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© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Issues in Common Cartridge and SCORM Yong-Sang Cho Principal researcher of KERIS (Korea Education and Research Information Service)
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Brief History and Challenges Common Cartridge Common Cartridge & SCORM Success Factor and Issues in Common Cartridge
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Brief History and Challenges
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved : - Moving the Computer-Based Training (CBT), programmed instruction model to the web: content/player centric approaches - Proliferation of learning technology start-ups of a wide variety : - Course Management Systems (CMSs) proliferate in higher education - Learning Management Systems (LMSs) gain a hold in corporate training, especially for self-paced, compliance-type training - CMSs focus on organizing supportive materials for courses - LMSs continue to focus on CBT model with features for human capital management - CMSs accepted as a mainstream enterprise application and also as the platform for improved distance learning in higher education segment - Most learning technology start-ups and many initiatives in the learning space by larger corporations do not survive the bursting of the Internet bubble - reality sets in as to the newness of using technology to support learning
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved Now: - New web portals, enterprise applications, and online searching in the education segments supporting specific curricular areas, assessment, and faculty/teacher development - Open source CMSs have become a factor - Open content initiatives have become a factor - Renewed, more stable growth with consolidation 2006-Now: - Collaborative authoring and learning - Web Mobile rich media (iPods) - Social Networking (Second Life) Future (prediction): - Continued proliferation and need for integration of educational resources and activities from a variety of sources - Continued domination of web sources and formats
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. System Integration: Proliferation of new learning applications that do not provide for exchange of data about users Instructional Integration: Difficulty in combining learning activities from a variety of products, vendors, and sources into a coherent lesson plan and/or learning experience Content Integration: Difficulty in using content from a multiplicity of publishers and/or teacher created content in the same learning system platform Assessment Integration: Proliferation of new learning and assessment applications that do not provide results of learning activities readily usable by teachers or administrators Quality of Learning: Achieving quality is about creating relevance of content to the learning context, not about the specific packaging of the content
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Common Cartridge
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. SCORM has and is focused on rather granular learning objects, typically used in a self-paced computer-based learning paradigm, Common Cartridge is focused on addressing the full range of online learning content and applications that support a more comprehensive instructor-led learning experience, such as a course, lesson, or seminar. Over the last 10 years, the application of the Internet to support educational experiences has skyrocketed. - Instructor-developed content, such as syllabus, notes, presentations, etc. - Pre-packaged digital content, such as publisher produced digital assets - Online assessments, tests, quizzes, etc - Online asynchronous discussion forums for student participation and collaboration - Launch and exchange of information with separate learning applications and tools, such as assessment systems, adaptive tutors, wikis, etc. - Authorization to access all-of-the-above based on licensing scheme Background of Common Cartridge
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. System Integration: Will support LTIv2.0 protocol for interactions among tools and learning or course management platforms Instructional Integration: Enables collections of learning resources of various types and sources, including explicit support for collaborative learning tools Content Integration: Establishes course cartridge native formats endorsed by educational publishers, and supports SCORM and a wide variety of established content formats, eliminating platform lock-in Assessment Integration: Explicitly supports the most widely used standard for exchanging assessment items Quality of Learning: Fits within the educational context of enabling instructors to assemble lesson plans of various resources and publish those as reusable and changeable packages Common Cartridge Learning Integration
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Metadata – descriptive metadata for cartridges based on simple Dublin Core Rich content - html, xml, web links, SCORM - Media files (mpg, jpg, mp3) - Application files (e.g. Microsoft Office) Integrated assessments - Multiple choice (single or multiple response) - True/false - Essay - Simple fill in the blank - Pattern match Discussion forums Authorization for protected content Common Cartridge Features
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Common Cartridge File Structure Item Folder Resource – web content Resource – web link Resource – discussion topic Resource – SCORM package Resource - assessment Resource – question bank Intra-package reference
