Presentation on theme: "MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS Deniz Karman Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Carleton."— Presentation transcript:
MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR TOXICS ALONG URBAN STREETS Deniz Karman Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Carleton University Lisa Graham Emissions Research and Mesurement Division Environment Canada TSRI Regional Conference - Urban Air Vancouver, November 2001
Outline Objectives Methodology Summary of findings –Roadside VOC PM –In-Vehicle The Ottawa Microenvironment Database Conclusion
Acknowledgements 1994 Lisa Graham Moin El Herraoui Dale Braun Lo Cheng Kinny Wong Arlene Whitmore Greg Rideout Fred Hendren Health Canada Air and Waste Issues Section Environment Canada MSED, Environmetal Technology Centre 2000 Lisa Graham Danny Wang Lianne Noseworthy Oznur Oguz Gultekin Akay Sandra Bayne Norm Meyer Mod Keetile Health Canada, TSRI Environment Canada ERMD Environmetal Technology Centre TUBITAK & METU
Objectives To establish a database of motor vehicle related toxic substance concentrations and PM 2.5 mass concentrations at nose-level along a busy downtown street by measurements in the two extremes of weather (Summer and Winter) in a typical Canadian city.
Objectives To compare and correlate the short term (2 hour periods of peak traffic volume) concentrations of toxic substances and fine particulate matter measured at nose-level with the regional air quality monitoring data of longer duration (24 hours) measured at other urban sites.
Objectives To compare and correlate the short term concentrations of toxic substances measured at nose-level with the in-vehicle concentrations on typical commuting trips. To determine the contribution of motor vehicle traffic to the measured toxic substance concentrations and fine particulate matter by comparisons with motor vehicle emission data.
Summary of experimental work 1994 Summer Roadside, 2 stations –2 hour sampling periods (7:30-9:30, 11:30-13:30,15:30-17:30) –6 L SUMMA canisters for VOCS (2 stations) –2,4 DNPH cartridges for carbonyl compounds (2 stations) –TSP mass, SOF, and trace metals (3 stations) –PAH on TSP and PUF cartridges (stations)
Summary of experimental work 2000 Winter and Summer Roadside –2, 6, 24 hour roadside sampling periods –6 L SUMMA canisters for VOCs, Tenax cartridges for SVOCs –2,4 DNPH cartridges for carbonyl compounds –PM 2.5 mass, EC/OC, and trace metals Rooftop (limited) –VOC and SVOC Passenger car and transit bus (a.m and p.m. commuting trips) –1 L SUMMA canisters, DNPH cartridges
1994 Slater-1 and Slater-2 stations
Winter 2000, Slater Street Roadside station
Winter 2000 Nose-level sampling station constructed at ETC for roadside measurement of VOC, SVOC, PM2.5, and carbonyl compounds
Oznur Oguz taking roadside measurements in January 2000, Slater Street, Ottawa. Windchill: - 51 C ( - 60 F)
Evacuated 1 L Summa canister with flow controller and pressure gauge 1 L/min personal sampling pump and DNPH cartridge Used in car and bus
Summary of findings Over 100 compounds were quantified in the gas phase samples obtained at the roadside and in- vehicle micro-environments 40 elemental species quantified in the PM2.5 samples obtained at the roadside micro- environment. These compounds were also quantified in the source emission samples from vehicles operated at the ERMD laboratories
Summary of findings The temporal variation from day to day of pollutant concentrations observed in micro- environments is much higher than the spatial variation observed among diverse micro- environments.
Summary of findings Despite the large temporal variations, the median values of 24 hr average concentrations recorded at the ambient monitoring station on Slater street at a height of 4 m are in general agreement with the median values of 2 hour average concentrations recorded at nose-level along the same street.
Summary of findings There are noticeable differences between 2 hour average concentrations recorded at nose level and 24 hour average concentrations recorded at a height of 10 m, on the roof of an adjacent parking structure. Nearly all of the difference is due to the sample averaging time since the comparison of 24 hr average concentrations at these two locations shows reasonably close agreement.
Winter 2000, PM2.5 concentrations
PM2.5 and TSP concentrations
2000 PM2.5 Elemental/Organic carbon
In-vehicle sampling program for VOC and carbonyl compounds 15 Winter days (January-February 2000) 15 Summer days (July-August 2000) 2 sampling periods, 8-9 A.M. and 4-5 P.M. Routes and vehicles: –Bus: min route along main downtown streets, different bus for different sessions –Car: commute along an arterial route that combines rural and urban settings. ~ 10 year old vehicles Nissan (Winter) and Aries (Summer)
Comparison of median concentrations in different microenvironments
OMDB OTTAWA MICRO-ENVIRONMENT DATABASE FOR MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS Data in Excel files: –Gas phase (VOC, SVOC, carbonyl compounds) –Particulate matter(TSP, PM2.5 mass concentrations, chemical analysis) –Weather and traffic Identified by: –Year, season, date, sampling station, sampling time Exploratory analysis (S-PLUS and Powerpoint files) Descriptive access through html and graphic files
Conclusion THE OTTAWA MICRO-ENVIRONMENT DATABASE FOR MOTOR VEHICLE RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS Available: A database of motor vehicle related toxic substance concentrations and PM 2.5 mass concentrations at nose-level along a busy downtown street and in commuter vehicles in the two extremes of weather (Summer and Winter) in a typical Canadian city. Comments, criticism, collaboration welcome at: