Presentation on theme: "British Imperialism In India The British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. At first, India's ruling Mughal Dynasty."— Presentation transcript:
British Imperialism In India The British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. At first, India's ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control. By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing. Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, broke away from Mughal control. Background Notes
Robert Clive Robert Clive was a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown. Clive had led an army from Madras and in 1758 defeated Sirajudaula at the "Battle of Plassey" and became the governor of Bengal under the banner of the East India Company. From there he was able to launch successful military campaigns against the French and stop the expansion of the Dutch. Background Notes
British East India Company During the 1700s and 1800s the East India Company slowly took control of India As the Mughal Empire grew weak, the East India Company grew in economic and political strength and began to build its own military force The military force mainly consisted of sepoys, Indian soldiers, led by British commanders Background Notes
The British The British wanted many of the raw materials India produced - cotton, indigo, jute (burlap), spices, sugar, and tea These material were shipped to Britain for use in British factories – finished products were then shipped around the world to British colonies There were some advantages of the British invasion – railroads, education, hospitals, common language, There were disadvantages too – low wages, few rights, no say in government Background Notes
The Sepoys Ninety-six percent of the company's of army of 300,000 men in India were native to India. British believed they were superior and looked down upon their dark- skinned compatriots. In the military, Sepoys could not be promoted to high ranks and the pay was miserable. British did not respect Indian cultural or religious traditions and beliefs. The controversy over the use of the Enfield rifle Background Notes
The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 In 1857, new cartridges were issued to Indian troops of the British East Indian Army. The cartridges were rumored to have been greased with cow or pig grease; as such, they were forbidden to the Indian troops because of their religious beliefs. Moslems believe that pigs are unholy, and Hindus believe that it is unholy to kill a cow. The cartridges of this time required a soldier to tear open the cartridge with his teeth, and pour the powder and bullet down the barrel of the gun. This process would have caused the Sepoys to get soul polluting grease directly into their bodies.
After refusing to use the new cartrdiges, a whole regiment of Sepoy troops were imprisoned by the British. Other Sepoys attempted to free these prisoners and it snowballed into a revolt across all of northern India. There were many massacres where hundreds of Europeans were killed by Sepoys who were bent on revenge and on kicking the British out of India.
Sepoy Rebellion The British suppressed the rebellion and abolished the British East India Company India became a British colony In 1877 Queen Victoria took the title Empress of India India would now be controlled directly by the Crown of England, and not a trading company supported by England Background Notes
The Results of the Sepoy Rebellion The mutiny marked a turning point in Indian history. As a result of the mutiny, in 1858 the British government took direct command of India. The part of India that was under direct British rule was called the Raj. The term Raj referred to British rule over India from 1757 until 1914.
Treatment Of Indian Soldiers After The Sepoy Mutiny Tie them to a cannon, and fire the cannon.
Social changes in India during the British presence. Some good, some not so good
British East India Company Document #1 The Britsh East India Company ruled India with little interference from the British government. The company even had its own army, led by British officers and staffed by sepoys, or Indian soldiers. Most of the company's troops were Hindus or Muslims. About one in six was British. Yet, only the British could be commissioned officers; no Indian could reach a higher rank than that of petty officer.
Economic Restrictions The British held much of the political and economic power. British policies called for India to produce raw materials for British manufacturing and to buy British manufactured goods. In addition, Indian competition with British goods was prohibited. For example, India's own handloom textile industry was almost put out of business by British textiles. Cheap cloth and ready-made clothes from England flooded the Indian market and drove out local producers. To pay for British imports, Indians had to raise cash crops such as tea, pepper, coffee, and cotton. As Indian farmers grew less food, famines became frequent and widespread.
Economic Restrictions Also, under the imperial control of the East India Company, an increasing number of small Indian states were forced to pay dues to the Company for military protection. The lessening of Company profits and a need to recoup debts generated by military efforts, produced a need for higher revenues. Peasant landowners, required to pay their taxes in cash, increasingly had to turn to moneylenders who seized much of this land for nonpayment of loans.
Advancements In Transportation Under the rule of the British, the laying of the world's third largest railroad network was accomplished. The railroads allowed the British to transport raw materials from the interior to the ports and manufactured goods back again. The majority of the raw materials were agricultural products produced on plantations. Plantation crops included tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and jute. Another crop was opium. The British shipped opium to China and exchanged it for tea, which they then sold in England.
The railroads also allowed India to develop a modern economy and brought unity to connected regions. Along with the railroads, a modern road network, telephone, and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals enabled India to modernize.
Social Changes Britain introduced changes that affected Indian society. Improved health care and sanitary conditions led to population growth. The British set up schools and colleges to educate higher-caste Indians. The course of study stressed English language and culture.
Ritual of Sati Sati (Su-thi, a.k.a. suttee) is the traditional Hindu practice of a widow throwing herself on her husband's funeral pyre. Sati was prevalent among certain sects of the society in ancient India, who either took the vow or deemed it a great honor to die on the funeral pyres of their husbands.
Child Marriages In India during the 1860s, marriage meant girls getting married below 8 or 9 years old. It wasnt until 1880 that child marriage as a problem became a public issue in India and examples of young wives being killed and or raped by their husbands brought the tradition to an end.