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Respiratory Protection

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1 Respiratory Protection
Asbestos NESHAP Inspection and Safety Procedures Workshop Section 11 Respiratory Protection This section will describe the various aspects of respirators, respirator use and related regulations We will also look at the issues, use and regulations regarding protective clothing It is assumed that all participants will be formally trained on these issues by their agency This program is an overview of these issues and does not supplant actual hands on training with the actual devices that will be worn by the Inspectors October 2008

2 OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Standard 29 CFR 1910.134
This OSHA standard is the universal regulation for the requirements and use of respiratory protection It applies to all related OSHA standards

3 Organization of Standard 29 CFR 1910.134
(a) Permissible practice (b) Definitions (c) Respirator program (d) Selection of respirators (e) Medical evaluation (f) Fit testing (g) Use of respirators (h) Maintenance and care (i) Breathing air quality and use (j) Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters (k) Training and information (l) Program evaluation (m) Recordkeeping (n) Dates (o) Appendices (mandatory) A: Fit Testing Procedures B-1: User Seal Checks B-2: Cleaning Procedures C: Medical Questionnaire D: Information for Employees Wearing Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard This is the breakdown of the standard by section Note MANDATORY appendices We’ll briefly discuss almost all of these aspects

4 Scope - 29 CFR 1910.134 General Industry 29 CFR 1910.1001
This standard applies to the OSHA asbestos standards: General Industry 29 CFR Shipyards 29 CFR Construction 29 CFR The asbestos standards also have sections within them that address respirator use Inasmuch as the asbestos standards discuss respiratory protection; is the bulk of what employers must incorporate into their respiratory protection program for complete OSHA compliance

5 Asbestos Standards General Industry Standard Construction Standard
Respiratory Protection - Section (g) Protective Clothing - Section (h) Appendices: Fit Testing (C), Medical Questionnaire (D), Medical Surveillance (H) Construction Standard Respiratory Protection - Section (h) Protective Clothing - Section (i) Medical Surveillance - Section (m) Appendices: Fit Testing (refer to ), Medical Questionnaire (D) The sections within the construction and general industry asbestos standards that discuss related issues including the medical aspects

6 OSHA Issues Construction 29 CFR 1926.1101(g)
OSHA Classes of Work Class I Removal of surfacing material, TSI or PACM Class II Non “high risk” removal (flooring, siding, mastics) Class III Asbestos Inspection Maintenance & Repair Removal is not the purpose (removal to allow maintenance and repair) 1 glovebag, mini-enclosures (2 workers max.), 1waste bag (60”x60”) max Class IV Maintenance & custodial cleaning activities, incidental contact or incidental to construction A reminder of the OSHA Classes of work We’re going to refer to this often in this section…with an emphasis on Class I

7 Types of Respirators . Picture shows a variety or respirators – mention that there are a wide variety available for the myriad of hazardous materials in the work place. It is up to the employer to assure that workers are given the proper respiratory protection for the hazards they face in the workplace If you are familiar with each, discuss the differences We’ll look at each in the subsequent sections

8 Tight -Fitting Coverings
Tight fitting means that a seal is formed between the device and the face surface Half mask (or half face) covers half of the face surface Full facepiece covers the entire face Half Mask Full Facepiece

9 Loose-Fitting Coverings
These devices do not make a tight fit to the face surface Some offer minimal protection, others can afford a high degree of protection This varies by design and intended use Hood Loose-Fitting Facepiece Helmet

10 Respirator Selection Employer must select and provide an appropriate respirator based on the respiratory hazards to which the worker is exposed and workplace and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability Selection must take into consideration the nature of the contaminant AND its concentration in the work place See slide bullets Remember; the employer has the burden to protect their employees; public or private!

