Presentation on theme: "Bio. 109R- Intro. to Marine Mammals John F. Corbett, III Keystone College 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Bio. 109R- Intro. to Marine Mammals John F. Corbett, III Keystone College 2011
Introduction Whaling has been practiced since prehistoric times Oldest known method; place many small boats off shore and herd whales towards shore in attempt to beach them Additionally, Drogue- floatable device made of wooden drum or inflated sealskin, secured to arrow or harpoon, would tire the whale enough to approach and kill Earliest accounts- 6000 B.C.- South Korean hunters used harpoons and drogues Drogue
Tools for Harvest Harpoon- hand held or fired from gun, long spear-like instrument, impales target animal Two-flue harpoon- used for over 8,000 yrs. Explosive Harpoon- 1870s, had a single barb that pivoted on an iron pin, cavity in the single barb opened to the rear, and accepted a small glass vial of explosive Explosive tip
Products Harvested Sperm oil- blubber cooked and reduced; oil used for lamps and lubricant Spermaceti- found in head of sperm whale; used to make candles that burned brighter than oil lamps Ambergris- found in intestines of few whales, used in manufacturing of perfumes Baleen- a filtering structure in the mouths of baleen whales; not composed of bone, but of the protein keratin. Products manufactured; collar stiffeners, buggy whips, parasol ribs, and corset stays Scrimshaw- carvings on baleen and sperm whale teeth
Early Whaling Cultures Petroglyphs suggest whaling began approx. 6000 B.C. in South Korea Inuits (Eskimos) whaling for past 2,500 yrs.; relied on harvest for food, heat, light, clothing tools and shelter Japanese- earliest documented from 7 th century, Emperor Jimmu ate whale meat Kakuemon Taiji invented net whaling, approx. 1675 A.D.; hunted right, humpback, fin and gray whale Basque- people of Spain and France border; 1 st hunted N. Atlantic right whale in 1059 A.D., using watch towers to locate whales from shore
Early Whaling Cultures-Inuit Inuit with kayak Inuit harvesting bowhead whale
Early Whaling Cultures-Basque Successful hunting in Red Bay, Canada; 1530-1600 A.D. Followed migration of whales; right whales migrate in June and bowhead whales migrate in October 50 years of hunting, 20,000 whales harvested 14 th century; seasonal trips to English Channel, fishery declined because of conflicts with European powers and declining whale populations English, Dutch and Danish relied on Basque whalers expertise, 1612 A.D.
Early Whaling Cultures Colonial America- New England, 1770; hunted off shore from six-man boats, (shallops) for right and humpback whales Shallop Colonial America
Early Whaling Cultures- Colonial America 1830s- competitive whaling nation; hunted sperm whales in South Pacific, voyages lasted 1 year 1870s- schooner ships hunt humpbacks off Gulf of Maine Used bomb lances, 100 whales harvested in most yrs., fishery ended in 1890s
Whaling Cultures- Colonial America 19 th century- Hunting sperm whales across the globe because of competition and declining populations Several whaling expeditions in the Arctic abandoned because ships trapped in ice, millions of dollars in product lost Civil War- Confederate raiders targeted American whalers Industry pressures from loses, crippling economy and competition of kerosene; far more superior fuel for lighting Port of New Bedford, Mass. gave up whaling in 1925
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