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ONLINE SELF-STUDY EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module.

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Presentation on theme: "ONLINE SELF-STUDY EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module."— Presentation transcript:

1 ONLINE SELF-STUDY EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module

2 EHS Emergency Response Truck Air Purifying Respirator Equipment Inventory Includes: 2 - North Series 76008A Full Face Air Purifying Respirators (Med/Lg. Size): One is on the emergency response truck & one is on the emergency response van. The emergency response truck is also equipped with a North Full 76008A Full Face Air Purifying Respirator-Size Small. Each respirator is equipped with two pairs of combination multi-chemical protective cartridges which are stored in their original manufacture sealed bag. They should only be opened in the event of an emergency. The emergency response truck is also equipped with a pair of Mercury/Chlorine Cartridges.

3 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Bellow is an illustration of the chemical protective cartridges that have been issued to you and that are placed on the emergency response truck. Notice that the color code is green and notice the letter abbreviations on the chemical cartridge package. What class of chemicals do these cartridges protect you against? The following slides explains this information.

4 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module EHS personnel are issued multi-chemical cartridges for emergency response actions. The chemical cartridge symbols described on the cartridges are the following: OV= Organic vapor family; (hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene) HC= Hydrogen Chloride; (acid gas family) synonyms: Hydrochloric acid, Muriatic acid. HF= Hydrogen Fluoride; (acid gas family) synonyms: Hydrofluoric acid CD= Chlorine; (acid gas family) synonyms: Chlorine oxide, or chlorine peroxide. AM= Ammonia (alkaline and base gas family) FM= Formaldehyde; synonyms: Methanal HS= Hydrogen Sulfide (escape only) MA= Methylamine; synonyms: Aminomethane The next slide provides more information regarding each of the listed chemical family.

5 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module 1)The chemical cartridges are protective against Organic Vapors & Gases Vapor: Carbon-based chemicals with relatively low vapor pressures are effectively removed by physical adsorption in the spores of the activated carbon. Vapors are the gaseous form of substances that are normally in the solid or liquid state at room temperature and pressure. They are formed by evaporation from a liquid or solid. Vapors can be generated during work processes at UNC and can be found where parts cleaning and painting takes place and where solvents are used. Solvents are used by paint shops and other areas such as laboratories. Some examples of vapors include compounds of benzene, toluene, styrene, and pesticide chemicals. Vapors can includes many hydrocarbons (organic vapors) fuel vapors, Hexane, Acetone, Toluene, MEK, and carbon-based chemicals used on campus.

6 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Vapors & Gases Gasses: Gases are formless fluids that occupy the space or enclosure and which can be changed to the liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature. Examples are welding gases such as acetylene, nitrogen, helium and argon; and carbon monoxide generated from the operation of internal combustion engines. Another example is hydrogen sulfide, which is formed wherever there is decomposition of materials containing sulfur under reducing conditions. Other examples of gasses consist of formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, chlorine, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.

7 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Review of the pH Scale pH Scale: is defined as the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration. The logarithmic, scale, which ranges from 0 to 14, actually represents a concentration range from 1 mole/liter H + to 1 mole/liter of OH _. It is possible to have a pH greater than 14 or less than 1. Some of the air contaminants that the chemical protective cartridges are protective against are acid gasses (low pH) and base or alkaline gases (high pH). The following slides review acid and alkaline gasses. Some common pHs: (courtesy: Wikipedia website)

8 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module 2) The chemical cartridges are also protective against Acid Gases. Acid Gases: Many of the acid gasses posses high vapor pressures and are difficult for activated carbon to adsorb. Therefore the charcoal in the respirator cartridges are chemically treated to react with acid gasses to either decompose them into non- hazardous gasses or to convert them into chemical compounds which are retained on the carbon surface. Acid gasses have a pH less than 7 ; health effects of exposure can cause severe burning of the lungs, skin, and eyes. Extreme caution must be taken when responding to these substances. Always review the MSDS and product literature prior to responding or entering areas with personal protective equipment where these substance are spilled or may be encountered. The next slide illustrates some examples of acid gasses.