11 Employee Exposure Exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection. For asbestos, this is measured with personal air monitoring. Samples are analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and results are in fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc or f/cm3) Briefly explain pictures so that they connect the terms This was discussed in the air sampling section (#10)

12 Filtering Facepiece (Dust Mask)
A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium. NOT ALLOWED FOR ASBESTOS PROTECTION NOT ALLOWED FOR ASBESTOS PROTECTION (this will pop in a few seconds on the slide) In no manner are these allowed for asbestos work, they never have been!! May want to point out the drywall sanding slide and the use of dust mask – asbestos in joint compound? For years, yes!

13 Negative Pressure Respirator
A respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is lower during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. ☺In other words; you supply the “horsepower” NPR’s are those respirators where you breathe in and air is pulled through the cartridges You supply the “horse-power!”

14 Air-Purifying Respirator (APR)
A respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element. See slide text The air outside of the respirator is filtered, delivering safe breathing air to the wearer This depends on much, such as - choice of proper filter, respirator fit and others we’ll discuss

15 Half Face (Mask), Negative Pressure, Air Purifying Respirators
A wide variety of half mask respirators

16 Full Face (Mask), Negative Pressure, Air Purifying Respirators
A wide variety of FF respirators

17 Positive Pressure Respirator
A respirator that uses a powered source such as a blower unit or compressor that blows filtered air into the face piece A gap in the face/mask fit will release air and prevent contaminants from entering This is a tremendous advantage compared to a negative pressure respirator In this case, instead of the wearer providing the breathing power, a battery powered motor pushes air through a filtration device and then to the mask This is a far more comfortable device for breathing than a negative pressure respirator The biggest advantage is “positive pressure” If a gap occurs in the seal…air is more likely to be pushed out versus contaminated air leaking in

18 Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR)
For your notes! A PAPR must be provided to workers upon request Here we see a variety of PAPRs There is one example of a hood-type (inset)…rarely used, as is the half face type in the same picture Also; see text box above pictures and the note lines below the pictures; the OSHA Class I requirement is important! It is an OSHA requirement that ALL Class I jobs begin in PAPRs Filters for these are rated as “High Efficiency” or “Type H” not P-100

19 Air (Atmosphere) Supplying Respirator
A respirator that supplies the user with breathing air from a source outside of the asbestos work area Includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units In this case air is mechanically delivered through tubing to the respirator wearer Usually the air is delivered from a compressor There are very strict requirements for breathing air quality See slide bullets

20 Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) Referred to as “Type C”
An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user. Also called airline respirator. See slide info Type C is an EPA designation that is used conversationally for this type of breathing system

21 Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) Type “C”
Pressure Demand With Reserve Air Pressure Demand Continuous Flow Continuous flow; it’s just that, air blows constantly, they’re loud and dry out the nose and eyes if worn for long periods Pressure demand (PD); uses a tilt valve that allows air into the mask when the wearer inhales (pressure drop), and it always maintains a bit of positive pressure in the mask Pressure demand masks are what OSHA and NIOSH highly recommend because of the additional safety feature of the positive pressure PD with reserve air is desirable but often impractical for Class I work unless truly necessary (IDLH situations) Hood style systems are rarely used Type C was the predominant method used for Class I work early in the Asbestos-in Schools/AHERA era They are rarely used today Most Class I jobs utilize PAPRs Type C Hood Style

22 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user. See slide info For our purposes here, SCBA is the highest level of protection Significant training and maintenance issues A must for many work situations, HAZMAT, first responders, confined spaces etc. VERY rare for asbestos work in today's market

23 Also called air purifying element.
Canister or Cartridge A component with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container. Also called air purifying element. When a respirator is sold it does not come with “filters” Canisters/Cartridges use a variety of methods to “block” the hazardous solid or liquid that is in the air; filtration, sorbents or a catalyst It is up to the employer to know which to use and when Virtually all asbestos projects rely on canisters/cartridges; ½ and full face negative pressure and PAPR’s

