Presentation on theme: "Aquapheresis™ and the Aquadex FlexFlow™"— Presentation transcript:
1Aquapheresis™ and the Aquadex FlexFlow™ L0058 Rev. B 11/05
2Contents Key Points What is Aquapheresis? How does it work? What is the Aquadex FlexFlow?Who are candidates for aquapheresis?Why use aquapheresis and the Aquadex FlexFlow?How to use aquapheresis and the Aquadex FlexFlow?Ultrafiltration/Aquapheresis clinical evidence andbackground
3Key Points The Aquadex System is indicated for: • Temporary (up to 8 hours) ultrafiltration treatment of patients with fluid overload who have failed diuretic therapy,and• Extended (longer than 8 hours) ultrafiltration treatment of patients with fluid overload who have failed diuretic therapy and require hospitalization.All treatments must be administered by a healthcare provider, under physician prescription, both of whom having received training in extracorporeal therapies.
4Key PointsAquapheresis™ is the trademarked name of CHF Solutions’ advanced and simplified form of ultrafiltration (UF) performed by the Aquadex FlexFlow™ and designed for fluid removal.Aquapheresis is used to describe the clinical treatment that offers safe, convenient, and predictable salt and water removal for patients with fluid overload.The Aquadex FlexFlow is the system that enables the delivery of that treatment.To minimize the chances of hypovolemic and hypotensive complications, the rate of fluid removal should not exceed the rate of a patient’s intravascular fluid refilling. Periodic monitoring of a patient’s systolic blood pressure can be used to determine how well these rates are currently matched.
5Key PointsIn clinical trials, aquapheresis using the Aquadex FlexFlow:allowed rapid removal of extracellular and intravascular fluid volume excess, can be safely achieved via peripherally inserted ultrafiltration without the need for central venous catheter placement 1And is associated with:no clinically significant impact on electrolyte balance, heart rate, blood pressure 1greater fluid removal, weight loss and symptom relief compared to medical therapy alone 2reductions in patient hospital length of stay and hospital readmissions 3significant and sustainable reductions in patient weight, cardiac filling pressures and left atrial volume index as well as marked improvements in stroke volume and mitral regurgitant severity 41. Jaski, Journal of Cardiac Failure (3); Costanzo, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46: Bart, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46: Saltzberg, J Heart Lung Transpl, Feb 2005, Vol. 24, Issue 2 (Suppl.) S
6Key PointsThe best sources of the latest information on aquapheresis and the Aquadex FlexFlow can be found in the following:Product label and instructions for use documents (e.g. Aquadex FlexFlow User’s Guide, UF-500 blood set)Applicable and specific hospital Policy & Procedures and Standing OrdersAquadex FlexFlow onscreen help and alarm/alert informationCHF Solutions’ website,
7What is Aquapheresis? Aquapheresis™ safe, convenient, and predictable salt and water removal from patients with fluid overload as delivered by the Aquadex FlexFlow™ system.
8How does Aquapheresis work? Aquapheresis with the Aquadex FlexFlow works by pulling a small amount of venous blood from the body (10-40 mL/min in increments of 5 mL/min), filtering out the excess salt and water ( mL/hour in increments of 10 mL/hour), and returning the filtered blood back to the patient.
