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TECHNOLOGY: An Introduction

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1 TECHNOLOGY: An Introduction

“A study of technology, which provides an opportunity for student to learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology that are needed to solve problems and extend human capabilities.” (R1, pg.242)


4 TECHNOLOGY IS . . . “Human innovation that involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities.” (R1, pg.242)

5 TECHNOLOGY IS NOT . . . Things from Nature trees birds fish
These things are impacted by technology, but not examples of technology

“The ability to use, manage, understand, and access technology.” (R1, pg.242)

7 Communication Systems
Systems that change information into messages that can be transmitted. These systems include a sender, message, receiver, and feedback.

8 Communication Systems Model
The message is encoded (made into a symbol) so it can be transmitted through a channel. The message is then received and decoded so it can be understood. Interference or noise can cause a breakdown in communication. Feedback allows you to determine if the message that was sent was communicated accurately

9 Structural Systems Systems that use goods and materials to build structures that will resist external force, support a load, and hold each structural element in a relative position to other parts.


11 Manufacturing Systems
Systems using materials and processes to produce usable products.


13 Energy, Power and Transportation Systems – Systems that convert energy into mechanical, fluid, electrical, radiant, chemical, and thermal energy.

14 Science tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
Science tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. However, a great deal of human action is devoted to converting energy from one form to another form. For example, we burn fuels to change water into steam, which contain energy in the form of heat.


16 IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY Society Culture Economy Environmental Politics
Ethical Considerations

17 Society -Having to do with the ways in which communities of people live.
For example, Communication technology has changed the way people spend their leisure time. (TV, Internet, and ipods.)

18 Culture - Having to do with the skills and arts developed during a given period.
For example, What about our attitudes toward violence? Have they changed because of TV. When we see battles in bloody detail on the evening news each night, does it have an impact on our feelings about war?

19 Economy - Having to do with the economy.
Today, businesses rely on computers, high tech telephones, fax machines, and local area computer networks. These systems have a real effect on the economy.

20 Environmental - Relating to our physical environment.
Communication tends to be a “clean” technology. Compared to “smokestack” industries, like steel production, communication industries are easier on the environment. However, this does not mean there are fewer environmental impacts involving communication technologies. A cleaner environment is an impact.

21 Politics -Relating to the government.
Long ago someone wrote, “The pen is mightier than the sword.” His point was that the written word could bring about more political and social change than violence or war. The mass media (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and books) have a real impact on our political system.

22 Ethical Considerations –Relating to matters of right and wrong
Things that are unethical may not necessarily be against the law. However most people agree they are wrong. You can now copy music without paying for it. Is this ethical?

23 Impacts of Technology Technology is increasing at an exponential rate.
Impacts can be positive or negative and intended or unintended


25 Trade-off is accepting the benefits of a technology despite negative or undesirable aspects.
For instance cars pollute, but we love having the independence to travel where we desire.

26 Questions about Impacts of Technology
Cutting down trees to build a parking lot is an example of how technology affects the: Environment Society Culture Economy Determining whether or not cloning is right is what type of concern? Moral Ethical Economic Environmental

27 Questions about Impacts of Technology
John’s religion does not allow medical intervention. This is an example of what type of impact? Environmental Cultural Economic Societal The assembly line enabled various products to be mass-produced. This is an example of what type of impact? Aesthetic Ethical

28 Questions about Impacts of Technology
Laws that govern human cloning are: Environmental Political Biotechnical Historical The fact that we tolerate some technologies, even though they have negative impacts on us is a: Trade-off Socialization Obstacle of process Product obsolescence

29 Questions about Impacts of Technology
An unexpected impact of technology might include which one of the following? Birth defects caused by industrial pollution. A positive impact of technology. Improved fuel efficiency in a newly developed automobile. Production cost override. Weighing the tradeoffs to determine if the technology is feasible, or for the best, refers to which part of technology? impacts. negative aspects. positive aspects. steam power

30 Questions about Impacts of Technology
Which of the following is an example of a desirable impact of technology? Air pollution from automobiles Waste disposal of obsolete products Affordable products for the masses Development of ozone gases

