2Portrait of Natalia Goncharova 1915 BiographyNatalya Sergeevna Goncharova was born in Negaevo village Central Russia on June 16th 1881.She grew up on her grandparents estate at Ladyzhino in the province of Tula,the countryside and peasant culture by which she was surrounded had a profound effect on her which was to stay with her until adulthood and affect her art in later life. She came from a family with distinguished connections , as the great niece of Pushkin’s wife, also Natalya Goncharova, and the daughter of an architect she grew up in an environment where artistic culture was embraced and creativity welcomed .During her younger years she studied a wide variety of subjects including history, zoology and botany , after her schooling she even enrolled on a medical course but only lasted a week before realising her talents lay in the arts.Mikhail LarionovPortrait of Natalia Goncharova 1915
3It was then, in 1898, that she enrolled at the Moscow School of Painting , Sculpture and Architecture to study sculpture under the tutelage of Prince Pavel Trubetskoi , a disciple of Rodin. It was here that she met the young painter Mikhail Larionov ( ), he was to become from that moment , her lifelong partner personally and artistically .
4Mikhail Larionov ( ) and Natalia Goncharova ( ) were lifelong partners in romance and in art. The two were considered to be at the forefront of Russian art in the early 1900s. Although Larionov and Goncharova experimented with the same styles and were active in the same circles, Goncharova is generally accepted to be the better artist.
5Natalia Goncharova: Between Russian Tradition and European Modernism It was under the influence of Larionov that Goncharova was truly able to develop as an artist , he had a major impact encouraging her to convert to painting in Apparently he told her "You have eyes for colour but you occupy yourself with form. Open your eyes to your own eyes." Goncharova said " I suddenly realised that painting could do everything that sculpture could not."Natalia Goncharova: Between Russian Tradition and European Modernism
6After her formal art training in 1903 from which she graduated with a gold/silver medal , painting became her main priority and along with Larionov she started to make her presence felt within the art world. During the early years of her career Goncharova’s work was influenced by contemporary French art , to the extent that initially she painted in an impressionist style .
7Gauguin , Matisse and Cezanne were also significant figures for Goncharova at this time but she soon used these elements , along with many others , to develop her own distinctive art .White tablecloth
8There are examples of work in the fauvist and cubist manner which illustrates the degree to which she was prepared to experiment and how western art sowed the seeds for her own artistic development.
16The tradition of Russian icon art also greatly interested her with its flat inexpressive forms and stylish use of colour. Later on she was to strongly renounce the art of western Europe , she harshly criticised it while exalting the art of the east claiming that it was the east which set the precedent for the advances of western art. From there on she would look to eastern art , particularly that of her native country.Planting Potatoes 1909
17The boy with a cock, 1900-1913 National Gallery of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia
19Peasants dancing 1910-11 National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
20The Weaver, 1910 National Museums and Galleries of Wales
21However, Goncharova also recognised the beauty in established Russian traditions and was able to take elements of these and breath new life into them . Goncharova was particularly enamoured by the art of her own country , she revelled in various aspects of Russian folk art such as the lubok (an old woodcut print), peasant costumes and folk decoration of trays , signs etc. The primitive , naive forms , the vivid juxtapositions of colour, the simple peasant subject matter and its lack of theoretical pretences all appealed to her and left an indelible mark.
22Illustration for "The Song of Igor's Campaign" (An Old Russian legend( Goncharova drew inspiration for some of her works from Russian folk art and Russian icons. She is the author of a series of religious works and icon-like paintings. Goncharova was also involved with graphic design - writing and illustrating a book in Futurist styleIllustration for "The Song of Igor's Campaign"(An Old Russian legend(
27Goncharova though was still the first to recognise that contemporary western art; Impressionism , Post - Impressionism , Fauvism , Cubism and Futurism did have a great significance on her own work. They opened her eyes to things that she would not have previously been open to, for example she was intrigued by Gauguin’s return to naive , primitive forms . It was in fact the west which made her appreciate Russian vernacular art.GauguinGoncharovaHere the influence of Gauguin on Natalya is clear ; as Gauguin uses his own image as that of Christ Goncharova uses the figure of Larionov , while Gauguin portrays Breton peasants surrounding Christ Goncharova depicts the Russian peasantry . Both Gauguin and Goncharova idealise the peasantry as pious and humble , proclaiming that to be the typical.
28It was with Goncharova’s emphatic declaration of her adherence to Russian art forms of the past and their characteristics that she developed the type of art with which she was most successful in , Neo-primitivism. Realising the significance and value of the artistic traditions of her native country , she brought those elements into a specifically modern context, whilst retaining its inherent Russian-ness , this is what she wanted. It would however be wrong to think that Goncharova completely discarded her interest in western art, a significant talent of hers was recognise the potential of certain aspects and then combine them into an eclectic mix. Her willingness to do this and not to discount any other art forms is shown in her use of every kind of visual device which was available, hence the fact that she produced work in a multitude of forms; sculpture, painting, set designs, costume designs , book illustrations and prints she even illustrated musical scores.Scene in an Orchard 1908
38After contributing to various exhibitions such as "The Golden Fleece", Goncharova and Larionov formed "The Knave of Diamonds Group" in His was a group of young avant-garde artists who were influenced by the early cubism of Picasso and Braque and the bright colours used by the fauvists. However, it was during this time that Goncharova and Larionov became disenchanted with contemporary western art and resented the reliance of the rest of the group on western models , therefore they broke away to organise an opposed group "The Donkey’s Tail". The one and only exhibition they held under this title illustrates Goncharova’s interest in icon art , the religious subject matter she adopted within a modern context was seen as scandalous and caused uproar.