24 Classes of filters for Non-Powered, Air-Purifying, Particulate-Filter Respirators
Nine classes: three levels of filter efficiency, each with three categories of resistance to filter efficiency degradation in the presence of oil aerosols N R P Used for Asbestos Dust Mask There are nine classes of filters (three levels of filter efficiency, each with three categories of resistance to filter efficiency degradation). Levels of filter efficiency are 95%, 99%, and 99.97%. Categories of resistance to filter efficiency degradation are labeled N, R, and P. N (not resistant to oil) R (resistant to oil) P (“oil proof”) Use of the filter will be clearly marked on the filter, filter package, or respirator box (e.g., N95 means N-series filter at least 95% efficient). P-100’s are used in asbestos work They are referred to as “HEPA” filters by OSHA N - Not resistant to oil R - Resistant to oil P - Oil Proof

25 Selection and Use For ASBESTOS the P-100 is used for negative pressure respirators (half/full face). “High Efficiency” or Type H is used for positive pressure respirators such as a PAPR Type H and P-100 are functionally the same Both are color coded MAGENTA (colors vary from reddish to purple) See slide bullets

26 High Efficiency Filters
Filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. NIOSH Terminology: N100, R100, and P100 filters. OSHA Terminology: “HEPA” When HEPA filters are required by an OSHA standard, N100, R100, and P100 filters can be used to replace them. P-100’s are those used in asbestos work because they offer the best protection

27 Identification of Filters, Cartridges, and Canisters
All filters, cartridges and canisters used in the workplace must be labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label Marked with “NIOSH”, manufacturer’s name and part number, and an abbreviation to indicate cartridge or filter type (e.g., N95, P100, etc.) Instructor: The NIOSH certification issue and color coding is a must know for students As mentioned previously, it is up to the employer to be sure that workers are given and use the appropriate device for the hazards present The picture on the far right “P-100 & OV (organic vapors)” are often used with floor tile removal because the mastic (glue) remover often has organic chemicals in their formulation Organic Vapor, Chlorine, Hydrogen Chloride, Sulfur Dioxide, Hydrogen Fluoride, Chlorine Dioxide Combination P-100 & OV Ammonia Organic Vapor

28 End-of-Service-Life Indicator (ESLI)
A system that warns the user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection; e.g., the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective. P100 respirator cartridges do not have a specific “end of life” as do some chemical cartridges… If you have even a slightly hard time breathing through them…replace them. - All respirator cartridges must be kept dry. If they get wet, they’re ruined…replace them! ESLI’s are discussed in , but few are actually available For P-100/Type H issues, see text Note: if any respirator cartridge gets wet, it needs to be replaced!

29 OSHA Class I In the absence of negative exposure assessment (NEA, air sample data) or work area fiber concentrations ≤1.0 f/cc MUST wear PAPR (or better) In work areas >1.0 f/cc Must wear Type C with SCBA back up or SCBA First bullet; The work must start in a PAPR, but if data is produced on that project that will allow a lower protection device then it may be used, such as a half face This would be rare for Class I work The reason that this point is made is that poorly trained/managed crews will attempt to use ½ face respirators on Class I jobs

30 OSHA Class II & III Asbestos inspection is OSHA Class III work
Regardless of personal air sample results… You are REQUIRED to wear a 1/2 face respirator when sampling TSI and surfacing material Exposure monitoring could require a higher level of protection For other Class II & III work a NEA or 1/2 face respirator EPA policy says full-face APR See Federal Register, Vol. 71. No 64 ( ), p , (h)(iii) If inspection work involves TSI or surfacing material, a ½ face must always be used For those performing Class II or III work (as with contractors), they may be able to use a NEA to eliminate the use of respirators and other OSHA issues (ex. roofing, asbestos cement panel removal)

31 Oxygen-Deficient Atmosphere
An atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume All oxygen-deficient atmospheres are considered immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) Also, if the atmosphere has unknown hazards, it is are considered IDLH Students need to know the minimum oxygen level

32 Fit Testing Before an employee uses any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. Switching gears at this point and moving into fit testing issues See slide text ALSO; workers must have had OSHA-required medical monitoring BEFORE fit testing