10Aquapheresis with the Aquadex FlexFlow Advanced form of ultrafiltrationInpatient or outpatient settingsICU, CCU, MICU, telemetry, stepdown, observation, ED, outpatient clinicsPeripheral or central venous accessFlexible access sites and catheters1 to 1 monitoring not requiredNo clinically significant impact on electrolyte balance, blood pressure or heart rate
11What is the Aquadex FlexFlow™? Aquadex FlexFlow consoleUF 500 blood circuit setConsole cart
12What is the Aquadex FlexFlow? Low blood flow: mL/minLow blood volume: 33 mLPrecise fluid removal rates: mL/hourQuick and easy device setup (less than 10 minutes)Highly automated operation, nursing oversight is minimized
14What is the Aquadex FlexFlow™? Pressure sensorsData keyBlood filterUF pump cartridgeBlood pump cartridgePriming adaptorWithdrawal lineUF collection bagInfusion lineUF bag drainAccess ports
15Who are candidates for Aquapheresis? Volume Overloaded:As evidenced by two or more of the following- Peripheral edema (e.g.>2+) 1,2,3- Ascites 2,3Pulmonary rales, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspneaPND), or orthopnea 2,3- Jugular venous distention (e.g.>7 cm ) 2,3Significantly above dry weight (e.g. 10+ lbs ) 8AND
16Who are candidates for Aquapheresis? Inadequate Diuretic and/or Natriuretic Response (as a subset of patients with volume overload):As evidenced by two or more of the following:High daily diuretic doses (e.g. furosemide > 80 mg,torsemide > 40 mg, and bumetamide > 2 mg ) 2- Low urine volume (e.g. < 1,000 ml in 24 hours ) 4- Elevated serum creatinine 2,5Increasing serum creatinine on standard therapy 6,7AND
17Who are candidates for Aquapheresis? Special Considerations Should Be Given IfAny Of The Following Are Present:- Need for renal replacement therapy 2- Unstable hemodynamic condition 1,2,3- Documented hypercoagulable state 2- Hemoconcentrated (e.g. Hct > 53% ) 1,2,3Jaski, Journal of Cardiac Failure (3); Costanzo, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46: Bart, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:4. Gottlieb, JACC 2000;35(1): Gottlieb, JCF 2002;8 (3): Butler, Am Heart J 2004; 147:7. Akhter, Am J Cardiol 2004; 94:8. 74% of admitted patients lose less than 10 lbs over course of standard therapy, Q ADHERE™ Registry National Benchmark Report, Scios Inc
19Why should Aquapheresis be used? Current options not performing as they NEED toCurrent options are not achieving the standard of careCurrent options have undesirable clinical impacts
20ADHERE Registry Quarter Benchmark Report (AD001444) Not performing as they NEED to89% of patients present with difficulty breathing (dypsnea, i.e. fluid in lungs)Average duration of IV loop diuretic treatment = 2.9 daysIV heart failure medications include …ADHERE Registry Quarter Benchmark Report (AD001444)
21Not performing as they NEED to ADHERE: Inpatient IV Medications Acute Heart Failure All Enrolled Discharges over 12 months n=52,047
22Not performing as they NEED to ADHERE Registry Quarter Benchmark Report (AD001444)43% of patients are “improved but still symptomatic at time of discharge”This number has been increasing each quarter by 1% since Q
23Not performing as they NEED to ADHERE Registry Quarter Benchmark Report (AD001444)75% of patients are discharged with 10 lbs or less change in weight from admission.This number is unchanged for over 2 years.
27Current options have undesirable clinical impacts The “Good” about diureticsInduce hypotonic urine, reduce total body volume in majority of patients 8The “Bad” about diureticsDirect Activation of renin-aldosterone (RAA) system 7,14Enhanced Myocardial Aldosterone uptake 16Loss of K, Mg, Ca, secondary myocyte Ca loading 16Indirect Reduction of Cardiac Output 14,15Increased Total Systemic Vascular Resistance 15Reduced Natriuresis 12Reduction of GFR 11,13The “Ugly” about diureticsAssociated with enhanced morbidity 6Associated with increased mortality 6,9,10Diuretics are inefficient in reduction of edema and effective in reduction of symptomatic congestion 55. Q National Benchmark Report, Scios Inc. 6. Emerman, JCF 2004;10(4):S116: Bayliss, Br Heart J 1987;57:17-22.8. Faris, Int J Cardiol. 2002;82(2): Mehta, JAMA 2002;288(20): Butler, Am Heart J 2004; 147:11. Gottlieb, JACC, 2000;35(1): Brater DC. N Engl J Med. 1998;339: Firth et al Lancet 5/7/88.14. Francis AIM 1985;103: Ribboli Am J Physiol Sep;267(3 Pt 2):H McCurley, JACC 2004;44(6):
28Current options have undesirable clinical impacts “Braking Phenomenon”A decrease in response to a diuretic after the first dose has been administeredLong-term ToleranceTubular hypertrophy to compensate for salt lossBrater DC. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:387
29Diuretics Worsen CHF by Reducing GFR and Activating Neurohormones Bayliss showed that the significant increase in renin and aldosterone occurred as a response to diuretic treatment rather than as a result of the disease process itselfGottlieb SS et al. Circulation. 2002;105:1348–1353 (n=63)Gottlieb showed that loop diuretics diminish GFR In patients with heart failure1
30The High Morbidity and Mortality in CHF Is Strongly Related to Renal Function Relationship of GFRc with Mortality in 1,906 Pts. With CHFTotal of 1906 patientsNYHA ClassIII (n = 1138)III/IV (n = 607)IV (n =161)GFRc = Uses Cockroft Gault EqnImpaired renal function is a strong predictor of mortalityHillege HL et al. Circulation 2000; 102:
31Diuretic Dose Predicts Mortality in Pts. With Advanced HF Neuberg did sub-analysis of PRAISE study (n=1153)High diuretic, low ACE-I dose High mortalityPhilbin studied 1,150 patients with decompensated CHF treated in community settingHigh mortality in patient having less rapid clearance of volume excess despite greater use of IV diuretics.Neuberg GW et al. AHJ 2002; 144: 31-8.Philbin, et al. AJC 1997; 80:
32Why Aquapheresis instead of CVVH? CVVH devices designed to offer several modes of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) in ICU settings to patients with acute renal failure.Aquadex FlexFlow device designed to offer solely fluid removal by aquapheresis in many settings to patients with fluid overload.
