2TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION is . . . “A study of technology, which provides an opportunity for student to learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology that are needed to solve problems and extend human capabilities.” (R1, pg.242)
3AREAS OF TECHNOLOGY COMMUNICATION CONSTRUCTION MANUFACTURING POWER AND ENERGYTRANSPORTATIONBIOTECHNOLOGY
4TECHNOLOGY IS . . .“Human innovation that involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities.” (R1, pg.242)
5TECHNOLOGY IS NOT . . . Things from Nature trees birds fish These things are impacted by technology, but not examples of technology
6TECHNOLOGICALLY LITERATE means . . . “The ability to use, manage, understand, and access technology.” (R1, pg.242)
7Communication Systems Systems that change information into messages that can be transmitted. These systems include a sender, message, receiver, and feedback.
8Communication Systems Model The message is encoded (made into a symbol) so it can be transmitted through a channel. The message is then received and decoded so it can be understood. Interference or noise can cause a breakdown in communication. Feedback allows you to determine if the message that was sent was communicated accurately
9Structural SystemsSystems that use goods and materials to build structures that will resist external force, support a load, and hold each structural element in a relative position to other parts.
13Energy, Power and Transportation Systems – Systems that convert energy into mechanical, fluid, electrical, radiant, chemical, and thermal energy.
14Science tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed Science tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. However, a great deal of human action is devoted to converting energy from one form to another form. For example, we burn fuels to change water into steam, which contain energy in the form of heat.
16IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY Society Culture Economy Environmental Politics Ethical Considerations
17Society -Having to do with the ways in which communities of people live. For example, Communication technology has changed the way people spend their leisure time. (TV, Internet, and ipods.)
18Culture - Having to do with the skills and arts developed during a given period. For example, What about our attitudes toward violence? Have they changed because of TV. When we see battles in bloody detail on the evening news each night, does it have an impact on our feelings about war?
19Economy - Having to do with the economy. Today, businesses rely on computers, high tech telephones, fax machines, and local area computer networks. These systems have a real effect on the economy.
20Environmental - Relating to our physical environment. Communication tends to be a “clean” technology. Compared to “smokestack” industries, like steel production, communication industries are easier on the environment. However, this does not mean there are fewer environmental impacts involving communication technologies. A cleaner environment is an impact.
21Politics -Relating to the government. Long ago someone wrote, “The pen is mightier than the sword.” His point was that the written word could bring about more political and social change than violence or war. The mass media (TV, radio, newspaper, magazines, and books) have a real impact on our political system.
22Ethical Considerations –Relating to matters of right and wrong Things that are unethical may not necessarily be against the law. However most people agree they are wrong. You can now copy music without paying for it. Is this ethical?
23Impacts of Technology Technology is increasing at an exponential rate. Impacts can be positive or negative and intended or unintended
25Trade-off is accepting the benefits of a technology despite negative or undesirable aspects. For instance cars pollute, but we love having the independence to travel where we desire.
26Questions about Impacts of Technology Cutting down trees to build a parking lot is an example of how technology affects the:EnvironmentSocietyCultureEconomyDetermining whether or not cloning is right is what type of concern?MoralEthicalEconomicEnvironmental
27Questions about Impacts of Technology John’s religion does not allow medical intervention. This is an example of what type of impact?EnvironmentalCulturalEconomicSocietalThe assembly line enabled various products to be mass-produced. This is an example of what type of impact?AestheticEthical
28Questions about Impacts of Technology Laws that govern human cloning are:EnvironmentalPoliticalBiotechnicalHistoricalThe fact that we tolerate some technologies, even though they have negative impacts on us is a:Trade-offSocializationObstacle of processProduct obsolescence
29Questions about Impacts of Technology An unexpected impact of technology might include which one of the following?Birth defects caused by industrial pollution.A positive impact of technology.Improved fuel efficiency in a newly developed automobile.Production cost override.Weighing the tradeoffs to determine if the technology is feasible, or for the best, refers to which part of technology?impacts.negative aspects.positive aspects.steam power
30Questions about Impacts of Technology Which of the following is an example of a desirable impact of technology?Air pollution from automobilesWaste disposal of obsolete productsAffordable products for the massesDevelopment of ozone gases
31The Technology Student Association is a non-profit national student organization devoted to teaching technology education to young people. TSA's mission is to inspire its student members to prepare for careers in a technology-driven economy and culture. The demand for technological expertise is escalating in American industry. Therefore, TSA's teachers strive to promote technological literacy, leadership, and problem solving to their student membership
32Major Historical Developments Stone AgeApproximately 250,000 B.C.- 3,000 B.C. During the Stone Age most tools were made of stone. Shaping rocks into sharp edges for arrows, spears, and knifes was very time consuming and the tools would easily wear with use. Most tools were used for agriculture and hunting
33Major Historical Developments Bronze AgeApproximately 3000 B.C B.C. Bronze is a metal alloy made of copper and tin. People found it easier to shape tools if metal was melted then shaped by using a mold. The metal tools were not only easier to shape, but were more durable and useful than stone tools. Most technological developments were for improved agriculture practices, growing industries and military applications
34Major Historical Developments Iron AgeApproximately 1200 B.C A.D. Iron is metal, and when alloyed with other materials is stronger than bronze. Again, most technological developments were brought about to improve agriculture, trade and military weapons.