33 Fit Testing Employees using tight-fitting facepiece respirators must pass an appropriate qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit test (QNFT): prior to initial use, whenever a different respirator facepiece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter See slide text We’ll look at the two techniques in the slides that follow Fit testing must be performed before use and at least annually thereafter Previous OSHA regs, fit testing was every 6 months…this changed in 1998 In a few minutes, we’ll see slides of these techniques Instructor: It is imperative that students know the difference between qualitative and quantitative fit tests and “seal checks” (seen 2 slides from here)

34 Fit Testing Additional fit testing shall be conducted whenever change in an employee’s physical condition could affect respirator fit: facial scarring dental changes cosmetic surgery noticeable change in body weight See text These issues do occur, especially weight changes and dental work

35 Respirator Use Respirators with tight-fitting facepieces must not be worn by employees who have facial hair or any condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function Corrective glasses or goggles or other PPE must be worn in a manner that does not interfere with the face-to-facepiece seal OSHA permits contact lenses to be worn inside of full face respirator masks. Employees wearing tight-fitting respirators must perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator First bullet; Many firms require clean shaven faces only Trimmed mustaches and “Van Dyke” type beards can be worn ONLY if the hair does not void the respirator seal Beards as shown above are not allowed There are spectacle kits available that fit into the FF respirator facepiece Contact lenses were not allowed for a long time, they are allowed today Seal checks are required every time the mask is donned, see next slide

36 User Seal Check “Fit Check”
An action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face. If the instructor has a respirator available, this technique should be demonstrated Positive pressure check; the hand is place over the exhalation port, breathe out slightly (you’re not blowing up a balloon) Negative pressure check; cover the inlets on the cartridge and breathe in If leaks are detected, re-adjust (tighten) the straps and try again If still leaking seek assistance This cannot be reliably performed on the “pancake” style filters in the picture (the pics are from the OSHA web site!) For pancake-type, the filters are removed, respirator checked and filters replaced Positive Pressure Check Negative Pressure Check THIS MUST BE PERFORMED EACH TIME THE RESPIRATOR IS PUT ON!

37 Fit Testing The fit test must be administered using an OSHA-accepted QLFT or QNFT protocol contained in Appendix A of Before respirator use and annually thereafter Seal checks (or fit checks) are performed each time the respirator is donned Here we discuss FIT TESTING See slide info

38 Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT)
A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual’s response to the test agent. QLFT Protocols: Irritant smoke (cough) Bitrex (taste) Isoamyl acetate (taste) Banana oil (taste) -Saccharin (taste) In this case we rely on the uses sense of smell or taste to detect leaks Irritant smoke and Bitrex are common, but the others are used too. There are very specific procedures required by OSHA for this function (in the appendices)

39 Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT)
Bitrex Banana Oil Ampules Irritant Smoke Examples of qualitative fit testing Note that test administrator is also wearing a respirator for the irritant smoke test Irritant smoke should only be preformed in areas with adequate ventilation and never in an enclosed chamber (this was done in eras past) Bitrex Test Kit Irritant Smoke Kits – Powered & Manual

40 Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT)
An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator. In this type of test, the atmosphere outside of the respirator is compared to the atmosphere inside of the respirator This results in a numerical value called a “fit factor” Note the number on the machine (it’s meaningless number for now, just to show the students what it looks like)

41 Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT)
Probed respirators & probe kits TSI PortacountTM In this case the subject wears a respirator that is attached to a machine and follows OSHA enumerated activities There are a 4 OSHA recognized devices for this type of testing, 2 are shown here OHD FitTester 3000TM

42 QNFT Fit Factor A numerical estimate of the fit of a particular respirator on a specific individual; typically estimates the ratio: Concentration of a substance in ambient air Concentration inside the respirator when worn This explains what a fit factor represents; it’s a ratio See slide text NOTE; the device must yield a value of 100 for a ½ face, 500 for FF respirators This is a must for FF respirators if the protection factor published by OSHA is to be referenced If the fit factor is determined to be equal to or greater than 100 for tight-fitting half facepieces or equal to or greater than 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces, the quantitative fit test has been passed with that respirator