33Why Aquapheresis instead of CVVH? CRRT (Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy) is an umbrella term that incorporates several common modes of therapy.All modes remove plasma water, but most remove other solutes as well.All modes use the technique of convection, diffusion or a combination of both.
34Why Aquapheresis instead of CVVH? Convection - can be thought of as water as it passes over a waterfall. A slow gentle waterfall will not pull many “solutes” with it as compared to a rushing waterfall that will drag large amounts of “solutes” as it flows over the waterfallDiffusion - solutes move from an area of high concentration to an area of low solute concentration
35Common modes of CRRT Slow Continuous Ultrafiltration (SCUF) Used to remove fluid: not able to remove many solutes and/or urea.Utilizes convectionContinuous Venovenous Hemofiltration (CVVH)Removes fluids, small to medium solutes and some ureaContinuous Venovenous Hemodialysis (CVVHD)Continuous slow dialysis, medium and large solutes removedUtilizes diffusionContinuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF)Removes small and medium solutes, clears ureaUtilizes both convection and diffusion
36Why Aquapheresis instead of CVVH? PatientFluid overloadRenal complicationsPrimary PhysicianCardiologist, Nephrologist, Surgeon, etc.NephrologistTreatment VenueInpatient/OutpatientICUBlood Withdrawal Rates10 – 40 mL/min.100 – 300 mL/min.Extracorporeal Volumes33 mL100 – 300 mLAccessPeripheral or CentralCentral only
37Why Aquapheresis instead of CVVH? “We do a lot of CVVH. But if we just need to take some fluid off, aquapheresis with the Aquadex FlexFlow is simply easier and cheaper.”“That’s why we prefer it in those patients with fluid overload.”-- Todd Y., MS, CNS, CNP, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Cardiology
38How to Use Aquapheresis and the Aquadex FlexFlow
39Responsibilities Physician Identifies appropriate patient(s) according to accepted criteria (refer to Patient Selection / Identification)Completes Standing Orders for Ultrafiltration / AquapheresisEstablishes / coordinates venous access site, catheter, and insertion (refer to Choosing Venous Access)Defines quantity of total fluid to be removed (in liters) and/or total duration of treatment (in hours)Defines initial fluid removal rateDefines / details / clarifies criteria for adjusting fluid removal rate and/or blood flowPrescribes and communicates anticoagulation planEstablishes fluid restriction
40Responsibilities Nurse Treatment Set Up Begin per physicians orders Basic MonitoringEnforce and record intake and output (I & O’s).Monitor patient as appropriate.If necessary, adjust the fluid removal rate as prescribed.Listen for possible alarms and respond as necessary.Perform basic troubleshooting to assure proper functioning.Assess venous access sites periodically.If required, titrate anticoagulation as ordered.Confirm patient at physician prescribed amount of fluid removed or duration of therapy.Disconnect patient from the device.Care or dispose of blood set and catheters according to institutional policy.Routine console cleaning.
41Loading and setupPrior to use, the UF-500 blood set must be properly installed and connected to the Aquadex FlexFlow console. This can be achieved by the several different methods listed below:Aquadex FlexFlow User’s Guide instructions (Chapter 2)One page Aquadex FlexFlow Instructions for Setup andPriming documentInteractive, step by step onscreen instructions (e.g. pressPRIME then Help key)Graphic step by step instructions on UF-500 blood set label
42Priming Before starting PRIME, ensure that… both of the UF-500 blood set pump cartridges are fully andproperly insertedall three of the pressure sensors are insertedtubing is properly inserted into the air and blood leak sensorsnew datakey provided with the new UF-500 blood set isinsertedwithdrawal line is spiked into priming solution bag and ishanging from the cart hookclear infusion line is connected to the collection bag and itshanging from the weight scale hookall clamps are openPress PRIME then ACCEPT key to begin.