35Major Historical Developments Middle AgesApproximately 500 A.D A.D. The Middle Ages brought about a number of technological developments that led to industrialization. The agricultural advances produced a surplus of crops, which led to increased trade. Increased trade created bigger markets with more products. The spinning wheel was one of the jumpstarts of a growing textile industry.
36Major Historical Developments RenaissanceApproximately 1450 A.D A. D. the Renaissance was a time of rebirth in the arts. Gutenburg invented the printing press with moveable type, which enabled information to be disseminated throughout the world. At first, the printing press was used for the distribution of the Bible, but as time progressed, it was used to produce other literature. Leonardo da Vinci created drawings and written descriptions of things that were later developed in the 20th Century. The first screwdriver was invented as gunsmiths tried to adjust their gun mechanisms. The camera obscura, telescope, the submarine, and hydraulic press were also developed during this time period.
37Major Historical Developments Industrial AgeApproximately The Industrial Age marks the point in history in which factories took over the production of most products. People began to buy items and migrate toward cities for jobs. The growing number of factories drove the need for technological improvements in machinery and systems. Trade over long distances increased which created a bigger demand for fast, reliable, efficient transportation systems. Communication advances accelerated information and coordination systems at an alarming rate. Structural systems were forced to improve as cities began to grow up instead of out.
38Major Historical Developments Information AgeApproximately present. The Information Age is a period of time where technological developments have and will continue to occur at an exponential rate. New developments are often outdated before the finished product arrives at the store for purchase. The microchip revolutionized the world of electronics and has made communication systems faster, cheaper, and more powerful than ever. Constant research occurs in energy systems to make them more efficient and less harmful to the environment. Manufacturing systems are highly technical and require specialized education. Structural systems are constantly changing to incorporate new materials and creative approaches to efficient building.
39Stone Age250,000 B.C B.C.Development Approximate Date SignificanceControl of fire 500,000 B.C. Cooking, making pottery, lighting, heatHand ax 500,000 B.C. Used for huntingBow and arrow Unknown Used for huntingSpears Unknown Flint rock or bone and used for huntingand fishingAnimal oil lamps Unknown Lamps that burn on animal fatNeedles 18,000 B.C. Made of bone to produce clothingAgriculture B.C. Humans planned the growth of plantsand animals for foodBricks B.C. Building materialsIrrigation B.C. Humans planned the watering ofagricultural cropsWheel B.C. Increased human power for agricultureand transportation of goods
40Bronze Age3000 B.C B.C.Development Approximate Date SignificanceWooden ships B.C. Used for trade and transportationPyramids B.C. Remarkable applications of architecture and mathematicsImproved wheels B.C. Spokes made wheels lighter, thus easier to transport goods.Chariots B.C. Ground transportation and military vehiclesGlass B.C. Used for jewelry and ornamentsCasting of metals B.C. Pouring hot metals in a mold to form shapes
41Iron Age1200 B.C A.D.Development Approximate Date SignificanceAlphabet B.C. Important for communication and tradeArabic Numbers 800 B.C. Important for communication and tradeWater Wheel 700 B.C. Grind grains such as cornSpinning wheel 500 B.C. Used to make yarn and thread for clothGreat Wall of China 221 B.C. Built to prevent invasionGlass blowing 100 B.C. Easier to shape glassCalendar 45 B.C. Important for communication, trade and agricultureGlass A.D. First used in windowsCement A.D. Used as a building material
42Middle Ages500 A.D A.D.Development Approximate Date SignificanceWindmills Used to pump water for irrigation and milling grainRockets Used as a militaryGunpowder First explosive with both military and building uses