9 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Acid Gases: Some examples of acid gasses that may be encountered on campus during response actions and compounds which the selected respirator cartridges are protective include: HCl, Hydrogen Chloride- (synonyms: hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid), found in some UNC-CH labs on campus as lab bottles. Chlorine- A type of acid gas, found in some UNC-CH labs on campus, and in briquette (solid) form such as used at swimming pools for water chemistry treatment. Sulfur Dioxide- also found in some UNC-CH labs on campus in liter size bottles. Hydrogen Sulfide- the cartridges provide protection for escape only. Hydrogen Fluoride- (synonyms: Hydrofluoric acid or aqueous hydrogen fluoride)- can be found in laboratories; These chemical cartridges protect against this highly toxic acid gas.

10 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Vapors & Gases- Acid Gasses (e.g. Hydrochloric Acid) Acid Gases: Hydrogen chloride readily dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid, a corrosive solution. Hydrochloric acid is most often used as a chemical intermediate to manufacture other chemicals and is used for the pickling/cleaning of metal surfaces. At room temperature it is a colorless, non-flammable gas with an unpleasant, acrid odor. Technical grades of hydrochloric acid are called muriatic acid. Muriatic acid is often yellow in color due to its impurity. Common Routes of Hydrochloric Acid Exposure: (Inhalation, skin contact, eye contact) Inhalation. The most common way for hydrochloric acid to enter the body is through the respiratory system. Signs and symptoms of hydrochloric acid inhalation can include: Coughing, Choking, Burning of the throat Contact with the Skin. Hydrochloric acid can irritate the skin and cause chemical burns ranging from mild to severe depending on the concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution. Concentrated vapor or solution may cause pain, redness of the skin, and blisters. Signs displayed by skin exposed to liquefied hydrochloric acid can include frostbite, tissue death, or severe burns with deep ulcerations. Contact with the Eyes. Hydrochloric acid, even with short-term exposure, can irritate the eyes and cause burning, swelling, tearing of the eyes, blurred vision, photophobia, sloughing of the surface cells of the eye, and may cause blindness. For more information regarding hydrochloric acid, recommend reviewing the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA/EPA Occupational Chemical Database at:

11 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Vapors & Gases- Acid Gasses (e.g. Sulfuric Acid) Acid Gases: Sulfuric acid is a corrosive, oily, colorless liquid when pure. Impure grades of sulfuric acid, is brownish in color. Sulfuric acid is most often used as a chemical intermediate to manufacture other chemicals and is also used for the pickling or cleaning of metal surfaces. It is used at the Energy Services Co- Generation Facility. Common Routes of Sulfuric Acid Exposure Inhalation. The most common way for sulfuric acid to enter the body is through the respiratory system. Serious lung damage may result from inhalation exposure to sulfuric acid. Contact with the Skin. Sulfuric acid can irritate the skin and cause chemical burns ranging from mild to severe, depending on the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution. Concentrated vapor or solution that contacts the skin may cause the victim to experience severe pain, redness of the skin, blisters and necrosis. Contact with the Eyes. Sulfuric acid or sulfuric acid vapor, even with short-term exposure, can irritate the eyes and cause burning, swelling, tearing of the eyes and/or blurred vision, and may cause blindness. For more information regarding sulfuric acid, recommend reviewing the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA/EPA Occupational Chemical Database at:

12 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Vapors & Gases- Acid Gasses (e.g. Chlorine) Acid Gases: Chlorine is often used as a bleaching agent, in treatment of sewage effluent, for water purification, and as a disinfectant. At room temperature it is a yellow-green gas with a sharp, burning odor. It becomes a clear, reddish colored liquid under increased pressure or at temperatures below minus 30 degrees F. Chlorine is usually shipped as a compressed liquid in steel cylinders. The sheer volume of chlorine required to meet the needs of users places it on the list of the top ten chemicals produced in the US. Common Routes of Chlorine Exposure Inhalation. The most common way for chlorine to enter the body is through the respiratory system. Signs and symptoms of chlorine inhalation can include: Rapid, difficult breathing Bluish skin color Wheezing and congestion Cough Nausea and dizziness Burning, irritated throat Swelling or narrowing of the airways Chlorine-induced pneumonia Possible lung collapse