43Displaying the pressures The pressures in the Aquadex FlexFlow blood circuit set (UF-500 blood set) may be displayed on the Aquadex FlexFlow screen by pressingthe Graph or mmHg keys.The numbers displayed are in units of millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and represent the 3 individual pressures that are monitoring during treatment – withdrawal (Pw), infusion, (Pi) and ultrafiltrate (Pu).
44Displaying the pressures Pw: measures the withdrawal pressure and is typically negative (-) and depending upon the chosen access, usually between -50 to mmHg. Obtaining the lowest pressure is best (i.e. the smallest negative number), but Pw should also be below 0 mmHg to prevent a withdrawal disconnect alarm from occurring. Below -300 mmHg, the pumps may slow and a withdrawal occlusion alert may occur.Pi: the infusion pressure range is of the same order as the withdrawal pressure but positive (+), that is, usually between +50 to +200 mmHg. Below 0 mmHg, an infusion disconnect alarm may occur. Above +300 mmHg, the pumps may slow and an infusion occlusion alert may occur.Pu: can range from nearly Pi’s current value to -300 mmHg. Pu is limited to -300 mmHg by the Aquadex FlexFlow. A more negative Pu indicates that the resistance of the filter is higher than expected (e.g. if the filter is clotted/fouled).
45Expected pressure ranges The pressures generated during operation is a function of blood flow rate, blood viscosity, and patient and catheter resistance.The Aquadex FlexFlow blood flow rate is adjustable by the user, but always between mL/min.Blood viscosity is a function of blood temperature and hematocrit (Hct).Patient resistance is a function of where the catheter is placed, a patient’s venous vasculature, and the patient’s body positioning.Catheter resistance is a function of the diameter and length of the selected catheter.
46Understanding the pressures One way to think of this is using a “straw in a milkshake analogy”.How much milkshake you actually get out (blood flow rate) is dependent upon how thick the milkshake is (viscosity), where exactly is the straw in the glass (patient resistance), and what kind of straw you’re using (catheter resistance).The thicker the milkshake or the longer and thinner the straw is, the more you will have to suck on the straw (withdrawal) to get the same amount of milkshake out, the higher the resistance is, the more negative the pressure will be in the straw. If you were blowing into the same straw to make bubbles (infusion), the higher resistance will make the pressure more positive.
47How much? How fast?As with any mechanical method of extracorporeal fluid removal, the rate of fluid removed per hour from the intravascular space must not exceed the rate of fluid entering the intravascular space from the interstitial and intracellular spaces.Setting the appropriate fluid removal rate to not exceed this intravascular refilling is crucial to minimizing risk ofhypovolemia,hypotension,transient renal malperfusion,increases in creatinine,arrhythmias
48rate of fluid removed from the intravascular space = UF rate (UFR) How much? How fast?rate of fluid removed from the intravascular space = UF rate (UFR)rate of fluid entering the intravascular space = Plasma Refill Rate (PRR)Therefore,UFR < PRR
49How much? How fast?This can be most easily achieved with a periodic monitoring of the systolic blood pressure and setting specific limits that would warrant a reduction in the fluid removal rate (refer to the hospital’s Aquapheresis Standing Orders)For example, Vital signs Q 15 minutes x 1 hour, Q for the remainder of treatment. If SBP < 90 mmHg or HR > 130 bpm after 2 consecutive 5 minute observation periods, decrease the fluid removal rate (UF Rate) by 100 mL/hr or place at 0 mL/hr for 30 minutes or until patient is stable. Then, resume UF rate 100 mL/hr lower than the level at which the patient became unstable.
50Setting the Fluid Removal Rate (UF Rate) Using the UF Rate key, , users can set the fluid removal rate from 10 to 500 mL/hour in increments of 10 mL/hour. Default is 0 mL/min.Press the UF RATE keyPress Arrow UP or DOWN keys to set adesired value.Press ACCEPT.With this feature, our users can set the fluid removal rate that is best for the chosen patient.
51How long?Most physicians prescribe a treatment length based on any of the following:Indication For UseDesired fluid goal being achievedDesired weight reduction goal being achievedDesired symptom relief goal being achievedDesired time goal being achievedFilter clottingShifts in BP, sCr, etc.
