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Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier,

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Presentation on theme: "Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Components, Receivers, and Instrumentation for Ground-Based mm/submm Astronomy B.Lazareff, G.Butin, M.Carter, J.Y.Chenu, A.L.Fontana, S.Mahieu, D.Maier, F.Mattiocco, P.Serres K.Schuster, N.Krebs, T.Scherer, M.Schicke

2 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff2 Outline Existing facilities Drivers for development Component technologies Ultimate limits Device development at IRAM SIS Mixers Receiving systems Instrumentation Future prospects

3 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff3 Present and Future Facilities IRAMALMA

4 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff4 Drivers for Receiver Development Sensitivity ! Ultimate limit: background limited Receiver : electronics, optics Atmosphere Photon statisitics Frequency coverage Tuning range. All atmospheric windows Instantaneous. Goal: one atmospheric window, several 10's of GHz! Speed (mapping) But also: Stability: amplitude, phase Linearity Polarization purity Reliability Cost (hardware and manpower)

5 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff5 Active Component Technologies SIS HEMT HEB

6 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff6 Active Component Technologies HEMT Direct amplification 115 GHz on telescopes; 200 GHz in the lab Instantaneous b/w ~ 30% SIS Heterodyne mixing 700GHz (Nb); >1THz (NbTiN) Instantaeneous b/w 2 x 8 GHz HEB Heterodyne mixing Several THz Instantaeneous b/w ~ 4 GHz

7 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff7 Active Component Technologies

8 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff8 Pushing the Limits of Ground-Based Observing: GHz ! Meledin et al 2004 CFA, Cambridge, MA Moscow State University

9 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff9 Quantum Limit for SIS mixers (after A.R.Kerr)

10 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff10 Fundamental Limits versus State-of-Art (ALMA specs, SSB) Quantum Atm (0.5mm PWV, 1.4 airmass) ALMA SSB Spec Practical limit

11 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff11 Devices : SIS Junction Devt & Fab P2-I Voltage [mV] Current [µA]

12 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff12 Devices : SIS Junction Devt & Fab PdBI Band 1 ( GHz) junction ALMA Band 7 ( GHz) junction

13 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff13 Devices : HEB Mixer Devt & Fab Optimisation systématique des films minces NbN Mélangeur NbN : Courbe I/V et puissance IF

14 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff14 Devices : MEMs : Tunable Capacitors

15 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff15 SIS Mixers DSB SSB 2SB (sideband separating)

16 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff16 DSB Mixers : Results IRAM ALMA B7 Trec = 2 h /k SRON ALMA B9 Trec = 3 h /k

17 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff17 SSB Mixers (PdBI) : Principle of Operation

18 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff18 SSB Mixers; Results for PdBI GHz

19 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff19 Sideband Separating (2SB) Mixers for ALMA Band 7 Band 7 (IRAM) 275 – 373 GHz

20 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff20 2SB SIS Mixer: Principle of Operation

21 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff21 ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB Mixers Results

22 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff22 ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB Mixers More Results

23 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff23 ALMA Band 7 (IRAM) 2SB Mixers More Results

24 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff24 Receiving Systems : PdBI New generation receivers for PdBI. 4 frequency bands Dual-Pol 4GHz wide IF #1 unit currently undergoing system test

25 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff25 Receiving Systems Atmospheric Phase Correction

26 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff26 Receiving Systems : ALMA B7 Cartridge 275 – 373 GHz Dual polarization Dual sideband USB+LSB Four IF outputs 4 – 8 GHz 147 K SSB maximum And many more specs…

27 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff27 Instrumentation : Antenna Range Herschel B1 horn verification 50 dB dynamic 604 GHz ALMA B7 cartridge, optics verification >50dB dynamic 300 GHz

28 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff28 Instrumentation : Vector Network Analyzer. 80 – 370 GHz

29 19-20 Sep 2005Hunt for Molecules. Rx Devt for IRAM & ALMA Telescopes. B.Lazareff29 Where Do We Go from Here ? Areas for Future Work Array receivers for mapping speed Push the IF b/w of SIS receivers to the limits: f/f ~ 10% ? Design integrated pixels Push HEMT receivers to lower noise and higher frequencies: 30K over 85 – 115 GHz ? ?? over 130 – 170 GHz ? Any really new detector around the corner ? Keep our spectral bands pollution-free !


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