13 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Vapors & Gases- Acid Gasses (e.g. Chlorine) Absorption through the Skin. Chlorine can be absorbed through the skin and cause burns ranging from mild to severe depending on the length of contact. The victim may also experience pain, inflammation or swelling, and blisters. Symptoms displayed by skin exposed to liquid chlorine can include frostbite or tissue death. Absorption through the Eyes. Chlorine can also be absorbed through the eyes and cause burning or discomfort, irregular blinking, involuntary closing of the eyelids, redness, and tearing. Larger amounts of chlorine in the air may lead to severe eye burns, pain, and blurred vision. Ingestion. Chlorine may cause tissue injury upon swallowing. Acute Health Effects of Chlorine Exposure Generally the more severe the chlorine exposure, the more severe the symptoms. However, even minor exposures to chlorine can cause immediate burning of the eyes, nose, and throat. These symptoms can help to warn people of potentially hazardous exposure levels. But continued exposure can lead to tolerance to these irritant effects and victims may no longer be aware of chlorine's presence. The very young, the very old, and people with health problems are at an increased risk from the health effects of chlorine exposure. Because chlorine is heavier than air, it can push the air in a room up over itself as it moves. This can lead to suffocation in poorly ventilated, enclosed, or low-lying areas. For more information regarding chlorine or any of the additional listed acid gasses, recommend reviewing the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA/EPA Occupational Chemical Database at:

14 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module 3) Your cartridges are also protective against Alkaline Gasses (e.g. Base Gasses). Alkalines & Base gasses : The charcoal in the issued respirator cartridges are chemically treated to react with base gasses to either decompose them into non- hazardous gasses or to convert them into chemical compounds which are retained on the carbon surface. pH >7-14, health effects of exposure can cause severe burning of the lungs, skin, and eyes. Extreme caution must be taken when responding to these substances. Below are some examples of Alkaline (Base Gasses).

15 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Alkaline and Base Gases Alkalines & Base gasses : pH >7-14, Some examples of acid gasses that may be encountered on campus during response actions and compounds which your respirator cartridges are protective include: Ammonia- (NH3, synonyms: Anhydrous or aqueous ammonia)- is the representative test agent for the base gas family. Ammonia can produce irritation to severe burning of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and lungs. Internally, ammonia can cause chemical asphyxiation, by altering the oxygen carrying hemoglobin. Ammonia can be found as a compound with other chemicals at some areas on campus (e.g. Ammonium Nitrate- Fertilizer in particulate form found at Grounds Department).

16 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Alkaline and Base Gases-Ammonia Ammonia: Ammonia is often used for agricultural purposes, for refrigeration, and as a cleaner when dissolved in water. At room temperature it is a colorless, flammable gas with a pungent, suffocating odor. It becomes a clear, colorless liquid under increased pressure. Ammonia is usually shipped as a compressed liquid in steel cylinders. Anhydrous ammonia is the form used primarily in refrigeration and agriculture (Note: But is not known to be used a UNC-CH for industrial processes!!). Ammonia dissolves in water to form ammonium hydroxide, a corrosive solution. Concentrations of ammonium hydroxide vary from 5 percent to 10 percent for household use and 25 percent or more for industrial use. The sheer volume of ammonia required to meet the needs of users places it on the list of the top ten chemicals produced in the U.S.

