firearms will start to deposit considerable concentrations of gunshot residues.When the muzzle of the firearm gets next to or is in contact with the target the shot will rip, tear, and/or melt the material of the target. A great deal of gunshot residues will be found around the margins of the area of contact or near the entrance hole.
22Firearms Evidence Collection and Processing Policy Take photographs of the weapon.Keep notes on the condition of the weapon found and take action to render it safe.Unload the weapon unless blood, hair, fibers, prints, etc. prohibit handling.Process the weapon for prints.Package weapon in an envelope or paper bag separately from the ammunition and/or magazine.The ammunition should be placed in a paper envelope or paper bag.Ammunition found in a gun must be submitted to the crime lab.Any boxes of similar ammunition found in a suspect’s possession should be placed in a paper container and sent to the crime lab.Bullets and/or cases found at a crime scene should be packaged separately and placed in paper envelopes or in small cardboard pillboxes.Label gun with name, caliber, serial number, investigator’s initials and request specifying what the weapon is to be examined for.Maintain a chain of custody.Maintain standards at crime scene and in the crime lab.
23Federal PolicyDevelop a Comprehensive Communities Program to suppress violence in target neighborhoodsImprove intergovernmental and community relationshipsDevelop strategies to identify causes of violenceDevelop a comprehensive strategy for serious, violent, and chronic Juvenile offenders:Community-based prevention based on risk and resource assessment, interventions, and institutional care services.Develop & Enforce a crime gun interdiction initiative:Tracing crime gunsIdentifying patternsUnderstanding connections among firearms and youth violenceDeveloping strategies for illegally trafficking firearmsWorking with firearm dealers to reduce illegal firearm salesWorking with courts to prosecute cases effectively
24New York State Policy Fight Crime: Invest in New York Kids Anti-crime organization125 police chiefs, sheriffs, prosecutors and crime victimsThe After School CorporationNon-profit organizationEstablishes quality after-school programs in the state.
25New Security Policy After Columbine Tragedy On April 20, 1999 at Columbine High SchoolTwo students from the school fired from a multi-gun arsenal and tossed homemade bombs throughout the school.12 students and one teacher were killed.Both shooters committed suicide.Security improvements after the tragic shootingIdentification badges to be worn by all students and faculty at all times16 color video cameras were installed inside the school and on the school grounds.The number of outside entrances was reduced.A third uniformed guard was enlisted to join a roving patrol, which includes an armed sheriff's deputy.Students walk through the doors of Columbine High to reclaim their school for the first time since the April 20 shootings.
26New York City Policy Target Gun Trafficking: The No More Fear Kit Interrogation of perpetrators and accomplices in gun crime cases about where guns were obtained.Receipts for gun purchasesUse of metal detectors and hand-held metal detectorsThe No More Fear KitA student survival kit that includes:A pocket bibleReading packets concerning the 9/11 tragedy and the Columbine shootingsThe Advantage After School ProgramThe extended Day/Violence Prevention program and New York City’s Beacon programProvides major funding for after-school programs to reduce violence after school
27School Safety Plan at the Bronx High School of Science Notification to Principal/designee, Superintendent and the NYPD SSA.Follow the “Intruder Procedures” as outlined in the School Safety Plan.Decision to evacuate to be made by Principal in consultation with NYPD/SSD.Notify the Emergency Information Center (EIC) (718)Evacuate the premises following the Egress Route(s) outlined in the School Safety Plan.Evacuated students and staff with attendance information are to be sent to the Evacuation Location as identified in the School Safety Plan if the building can not be re-entered.Floor Wardens as per the School Safety Plan should be appointed to each floor to assist in the evacuation.Floor Plans are to be readily available in the Principal’s Office, Library, Custodian’s Office, Security Office and Neighboring School(s).Identify means of communicating with perpetrator(s) e.g. Telephone, Payphone or PA system.Identify location, number of shooter(s). If possible, identify the number and names of shooter(s). If possible retrieve the pedigree of shooter(s) with home contact numbers.Identify location, number and extent of injured. If possible retrieve the pedigree of victims with home contact numbers and make notifications as necessary.SSA and Principal will notify their respective Supervisors and arriving agencies, with pertinent and vital information.If the building can not be re-entered, the Office of Pupil Transportation must be notified for those children who take the bus home. For those children who are picked up from school, the parents/guardians need to be called and advised of the situation and staff should remain at the evacuated school to direct the parents/guardians to the Evacuation Location for pickup.
28Strengths of Existing Policies Educational programs for teachers, students, parents, and members of the community:InformationCounseling servicesConflict resolutionAfter School ProgramsBeneficial to the students without good home lives, so that they have a place to be instead of the streets where violent activities can ensue.Metal Detectors in SchoolsSeize weapons from the students that can potentially be used against other students, faculty, parents, and members of the communityGun Control LawsAge requirementPurchasingSeizing Illegal weaponsThe number of shootings decrease if the students cannot obtain weapons
29Weaknesses of Existing Policies Metal detectors give students & faculty the feeling of distrust and humiliation.Walk-through metal detectors are:ExpensiveNot suitable for the physical design of schoolsCause inconvenience for students & facultyMetal detector searches can face legal challenges under the Fourth Amendment which states that people be free of unreasonable searches and seizures.
30The Most Effective and Feasible Policy Stricter gun control laws for the purchase and use of guns.Use of metal detectors and security cameras strategically placed to help locate and seize weapons.Individual and group guidance and educational programs for students, parents, faculty and community to develop strategies to identify the causes of violence and learn how to effectively deal with areas of concern.Increase the number of security guards and roving patrols (teachers, administrators, parents, retirees, members of the community) inside the school building, on school grounds and in the community.Create prevention task forces with school officials, the Department of Education and local government to develop prevention policies and actions.Clear and simple reporting procedures.Immediate contact of law enforcement agencies.More severe penalties of offenders.Development of an evacuation plan.Hot line to notify parents/guardians.
31I will never bring a gun to school; I will never use a gun to settle a dispute; I will use my influence with my friends to keep them from using guns to settle disputes.My individual choices and actions, when multiplied by those of young people throughout the country, will make a difference. Together, by honoring this pledge, we can reverse the violence and grow up in safety.
32The Bronx High School of Science Forensic ScienceMs. Mary Villani, TeacherSections: SBF6-01, SBF6-03, SBF6-05, SBF6-06