31 The Technology Student Association is a non-profit national student organization devoted to teaching technology education to young people. TSA's mission is to inspire its student members to prepare for careers in a technology-driven economy and culture. The demand for technological expertise is escalating in American industry. Therefore, TSA's teachers strive to promote technological literacy, leadership, and problem solving to their student membership

32 Major Historical Developments
Stone Age Approximately 250,000 B.C.- 3,000 B.C. During the Stone Age most tools were made of stone. Shaping rocks into sharp edges for arrows, spears, and knifes was very time consuming and the tools would easily wear with use. Most tools were used for agriculture and hunting

33 Major Historical Developments
Bronze Age Approximately 3000 B.C B.C. Bronze is a metal alloy made of copper and tin. People found it easier to shape tools if metal was melted then shaped by using a mold. The metal tools were not only easier to shape, but were more durable and useful than stone tools. Most technological developments were for improved agriculture practices, growing industries and military applications

34 Major Historical Developments
Iron Age Approximately 1200 B.C A.D. Iron is metal, and when alloyed with other materials is stronger than bronze. Again, most technological developments were brought about to improve agriculture, trade and military weapons.

35 Major Historical Developments
Middle Ages Approximately 500 A.D A.D. The Middle Ages brought about a number of technological developments that led to industrialization. The agricultural advances produced a surplus of crops, which led to increased trade. Increased trade created bigger markets with more products. The spinning wheel was one of the jumpstarts of a growing textile industry.

36 Major Historical Developments
Renaissance Approximately 1450 A.D A. D. the Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts. Gutenburg invented the printing press with moveable type, which enabled information to be disseminated throughout the world. At first, the printing press was used for the distribution of the Bible, but as time progressed, it was used to produce other literature. Leonardo da Vinci created drawings and written descriptions of things that were later developed in the 20th Century. The first screwdriver was invented as gunsmiths tried to adjust their gun mechanisms. The camera obscura, telescope, the submarine, and hydraulic press were also developed during this time period.

37 Major Historical Developments
Industrial Age Approximately The Industrial Age marks the point in history in which factories took over the production of most products. People began to buy items and migrate toward cities for jobs. The growing number of factories drove the need for technological improvements in machinery and systems. Trade over long distances increased which created a bigger demand for fast, reliable, efficient transportation systems. Communication advances accelerated information and coordination systems at an alarming rate. Structural systems were forced to improve as cities began to grow up instead of out.

38 Major Historical Developments
Information Age Approximately present. The Information Age is a period of time where technological developments have and will continue to occur at an exponential rate. New developments are often outdated before the finished product arrives at the store for purchase. The microchip revolutionized the world of electronics and has made communication systems faster, cheaper, and more powerful than ever. Constant research occurs in energy systems to make them more efficient and less harmful to the environment. Manufacturing systems are highly technical and require specialized education. Structural systems are constantly changing to incorporate new materials and creative approaches to efficient building.

39 Stone Age 250,000 B.C B.C. Development Approximate Date Significance Control of fire 500,000 B.C. Cooking, making pottery, lighting, heat Hand ax 500,000 B.C. Used for hunting Bow and arrow Unknown Used for hunting Spears Unknown Flint rock or bone and used for hunting and fishing Animal oil lamps Unknown Lamps that burn on animal fat Needles 18,000 B.C. Made of bone to produce clothing Agriculture B.C. Humans planned the growth of plants and animals for food Bricks B.C. Building materials Irrigation B.C. Humans planned the watering of agricultural crops Wheel B.C. Increased human power for agriculture and transportation of goods

40 Bronze Age 3000 B.C B.C. Development Approximate Date Significance Wooden ships B.C. Used for trade and transportation Pyramids B.C. Remarkable applications of architecture and mathematics Improved wheels B.C. Spokes made wheels lighter, thus easier to transport goods. Chariots B.C. Ground transportation and military vehicles Glass B.C. Used for jewelry and ornaments Casting of metals B.C. Pouring hot metals in a mold to form shapes