17 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Alkaline and Base Gases-Ammonia Ammonia Inhalation. The most common way for ammonia to enter the body is through the respiratory system. Signs and symptoms of ammonia inhalation can include: Coughing Hoarseness Narrowing of bronchi Narrowing of throat and swelling causing upper airway obstruction Accumulation of fluid in the lungs Chest pain Runny nose, Tearing of the eyes, Impaired vision, Headache, Dizziness

18 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Alkaline and Base Gases-Ammonia Ammonia: Contact with the Skin. Ammonia can irritate the skin and cause chemical burns ranging from mild to severe depending on the concentration of the ammonia solution. Concentrated vapor or solution may cause the victim to experience pain, redness of the skin, and blisters. Signs displayed by skin exposed to liquefied ammonia can include frostbite, tissue death, or severe burns with deep ulcerations. Contact with the Eyes. Ammonia, even at low concentrations, can irritate the eyes and cause burning, swelling, photophobia, sloughing of the surface cells of the eye, and may cause blindness. Ingestion. Immediate burning in the mouth and throat occur when ammonium hydroxide is swallowed. Ingestion of concentrated solution can cause severe pain in the mouth, chest, and abdomen, swallowing difficulty, drooling, and vomiting. Burns and perforation of the esophagus or stomach can occur. Acute Health Effects of Ammonia Exposure As the concentration of ammonia increases, the symptoms become more severe. Acute exposures to ammonia can cause immediate burning of the eyes, nose, throat and/or respiratory system and could even result in death. Itchy eyes, coughing and a burning nose can help to warn people of potentially hazardous exposure levels. But continued short-term exposure can lead to tolerance to the ammonia scent, and victims may no longer be aware of ammonia's presence. For more information regarding Ammonia or any of the alkaline (base) gasses, recommend reviewing the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA/EPA Occupational Chemical Database at:

19 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module 4) Your Cartridges are also protective against Formaldehyde gas Formaldehyde ( synonyms: Methanal, Methyl aldehyde, Methylene oxide); Formaldehyde is used in labs in liter bottles as an agent fixative, as a preservative in medical laboratories, as an embalming fluid, and as a sterilizer. Acute exposure to the gas phase of formaldehyde is highly irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat and can provoke coughing and wheezing. The gas is nearly colorless with a pungent, suffocating odor. Acute exposure to formaldehyde liquid can cause severe skin burns and can damage your eyes. For more information regarding Formaldehyde, recommend reviewing the IH online training module or reviewing the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA/EPA Occupational Chemical Database at:

20 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module 5) Your multi-chemical cartridges are also protective against Methyl Amine. Methyl Amine: is the chemical compound that is a derivative of ammonia, and is the simplest amine compound. It can be found as the anhydrous gas in pressurized metal containers and can be found in chemical containers in laboratories on campus.chemical compoundammoniaanhydrous It has a strong odor similar to rotten fish. Methylamine is used as a building block for the synthesis of other organic compounds, including many illicit drugs. It is a corrosive liquid and gas and is an inhalation hazard and is flammable.organic compounds For more information regarding physical or health hazards of any of the chemical class reviewed, recommend researching the U.S. OSHA EPA Occupational Chemical Database at

21 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module 6) Disposal of Multi-Chemical Cartridges: Based on the exposure condition, a chemical cartridge change out schedule will be developed based on objective information (e.g. exposure monitoring data) to ensure that the chemical cartridges are changed out before chemicals can break-through the sorbent material. A specific change out schedule will be developed based on the chemical(s) present and the environmental conditions during the response action. However, as an additional safety factor, it is recommended that the chemical cartridges be disposed after the response action even if it is determined that the chemical cartridges can be used for a longer period of time.

22 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Mercury Vapor Cartridges (See below illustration): When respiratory protection is needed for Mercury vapor exposure, the use of specific Mercury Vapor cartridges are needed. They are different from the multi-chemical cartridges because the Mercury vapor cartridges are equipped with an end of service life indicator (ESLI) on the cartridge. This is illustrated below. The ESLI is the yellow strip on the bottom of the cartridge. Upon saturation with mercury vapor, the strip will turn from yellow to a different darker color. The cartridge would then need to be disposed of upon saturation and color change from yellow to a darker color.

23 EHS Emergency Responder: Air Purifying Respirator Chemical Cartridges Training Module Mercury Vapor Cartridges (See below illustration):


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