39Goncharova and Larionov played an important role in the Russian avant- garde and were extremely important in organising exhibitions and groups according to their ideas. In 1913 Goncharova held her enormous one-woman exhibition in Moscow displaying a portfolio of 736 works despite the infancy of her career.
40The Cyclist, 1912-1913 Russian State Museum, St. Petersburg
41Electric Lamps, 1912 Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
42The green and yellow forest. A Rayonism ConstructionThe State Russian Museum
43Mikhail Larionov Red Rayonism 1913 Rayonism (or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that developed in Russia in 1911.Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova developed rayonism after hearing a series of lectures about Futurism by Marinetti in Moscow. The Futurists took speed, technology and modernity as their inspiration, depicting the dynamic character of early 20th century life. They glorified war and the machine age, and favoured the growth of Fascism.Mikhail Larionov Red Rayonism 1913
44Cats in rose, black, and yellow 1913 Guggenheim Museum, New York City The Rayonists sought an art that floated beyond abstraction, outside of time and space, and to break the barriers between the artist and the public. They derived the name from the use of dynamic rays of contrasting color, representing lines of reflected light — crossing of reflected rays from various objects.At the 1913 Target exhibition they introduced the style to the public. In their literature they described Rayonism as naturally encompassing all existing styles and forms of the art of the past, as they, like life, are simply points of departure for a Rayonist perception and construction of a picture.Cats in rose, black, and yellow Guggenheim Museum, New York City
45The Forest, 1913 Rayonist Landscape 1913 Together they pioneered two key movements: Neo-primitivism and Rayonism. Neo-primitivism incorporated Russian primitive folk art with elements of cubism and futurism, while Rayonism was a style beyond abstraction, time and space, heavily relying on the use of rays of light reflected from objects.The Forest, 1913Rayonist Landscape 1913
52A Christ-Loving Host. 1914. From the series "Mystical Images of War".
53The Doomed Town. 1914. From the series "Mystical Images of War".
54Angels and Airplanes. 1914. From the series "Mystical Images of War".
55Then in 1914 Serge Diaghilev commisioned Goncharova to design his opera-ballet "Le Coq d’Or". It was the beginning of a close relationship between Goncharova and Larionov with the exiled ballet company The Ballets Russes . She designed a number of productions for him including "Triana", "Rhapsodie Espagnole", "Liturgie" and "Les Noces" , but "Le Coq d’Or" was her most successful and notable foray into the world of theatrical design. Through the travel of Diaghilev’s company Goncharova and Larionov encountered various cultures and artistic stimulation, the culture of Spain in particular was to have a long lasting effect on Natalya."Les Noces"
56Stage backcloth for the Wedding Scene in The Firebird, After Natalia Goncharova 1926from Diaghilev and the Golden Age of the Ballets Russes
57Goncharova died in Paris, in 1962. Goncharova was a member of the Der Blaue Reiter avant-garde group from its founding in In 1915, she began to design ballet costumes and sets in Geneva. Her designs for the ballet Liturgy: Six Winged Seraph,Angel, St. Andrew, St. Mark, Nativity etc. were started in The Liturgy was commissioned by Diaghilev with Goncharova, Léonide Massine and Igor Stravinsky. She moved to Paris in 1921 where she designed a number of stage sets of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. She also shows at the Salon d'Automne in 1921, and participates regularly at the Salon des Tuileries and the Salon des Indépendants. She became a French citizen in 1939.Goncharova died in Paris, in 1962.Her work is held in the Museum of Modern Art.
58Curtain for the Opera-Ballet "The Golden Cock". 1914. Music by N Curtain for the Opera-Ballet "The Golden Cock" Music by N.Rimsky-Korsakov. Choreography by M.Fokin, performed by S.Diagilev's Ballets Russes (Theatre National de l'Opera, Paris, May 1914).
59Costume design for a bride in Diaghilev "Les Noces"
60Design for Act 1 of Le Coq d'Or , c.1914. Diaghilev's Ballet Russes
61Cherub. 1915. Costume design for ballet "Lithurgy". Spiritual music
62Zuleika with Servants Drawing for program of stage Shadow Theatre "Karaguez" ("Theatre des Petites Comediants des Boix de Julie Sazonova"), Paris
63Finally though they settled in Paris both producing a huge body of work in varying media. Goncharova did in fact produce theatre sets for productions independent of Diaghilev , for example "Cinderella" 1938 for Colonel de Basil, "The Barber of Seville" etc, but they were not to have the same significance as her previous designs. Goncharova’s neo-primitivist works are widely regarded as the highlight of her career , and its theory was that which was to touch her most. However, this did not prevent her from experimenting , at the end of her life for example she produced work influenced by the recent space explorations by her native country men.She died in Paris in 1962.Space 1957
64הנכם מוזמנים להיכנס לאתר שלנו: מקורות:Music: Schoenberg, piano suite Op 25, Maurizio Polliniקלריטה ואפריםהנכם מוזמנים להיכנס לאתר שלנו:נשמח לתגובות