43 How much asbestos inside the mask?
OSHA allows up to the PEL inside the mask OSHA asbestos PEL 0.1 f/cc (8 hr TWA) The EPA’s policy is a lower number 0.01 f/cc, EPA PCM Final Clearance Value This is a generally accepted industry practice Has been in EPA asbestos model course materials for many years Here we begin our discussion of protection factors See slide text While OSHA may allow up to the PEL inside a workers mask…that is not the general industry practice We many years the value of 0.01 f/cc has been used as the desired fiber concentration inside a workers mask

CO = Concentration Outside Mask (f/cc) CI = Concentration Inside Mask (f/cc) For determining concentration inside the facepiece Conc.outside PF Conc. Inside This slide explains the value of PF; it’s a ratio That calculation is re-ordered to calculate what is INSIDE a workers mask. Co is from personal sampling data!!! If personal sampling data is not available, the competent person cannot evaluate what is inside a workers facepiece The blue bubble calculation is another way to explain this MUC helps the competent person evaluate which respirator to choose based on work area personal sampling data; see next slide “MUC” = PF x Concentration Inside (Maximum Use Concentration) Concentration = f/cc This number comes from personal air sample data! ÷ ÷ X

45 Protection Factors (PF) 29 CFR 1910.134
Respirator Type PF MUL2 Half face APR f/cc Full face APR f/cc PAPR1 (tight fitting and hood) f/cc Supplied Air (Type C, PD) f/cc The PF values are a MUST KNOW MUL = the maximum work area concentration that respirator should be worn into if 0.01 f/cc is the max fiber concentration desired in the facepiece 1 Hoods can only claim 1000 if supported by manufacturer’s data. 2 Using recommendation of 0.01 f/cc inside mask: MUL = (0.01 f/cc)(PF)

46 Respirator Program Must develop a written program with worksite-specific procedures when respirators are necessary or required by the employer Must update program as necessary to reflect changes in workplace conditions that affect respirator use Must designate a program administrator who is qualified by appropriate training or experience to administer or oversee the program and conduct the required program evaluations Must provide respirators, training, and medical evaluations at no cost to the employee The next two slides are about OSHA required respirator programs Some contractors may not have up to date programs

47 Respirator Program Elements
1. Selection 2. Medical evaluation 3. Fit testing 4. Use 5. Maintenance and care 6. Breathing air quality and use 7. Training 8. Program evaluation Required elements

48 Medical Evaluation Procedures
Must provide a medical evaluation to determine employee’s ability to use a respirator, before fit testing and use Medical evaluation procedures for all OSHA regulated asbestos activities will follow the procedures outlined in 29 CFR (m) “Medical Surveillance”…at least Medical questionnaire (29 CFR , Appendix D) Pulmonary function test Physical Exam May also perform X-ray or other procedures All records from medical evaluation are kept employment plus 30 years See slide text The procedures in yellow are REQUIRED by the OSHA construction standard Pulmonary function test; evaluates lung capacity X-Rays are commonly obtained but not required unless by physician Physician can require additional test; common for older workers (stress tests etc.) Note recordkeeping requirement!!

49 Respirator Care and Storage
Provide each user with a respirator that is clean, sanitary and in good working order Use procedures in Appendix B-2 or equivalent manufacturer’s recommendations Store in a sealed bag to ensure cleanliness Store in a manner to ensure the integrity of the facepiece. (no heavy objects on top, don’t leave in a hot car) See slide text OSHA has specific requirements for respirator care, disinfection etc… Only place in a sealed bag when completely dry!! Respirators can be deformed if improperly stored, if deformed for any reason, it should be replaced Note: for all issues in this section…the costs are borne by the EMPLOYER, not the worker

50 SUMMARY Anticipate Hazards Determine Appropriate Protection
Use the right respirator with the right cartridge Maintain the respirator Have a written respiratory protection program Sample smart – use good techniques This section covers a lot of ground…a quick summary and discuss these issues as much as time will allow

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