52AnticoagulationFor maximal UF-500 blood set life, it is recommended that during treatment the patient have a therapeutic range of anticoagulation, that is, twice normal (e.g. an ACT of seconds).Refer to the appropriate institutional policy (i.e. weight based protocol) for recommended bolus and drip requirements and make sure that all parties involved understand what is expected and required.
53AnticoagulationCommon anticoagulants used with the Aquadex FlexFlow are heparin, lovenox, argatroban and coumadin.Many hospitals periodically take a blood sample and test what level of anticoagulation is being achieved in the patient during treatment (e.g. every 4 hours).Intravenous anticoagulation can be administered through either the withdrawal or infusion access ports on the UF-500 blood circuit set, but the withdrawal line access port is most common.
54AnticoagulationIf the withdrawal line access port is used with an infusion pump, occlusion alarms may occur if the infusion pump’s occlusion pressure limits are not set appropriately.It is recommended that the occlusion limit for the infusion pump be set to at least 400 mmHg.Refer to the infusion pump’s operator’s manual for instructions on setting its occlusion pressure limits.
55Choosing Venous Access For optimal performance and minimal inconvenience, the Aquadex FlexFlow requires adequately sized catheter lumens and a steady flow of venous blood.If the required blood flow cannot be achieved without causing higher than normal pressures, the Aquadex FlexFlow may alert and interrupt treatment more often than desired.
57Choosing Venous Access It is imperative that the required blood flow set on the machine matches that which can be delivered using the chosen catheter / catheter lumen (i.e. catheter flow rating).For more information on choosing a catheter and setting the blood flow, press HELP from STOP mode and select the appropriate menu item.For a complete view of the most appropriate catheter and blood flow selection, refer to the latest version of the Aquadex Catheter Compatibility Guide.
58Setting the Blood FlowUsing the BLOOD FLOW key, , users can set the blood flow from 10 to 40 mL/min in increments of 5 mL/min. Default is 40 mL/min.Therefore, if users do not set blood flow to something, the console will operate just as it did before. That’s why it’s considered optional.Pressing the BLOOD FLOW keyPress Arrow UP or DOWN key to set a desired valuePress ACCEPTWith this feature, our users can set the blood flow that is best for the chosen patient and the chosen venous access catheter.
59Setting the Blood FlowGetting good venous access FIRST is still ESSENTIAL to successful therapy but, users can adjust blood flow to possibly reduce blood flow alarms and possibly use venous access sites and catheters not available before.
60TroubleshootingThe Aquadex FlexFlow displays helpful information and suggests remedies to correct alarms/alerts that it may experience during treatment.The usual troubleshooting procedure is:Press the alarm mute key (mutes for 2 minutes).Read and follow the instructions displayed.When corrected, press the Clear key to clear screen and alarm to continue.If further information is needed, refer to the Aquadex FlexFlow User’s Guide and/or call customer service ( )
61Ultrafiltration/Aquapheresis Clinical Evidence and Background
62Clinical trials of Ultrafiltration in HF Study NameStudy Type & Inclusion CriteriaPtsConclusion(s)UNLOAD2006Randomized, multicenter, multiple substudies, aquapheresis vs. standard therapy (diuretics)100 / 100Enrollment complete, publications expected early 2006Costanzo, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:Prospective, case series, Early UF in Diuretic Resistant + CRS19Early treatment strategy with aquapheresis effectively and safely decreases length of stay and readmissions. Clinical benefits persist at 3 months after treatment.Bart, J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:Randomized, Early UF vs. Diuretics40Aquapheresis is effective, safe and can be applied in a variety of community-based hospitals. Cumulative fluid removal after is greater than that achieved by aggressive use of diuretics and is not associated with adverse hemodynamic or laboratory sequelae.Jaski B Current Heart Failure Reports 2005, 2:148–154.Review, summary of recent clinical work.--Compared with diuretics, ultrafiltration provides a more predictable and safer way to achieve euvolemia with minimal electrolyte abnormalities and neurohormonal activation. The emerging familiarity and ease of use of ultrafiltration suggests that in the future this will be an important therapy for the treatment of acute and chronic volume overload associated with decompensated heart failure.Saltzberg, J Heart Lung Transpl, 2005, Vol. 24, Issue 2 Suppl S10Aquapheresis in acutely decompensated HF pts mediates significant and sustainable reductions in pt weight, cardiac filling pressures and LAVI as well as marked improvements in SV and MR severity.Sheppard, J Card Fail Oct;10(5):380-3Retrospective, case series, FC III-IV, Intermittent outpatient UFOur study suggests that UF is a safe, feasible therapy and has the potential for offering another important therapeutic option for patients with severe and refractory CHF