41 Iron Age 1200 B.C A.D. Development Approximate Date Significance Alphabet B.C. Important for communication and trade Arabic Numbers 800 B.C. Important for communication and trade Water Wheel 700 B.C. Grind grains such as corn Spinning wheel 500 B.C. Used to make yarn and thread for cloth Great Wall of China 221 B.C. Built to prevent invasion Glass blowing 100 B.C. Easier to shape glass Calendar 45 B.C. Important for communication, trade and agriculture Glass A.D. First used in windows Cement A.D. Used as a building material

42 Middle Ages 500 A.D A.D. Development Approximate Date Significance Windmills Used to pump water for irrigation and milling grain Rockets Used as a military Gunpowder First explosive with both military and building uses

43 Renaissance Approximately 1450 A.D A. D. Development Approximate Date Significance Leonardo da Vinci 1452 – Designed flying machines, helicopter, machine gun, turbines Printing press Improved communication through the mass production of books Railroad Used in mining to transport heavy loads Galileo – Heat measurement, laws of gravitation, observed the solar system Newton 1600s Laws of gravitation, optics, and physics

44 Industrial Age Development Approximate Date Significance Factory system 1700's Mass production of products Steam engine Changes steam into mechanical energy to operate machines Cotton gin Made cotton a profitable industry Machine tools Made it possible to produce precision parts for manufacturing Erie Canal Opened shipping routes between the Great Lakes & Atlantic Ocean

45 Industrial Age (cont.) Development Approximate Date Significance Telegraph Improved long distance communications Transcontinental Fast, reliable Railroad Railroad transportation for people and goods Suez Canal Shortened shipping routes between east and west Africa Telephone Improved communications without the use of coded messages Phonograph Recording device

46 Industrial Age (cont.) Development Approximate Date Significance Radio Long distance (transatlantic) voice communications Airplane Greatly improved long distance transportation of people/goods

47 Information Age Present Development Approximate Date Significance Television Fast visual communications Computer s Facilitates the processing & control capabilities of people Geodesic dome Structure of lightweight materials without reinforcing members Transistor Smaller and more reliable than vacuum tube Space exploration 1950s Responsible for countless technological advances through research

48 Information Age (cont.)
Present Development Approximate Date Significance Integrated circuit Contains thousands of components that are cheap and efficient Facsimile s Transmits documents over telephone lines Cellular telephone Mobile telephone communications Internet Individual access to enormous quantities of information Fiber optics s Fast, frictionless communications through a glass tube Solar energy Undefined Converting energy from the sun for use in modern energy systems Nuclear reactors 1980s Alternative sources of energy

49 Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the Discipline Language Arts a) Desktop Publishing b) Computer support of oral presentations c) Technical reports d) Software used for grammar and spell check on word processors

50 Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the Discipline Science a) Science uses technology to help make new discoveries. For example, the Hubbell Space telescope represents electronic, satellite, communication, and transportation technology that scientists have used to learn more about the universe than ever before b) Genetic engineering of new agricultural products. c) Development of anti-cancer products. d) Application of electromagnetism

51 Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the Discipline Mathematics a) Application and use of measurement techniques b) Use of measurement tools

52 Technology and Other Disciplines
Discipline How Technology Relates to the Discipline Social Studies a) Historical Developments b) Impacts on Society

53 Technology Assessment
Describes a variety of techniques for determining the effects of the interaction of technology and society.

54 Process for determining trends
Collect Information and evaluate Its Quality Compare and contrast the information Examine relevancy Investigate the background of experts Synthesize the Information and Draw Conclusions

55 Process for determining trends
Takes into account the historical events, global factors, economic factors, risks that can be incurred, and tradeoffs. Assessment Choose the best course of action Forecast possible trend

56 Two types of Forecasting
Normative forecasting: helps people determine a path to take in the development of technology in order to arrive at an ultimate goal. Basically, the path is comprised of a series of subordinate goals to achieve the ultimate goal.

57 Flow Diagram: is developed from the relevance tree
Flow Diagram: is developed from the relevance tree. It shows the steps needed to achieve the ultimate future goal via a path.

58 Two types of Forecasting
2. Exploratory: helps people look into the future buy using past and present conditions to predict future events and developments. Exploratory forecasting involves identifying trends and extending them into the future.

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