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Presentation on theme: "CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS"— Presentation transcript:


2 AMMUNITION Cartridge Structure Cartridge Case Primer Head Propellant
Bullet Blanks- No Bullet


4 Metal Jacket



7 Ammunition



10 AMMUNITION Cartridge Cases Made of Brass Aluminum
30% Copper 30% Zinc Aluminum Brass, Plastic and Paper for shotguns

11 AMMUNITION Function of Cartridge Expand and seal chamber
Increase Gas Pressure Press the case up against barrel Seals Springs back to almost same size Aids extraction

12 AMMUNITION Shapes Straight Bottle neck Tapered Permits more powder
Not in use

13 Ammunition

14 AMMUNITION Case Head Designs Rimmed Semi-rimmed Rimless Rebated Belted

15 5.56 Centerfire vs. Rimfire

16 AMMUNITION Caliber Nomenclature Rifled barrels
Lands and grooves Diameter of bore from land to land Sometimes groove to groove diameter Bullet diameter

17 Some terminology Barrel: the metal tube through which the bullet is fired. Bore: the inside of the barrel, either: Smooth bore: Shotguns. Not smooth bore: rifles, pistols.

18 Muzzle: the end of the barrel out of which the bullet comes out.
Primer: volatile substance that ignites when struck to detonate the powder in a cartridge.




22 Types of firearm weapons
Non-rifled: only long Rifled: short and long

23 What happens? The holder presses the firing pin which in turn strikes the primer which ignites the powder and produces large amount of hot gas. Produces very high pressure that fires the bullet forcefully through the barrel leaving the muzzle, and onto the target.

24 Mechanism of injury: As the missile traverses the body it causes injury by: Basic contact of bullet and it’s fragments (if present) with the tissue, so larger bullets create bigger damage at the same velocity. Transferring some of its available kinetic energy to the tissue around it, so increasing velocity greatly increases damage. It also causes cavitations in the tissue it passes as it accelerates molecules → makes them move centrifugally away from the axis of the bullet.  Bullets do not typically follow a straight line to the target. Rotational forces are in effect that keep the bullet off a straight axis of flight.

25 SO… Mode of injury depends on the velocity of the missile
-Slow velocity (<340 m/s) speed of sound in air or less -High velocity (1500 m/s) faster! High velocity missile causes a shockwave around it’s track → severe disruption → ↑tissue pressure and more damage. So a 10mm wide bullet may cause a 15mm wide track of damage…

26 Smooth bore weapon (Shotgun):
A gun with a smoothbore that shoots cartridges that contain "shot" or small metal pellets (of lead or steel) as the projectiles. Ammunition: A shotgun shell(cartridge) may contain one large projectile (called a slug), a few pellets of large shot, or many tiny pellets. Cartridge made of a cylinder fitted into a metal base contains charge of propellant, wads, and shots. Range is the most important factor, and can be estimated in over half of cases… Close range wounds are severe, but at even relatively short distances, wounding may be minimal.

27 The rifle weapon: Rifles differ from shotguns in the length of the barrel and the presence of a butt stock. They fire one projectile at a time through a thicker barrel that has spiral grooves on its inner surface → rotational movement. They are much more accurate and shoot more powerful cartridges than handguns. Ammunition: metal cylinder loaded with explosive propellant and bullet.

28 Rifle bullet/pistol bullet

29 AMMUNITION Caliber Specification
U.S. System not consistent or accurate .303 Savage = .308 bullet .303 British = .312 bullet and .308 both fire a .308 bullet .06 refers to year made

30 AMMUNITION U.S. Caliber Designation Confusing Not accurate
.38 and .357 Difference is length of case and grains of powder

31 AMMUNITION Black Powder Cartridges Designated by: Caliber
Black powder charge Bullet weight Examples: Some smokeless powder cartridges used this designation .30-30

32 AMMUNITION Metric Designation Bullet diameter Case length
Type of cartridge

33 AMMUNITION Types of Cartridge R = Rimmed SR = Semi-Rimmed RB = Rebated
B = Belted No letter for rimless

34 AMMUNITION Additional Terms Magnum = Higher velocity than standard
Wildcat = Nonstandard, produced by small entity


36 AMMUNITION Head Stamps All cases have stamps on bases
Imprinted for Identification Purposes Letters Numbers Symbols Trade names


38 AMMUNITION Head Stamps (Cont.) Civilian made with manufacturers symbol
Military made with initials or codes Year of manufacturing Match/nm = military match grade ammo + = NATO +P or +P+ = High Pressure

39 AMMUNITION Bullet Powder Weights Grain = weight not granules
1 oz. = grains 1 grain = grams Bullet and powder weights measured in grains