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Common Cartridge Conceptual Diagram CMS/LMS/VLE/IMS LMS DB/ Repository Import Function Runtime Assessment Tools Interop Interface Discussion Forum Authorization SCORM Engine XML Rendering Common Cartridge Common Cartridge Web or Enterprise Learning Application Learner – Packaging of digital content – Metadata (tagging of content with descriptive attributes) – Question and test formats – Collaborative discussion forums set-up information – Invocation of web or enterprise application – 3 rd party format (SCORM, MPEG, Quicktime, etc) – Cartridge authorization information -Launch and data exchange with standalone learning tools Digital Content Authorization Service
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Common Cartridge Building Blocks Builds upon the widely implemented IMS Content Packaging specification, adding support for the following standards: Metadata - ISO 15836:2003: Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (mapped to the corresponding elements in LOM) - IEEE : Learning Object Metadata - IEEE : LOM Schema binding (loose binding) Content - IMS Content Packaging v1.2 - IMS Question & Test Interoperability v SCORM 1.2/2004 IMS Authorization Web Service v1.0
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Enhanced assessment (QTI v2.1) Web/enterprise integration with third-party tools and services (LTI v2.0) Lesson plans (Common Cartridge K-12) Competency maps based on educational standards (DICE: Dynamic Instructional Content Exchange) Accessibility support Convergence with Digital Textbook (eTextbook) Future Evolution of Common Cartridge (started from 2007)
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Common Cartridge & SCORM
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Common Cartridge was designed to meet a very different need than SCORM - Common Cartridge was designed for online support of all forms of teaching and learning - SCORM was designed for self-paced computer-based training The designers of Common Cartridge were product companies and publishers who had extensive experience with SCORM but found it inadequate to meet their needs Common Cartridge was designed to be compatible with SCORM SCORM rd Edition (the latest version) shares two specifications with Common Cartridge: IMS Content Packaging & LOM Metadata - SCORM rd Edition is based on IMS Simple Sequencing Users of SCORM 2004 will find Common Cartridge very complementary - Those not using sequencing can convert directly to Common Cartridge - KERIS will test a SCORM 2004 engine that can be incorporated to play SCORM content with sequencing via an IMS TI interface
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. FeatureSCORMCommon Cartridge Packaging standardIMS content packaging Metadata standardIEEE LOMDublin Core via IEEE LOM (And ISO MLR future ?) Sequencing standardIMS simple sequencingSequencing not a requirement, exploring IMS Learning Design and Simple Sequencing Tracking standardIEEE derived from AICCQTI & IMS Learning Tools Interoperability Assessment standardNoneIMS Question and Test Interoperability Standard to integrate web 2.0 and other learning tools NoneIMS Learning Tools Interoperability Content authorization standardNoneIMS authorization web service Support for collaborative forumsNoneIMS forum initiation Support for curriculum standards NoneIMS Reusable competencies & ed objectives and IMS vocabulary description & exchange Support for outcomes reportingNoneIMS Enterprise, IMS Learner Information Package, IMS ePortfolio Support for accessibilityNoneIMS Access for All Comparison of Common Cartridge and SCORM
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Success factor and issues in Common Cartridge
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Based on 10 years experience in learning content interoperability. Based on the most widely used interoperability standards for learning content and assessment. Supported by the leading educational publishers, assessment organizations, and learning platform providers and leading open source/open content initiatives. Easy to implement and flexible. Enables mapping to things we use and understand: textbooks, lesson plans, courses. Supports the overwhelmingly predominant educational and training paradigm: self-directed but guided learning with an instructor in the loop, coordinated with assessment and online communal learning (discussions). Component standards are in a very healthy state of improvement and evolution to support future needs.
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. The most important issue in developing standards in an emerging market is a very high payback to the industry Achieving engagement of a critical mass of organizational participants The larger the number, the greater economy of scale that is achieved and the more likely the standard will change the market Selection of the right set of interoperability points Delivering a quality set of specifications, especially with respect to enabling conformance to interoperability The segment and regional spread of Common Cartridge and how this will be achieved IMS Korea launched and is researching how to use Common Cartridge in Korean education segment and industry
© Copyright 2008 KERIS and IMS Global Learning Consortium All Rights Reserved. Thank You !!!
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