43RenaissanceApproximately 1450 A.D A. D.Development Approximate Date SignificanceLeonardo da Vinci 1452 – Designed flying machines, helicopter, machine gun, turbinesPrinting press Improved communication through the mass production of booksRailroad Used in mining to transport heavy loadsGalileo – Heat measurement, laws of gravitation, observed the solar systemNewton 1600s Laws of gravitation, optics, and physics
44Industrial AgeDevelopment Approximate Date SignificanceFactory system 1700's Mass production of productsSteam engine Changes steam into mechanical energy to operate machinesCotton gin Made cotton a profitable industryMachine tools Made it possible to produce precision parts for manufacturingErie Canal Opened shipping routes between the Great Lakes & Atlantic Ocean
45Industrial Age (cont.)Development Approximate Date SignificanceTelegraph Improved long distance communicationsTranscontinental Fast, reliable RailroadRailroad transportation for people and goodsSuez Canal Shortened shipping routes between east and west AfricaTelephone Improved communications without the use of coded messagesPhonograph Recording device
46Industrial Age (cont.)Development Approximate Date SignificanceRadio Long distance (transatlantic) voice communicationsAirplane Greatly improved long distance transportation of people/goods
47Information AgePresentDevelopment Approximate Date SignificanceTelevision Fast visual communicationsComputer s Facilitates the processing & control capabilities of peopleGeodesic dome Structure of lightweight materials without reinforcing membersTransistor Smaller and more reliable than vacuum tubeSpace exploration 1950s Responsible for countless technological advances through research
48Information Age (cont.) PresentDevelopment Approximate Date SignificanceIntegrated circuit Contains thousands of components that are cheap and efficientFacsimile s Transmits documents over telephone linesCellular telephone Mobile telephone communicationsInternet Individual access to enormous quantities of informationFiber optics s Fast, frictionless communications through a glass tubeSolar energy Undefined Converting energy from the sun for use in modern energy systemsNuclear reactors 1980s Alternative sources of energy
49Technology and Other Disciplines Discipline How Technology Relates to the DisciplineLanguage Arts a) Desktop Publishingb) Computer support of oral presentationsc) Technical reportsd) Software used for grammar and spell check on word processors
50Technology and Other Disciplines Discipline How Technology Relates to the DisciplineScience a) Science uses technology to help make new discoveries. For example, the Hubbell Space telescope represents electronic, satellite, communication, and transportation technology that scientists have used to learn more about the universe than ever beforeb) Genetic engineering of new agricultural products.c) Development of anti-cancer products.d) Application of electromagnetism
51Technology and Other Disciplines Discipline How Technology Relates to the DisciplineMathematics a) Application and use of measurement techniquesb) Use of measurement tools
52Technology and Other Disciplines Discipline How Technology Relates to the DisciplineSocial Studies a) Historical Developmentsb) Impacts on Society
53Technology Assessment Describes a variety of techniques for determining the effects of the interaction of technology and society.
54Process for determining trends Collect Information and evaluate Its QualityCompare and contrast the informationExamine relevancyInvestigate the background of expertsSynthesize the Information and Draw Conclusions
55Process for determining trends Takes into account the historical events, global factors, economic factors, risks that can be incurred, and tradeoffs.AssessmentChoose the best course of actionForecast possible trend
56Two types of Forecasting Normative forecasting: helps people determine a path to take in the development of technology in order to arrive at an ultimate goal. Basically, the path is comprised of a series of subordinate goals to achieve the ultimate goal.
57Flow Diagram: is developed from the relevance tree Flow Diagram: is developed from the relevance tree. It shows the steps needed to achieve the ultimate future goal via a path.
58Two types of Forecasting 2. Exploratory: helps people look into the future buy using past and present conditions to predict future events and developments. Exploratory forecasting involves identifying trends and extending them into the future.