40 AMMUNITION Primer (Cont.) Non-corrosive/Non-mercuric Lead Styphnate
Barium Nitrate Antimony Sulfide Most U.S. primers contain all three *Detection of these compounds provides bases for GSR

41 AMMUNITION Primers (Cont.) Rimfire Ammo No primer assembly
Primer chemical is in rim

42 AMMUNITION Propellants Black Powder Charcoal is fuel
Sulfur Potassium Nitrate Charcoal is fuel Nitrate supplies oxygen Sulfur creates density

43 AMMUNITION Propellants – Black Powder When powder burns
Gas = 44% Residue= 56% Residue appears as dense white smoke

44 AMMUNITION Smokeless Powder 1884 Vieille – French Chemist
Nitrocellulose Used EtOH/Ether Rolled into sheets Cut into flakes Single base

45 AMMUNITION Smokeless Powder (Cont.) 1887 – Alfred Noble
Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerine Rolled and cut into flakes Double base

46 AMMUNITION Ball Powder Winchester 1933 Nitrocellulose dissolved
Formed into balls Different diameters Appears uniform round, black spheres or ovals Reflective surface Flattened round Irregular Flattened chips Wide variation between round and flat

47 AMMUNITION Powder Grains Disk Flake Cylinder Uncoated (Greenish color)
Coated w/Graphite (shiny black)

48 Ammunition Powder (continued) Powders burn at different rates
Gases and unburned grains are discharged upon firing Grains can be found in clothing and skin

49 Ammunition Bullet Originally lead spheres Musket vs.. Rifle
Minnie ball (Capt.. Minnie, French Army) Modern bullets Lead Metal-jacketed

50 Ammunition Bullets Various shapes Round Hollow point Semi-wadcutter


52 Ammo performance-Handguns
Cartridge Bullet gr. Velocity Ft-lbs .380 95 955 190 9mm 124 1299 465 .40 S&W 155 1140 447 .45 ACP 230 855 405 .38 158 755 200 .357 1235 535 .44 mag 240 1350 971

53 Ammo performance-Rifles
Cartridge Bullet gr. Velocity Ft-lbs .223 55 3150 1218 5.45x39 53 2985 1053 .270 130 3060 2702 .30-30 150 2390 1902 .308 2750 2520 .30-06 2740 2500


55 Bullet Comparison Class characteristics Number of lands and grooves
Diameter of lands and grooves Width of lands and grooves Depth of lands and grooves Direction of rifling twist Degree of twist

56 Bullet Comparison Individual Characteristics
Imperfections on lands/grooves Score the bullets Jacketed bullets, more pronounced Are peculiar to each firearm




60 Bullet Comparison Factors impacting Ind. Characteristics Rusted barrel
Jacketed/unjacketed Velocity/pressure Bullets vary from lot to lot

61 Bullet Comparison Additional markings Compositional Analysis
Skid marks Shaving Compositional Analysis Fragments are recovered SEM-EDX Comparison between suspected guns bullets and recovered fragments


63 Bullet Comparison Base markings Imprinted from propelled powder grains
Most evident in bullets w/lead base Shorter barrel, deeper marks Different forms produce different marks Spherical=circular pits Disk=circular imprints Black powder=peppered



66 Bullet Comparison Additional factors
Bullets fired in wrong caliber weapon Decomposed bodies (Study after 66 days) Nylon clad-unaffected Aluminum-mildly affected Lead bullets, recovered from Brain, chest cavity, abdomen-mild tarnish Fat, muscle-severe oxidation-impaired match Copper alloy-severe degradation

67 Bullet Comparison Surface analysis of bullet DNA typing
Non-organic material Tissue analysis DNA typing

68 Cartridge Case Comparison
Comparison “MAY” make ID possible Type Make Model Test and evidence cartridges compared Use same brand and lot Ammo consistency

69 Cartridge Case Comparison
Markings=imprints or scratches Magazine marks Breech block marks Firing pin marks Size,shape, and location of; Extractor and ejector marks Flute marks

70 Ballistics Ballistics=Study of motion of projectiles Internal External
Terminal Wound ballistics

71 Ballistics Forces K.E.=1/2mv2 Velocity place larger role in force
Doubling mass, doubles force Doubling velocity quadruples force Energy transfer/loss

72 Ballistics Energy Loss/transfer Amount of K.E. upon impact
Angle of yaw upon impact Caliber, construction, shape Density, strength, elasticity of tissue

73 Ballistics-Structural Mechanics
Elasticity (Stretching) Shearing Compression Cohesiveness Tensile strength Density

74 Ballistics Movement through body Crushes/shred tissue in path
Flinging, radially, surrounding tissue Temp. cavity several times (12) size of bullet Lasts 5-10 msec Pulsates, contractions and collapse +/- pressure sucks in bacteria/foreign materials