63Clinical trials of Ultrafiltration in HF Study NameStudy Type & Inclusion CriteriaPtsConclusion(s)Saltzberg, J Card Failure Vol. 9 No. 5 Suppl S46 163Prospective, case series, FC III-IV, Diuretic Resistant251) Safely and effectively removes large volumes of excess fluid 2) Produces significant symptomatic and functional improvement 3) Reduces neurohormonal activation and 4) Reduces LOS by almost 2 days compared to that observed nationally in DHF patients receiving conventional heart failure treatment.Raman, Int J Artif Organs Aug;26(8):753-7Randomized, case series, CV Surg61/57Hemofiltration during CPB attenuates postoperative anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, may reduce post-operative bleeding and appears to decrease post-operative pulmonary complications.Jaski, Journal of Cardiac Failure (3);Prospective, case series, FC III21Rapid removal of extracellular and intravascular fluid volume excess can be safely achieved via peripherally inserted ultrafiltration without the need for central venous catheter placement.Marenzi, J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:4:24In patients with rCHF, subtraction of plasma water by UF is associated with hemodynamic improvement. Hypotension does not occur when plasma refilling rate is adequate to prevent hypovolemiaCanaud, Nephrol Dial Transplant[Suppl 4]:51-55Prospective, Severe CHF, class IV52Veno-venous ultrafiltration has the potential to block the deleterious effects of the cardiac and renal interactions secondary to severe CHF. In a significant proportion of patients, it improves cardiac performance and a number of clinical parameters.Blake, Adv Ren Replace Ther Apr;3(2):166-73Referenced summary of clinical work to date.--UF relieves pulmonary edema, reduces ascites and peripheral edema, enhances the response to subsequent diuretic therapy, improves overall volume status, normalizes filling pressures, and reduces clinical symptoms, and offers an improvement in overall quality of life.Agostoni, Am J Med Mar;96(3):191-9Randomized, UF vs. IV bolus Lasix8/8After ultrafiltration, the favorable circulatory and ventilatory adjustments consequent to the reabsorption of lung water improved the functional capacity of these patients. The improvement continued 3 months after the procedure
64Clinical trials of Ultrafiltration in HF Study NameStudy Type & Inclusion CriteriaPtsConclusion(s)Pepi, Br Heart J Aug;70(2):Randomized, controlled FC II-III12/12In the ultrafiltration group, variations in the ventricular filling pattern, lung water content, and functional performance persisted for three months in all cases. None of these changes was detected in the control group.Agostoni, J Am Coll Cardiol Feb; 21(2):424-31Randomized, controlled, FC II-III18/18In patients with moderate congestive heart failure, ultrafiltration reduces the severity of the syndrome.Marenzi,, Am J Med Jan;94 (1):49-56Prospective, class II - IV32Refractory CHF requires the interruption of the humoral-hemodynamic vicious circle, and ultrafiltration is able to accomplish that.Susuni, Crit Care Med 1990; 18:14-18Prospective, FC IV, diuretic resistant20UF may be considered an effective tool for the treatment of acute pulmonary edema refractory to drug therapy, as an alternative to mechanical ventilation, and as a remedy for excessive extravascular lung water.Rimondini, Am J Med Jul;83(1):43-8Prospective, case series, FC IV, diuretic resistant11Hemofiltration promoted relief of dyspnea and of clinical and radiographic evidence of lung congestion and pleural effusion, and substantially reduced the dependent edema and abdominal girthFauchald, Acta Med Scand. 1986;219(1):47-52Prospective, case series, FC III-IV, diuretic resistant6Ultrafiltration is a safe method of fluid removal in patients with therapy-resistant cardiac edema and can be used as preparation for cardiac catheterization or surgery.
65Clear, Beneficial Hemodynamic Effects of UF In CHF Marenzi et.al. 2001
66Changes in Plasma Volume and Refilling Rate During UF Marenzi GC et al. JACC 2001; 38:
67Aquapheresis and Aquadex FlexFlow Certification Program
68Certificate of Completion is hereby granted to:for completing the Aquapheresis and Aquadex FlexFlow Certification ProgramPaul A. Sobotka, MD, Chief Medical Officer CHF Solutions, Inc.CHF Solutions, Inc Date