75 Ballistics

76 Ballistics Temporary/Permanent Cavity
Max diameter of temp cavity is proportional to amount of kinetic energy lost Occurs at maximum yaw or fragments Yaw continues until Cg is forward or approx 180 degrees rotation Size of cavity is determined by amount of K.E. lost by bullet Size of cavity is determined to a degree by cross section of round


78 Ballistics Temporary/Permanent Cavity (cont.)
Compression, stretching, tearing of tissue Handguns-Damage to area hit by bullet, very little collateral damage Rifles-Radial damage to nerves, tissue, vessels, organs not struck by bullet Damage related to density, elasticity and cohesiveness of tissue Muscle vs. Liver vs. Lung

79 Ballistics

80 Ballistics Energy loss along wound track Not uniform
Changes and variations occur due to; Angle of yaw Change in density of tissue Change in structural dimension of bullet (mushrooms) Fragmentation amplifies effect .223 marked yaw at 12cm Major frag/tissue disruption at 15-25cm

81 Ballistics

82 Ballistics Critical velocity At or above 2625-2953 ft/sec (FMJ)
At or above ft/sec (expanding ammo) Tissue damage more severe Supersonic flow = strong shockwaves Shockwaves travel through body Damage is times larger Due to higher amount of K.E. loss

83 Ballistics Critical amount of K.E. loss Wounds are more severe
Exceeds elastic limits Organ bursts Projectile does not have to be near organ

84 Ballistics Critical amount of K.E. loss-Head Special case
Cranial cavity is a closed, rigid structure 1% elasticity No place for energy to disperse Results in bursting injuries (high velocity)

85 Ballistics Temporary cavity structure FMJ Hunting rifle round
Shotgun pellet

86 Ballistics Temporary cavity size Permanent Cavity size
10-12 times diameter of bullet High K.E. loss times bullet Permanent Cavity size Handgun=smaller than round diameter High velocity=size of bullet Unless Elastic limit of tissue is reached=large irregular tearing wound track.

87 Case Study This case involved a barroom shooting.  The incident went something like this:

88 Case Study Guy No.1- "Hey man, my quarters were up next!!   I've got the next game on that pool table!!"

89 Case Study Guy No. 2- "Man you’re crazy!  I've had my quarters up there for over an hour!"

90 Case Study Guy No. 1- "Oh yeah? Well not only are my quarters up next but your breath stinks too!!!"

91 Case Study Guy No. 2- "You son-of-a-XXXXX!!!!! I'm gunna kill you!!!"

92 Case Study Me- "Now guys, calm down it's only a pool game; it's only a quarter."

93 Case Study Guy No.1 pulls out the Llama 45 auto below and points it at Guy No. 2.


95 Case Study In a drunken stupor he fires a single shot at Guy No. 2, missing him and hitting me right between the eye's with this 45 AUTO, 230 grain full-metal-jacketed bullet.


97 Case Study At the same time the pistol ejects the 45 AUTO cartridge case below into the corner pocket of the pool table.



100 Case Study Guy No. 1 and Guy No. 2 run out of the bar get in a car and go home.   They tell mom they have been to the movies, hide the gun under their bunk bed and go to sleep.

101 Case Study Meanwhile back at the bar, a riot has ensued because the other guys with quarters on the table are really p off because the spent case has jammed the pool table.  Order is finally restored when county police detectives clear the table.  

102 Case Study My cold lifeless body is taken to the Medical Examiners Office for the 9 AM autopsy.

103 Case Study Guy's No. 1 and 2 are later roused from bed by Detectives and the pistol, it's magazine, and four 45 AUTO cartridges are recovered from under the bed.

104 Case Study The pistol, magazine, live ammunition, spent case, and bullet are later submitted to the lab for analysis.

105 Case Study Although my ex-coworker is all but overcome with grief, he manages to set aside his personal ties to the case and conducts the required analysis in a totally professional and unbiased fashion.

106 Case Study First course of business is to examine the pistol, which is found to be in perfect working condition.  The pistol is test fired in the water tank and standards from the pistol are compared to the spent case from the pool table and bullet from my head.

107 Case Study The results of which are the match seen below.


109 Case Study Breech Marks: Standard from pistol (left) compared to the spent case from the bar (right).


111 Case Study Bullet land impression comparison: Standard (left) compared to "my" bullet (right).


113 Case Study By the way, Guy 1 "walks" when his brother testifies that I started the fight by stealing his brother's hot wings.

114 Case Study They really do have the best hot wings in town!!!

115 AMMUNITION Primers Shapes Purpose Fulminate of mercury Berdan Boxer
Anvil built in case Boxer Anvil built in Purpose Fulminate of mercury Causes corrosion


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