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Ethylene, and its role in fruit ripening Sarah Minnery.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethylene, and its role in fruit ripening Sarah Minnery."— Presentation transcript:

1 ethylene, and its role in fruit ripening Sarah Minnery

2 ~ a tribute to summer~ ….& locally grown seasonal fruit

3 Outline FRUIT defined RIPE FRUIT defined ETHYLENE, the plant hormone ETHYLENE & RIPENING of FRUIT,on tissue level and molecular aspects CURRENT APPLICATIONS

4 Fruit defined.. fruit is a mature ovary of the flower the wall of the ovary in the fruit is known as the pericarp, becomes differenetiated into –1.outer exocarp –2.middle mesocarp –3.inner endocarp dlb fertilization is the trigger that evokes endosperm development and embryogenesis

5 fruit defined.. AFTER FERTILIZATION……… transforming of ovule into seed the ovary increases in size and undergoes a variety of morphological, anatomical and biochemical changes leading to formation of fruit with enclosed seeds

6 ripe fruit as a process, the term fruit ripening is misleading ripening is the final stage of fruit development changes in biochemical pathway that are studied; –respiration, ethylene output, cartenoid synthesis, chlorophyll degradation, production of cell wall hydrolases and softening process

7 ripe fruit ripening is a differentiating process –fruit have an increase in protein content –fruit retain the capacity to synthesize proteins & RNA –inhibitors of protein & RNA synthesis prevent the process of ripening ( I will come back to this later)

8 ethylene plays a active role in.. 1. shoot and root growth and differentiation (triple response) 2. dormancy 3.adventitious root formation. 4.stimulates leaf and fruit abscission.

9 ethylene plays a active role in.. 5.flower induction. 6.stimulates flower opening. 7.induction of femaleness in dioecious flowers. 8.flower and leaf senescence. 9. fruit ripening.

10 the discovery of ethylene ancient Egyptians ancient Chinese 1864; the gas lamps 1901; Dimitry Neljubow 1917; Doubt 1934; Gane 1935; Crocker

11 the discovery of ethylene

12 biosynthesis and metabolism Produced in all higher plants produced from methionine in essentially all tissues products of ethylene depend on type of tissue, the plant species, and the stage of developement

13 biosynthesis and metabolism –1. Methionine (MET) + enzyme AdoMet synthetase = S-Adenosyl-methionine (Ado- Met) –2. AdoMet + ACC syththase = 1- Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) –3. ACC + ACC oxidase = ethylene

14 signals to ethylene production ripening signals are a burst of ethylene production a wound, picking fruit, infection of bacteria or fungi all will initiate the production

15 responses to ethylene Ethylene production or exposure to exogenous ethylene initiates different responses in different fruit. There are two types of fruit Climateric and non-climateric Climateric fruit show a large increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening. After ripening ethylene output reaches a peak and continues at a high level through ripening

16 responses to ethylene climateric fruit also respond to exogenous ethylene and causes the ethylene production to increase and advances the respiratory climateric in the fruits examples of climateric fruit are bananas, apples and pears non-climateric fruit do not produce ethylene during ripening process but respond to exogenous and also causes respiratory rate to increase. It does not promote natural ripening of these fruits. examples of non-climateric fruit are citrus and different berries such as strawberries

17 ethylene transport Ethylene transport within the plant –Ethylene is released by the tissues & diffuses in the gas phase through intracellular spaces & outside the tissues Ethylene transport within the fruit –In comparison to ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, less is known about ethylene perception and signal transduction, because of difficulties in isolating and purifying ethylene receptors or ethylene binding proteins

18 ethylene signals result in the ripening of fruit 1.Chlorophyll is broken down, new pigments surface, red, yellow or blue 2. Acids are broken down fruit changes from sour to neutral to sweet

19 the ripening of fruit cont 3. Amylase degrades starch to sugar, hence the mealy quality to juiciness 4. The breakdown of pectin between the fruit cells unglues them so they can slip past each other, hence the softer fruit

20 the ripening of fruit cont 5. Breakdown of large organic molecules to a variety of type and quantity of small volatile molecules that produce the aroma and tastes we associate with ripe fruit

21 fruit ripening at molecular level changes in mRNA subsets –include new gene transcription in mature fruit, –a decrease in other transcriptions with advancing maturity of fruits –disappearance of certain mRNAs in overripened fruits in some more detail………activities of cellulases, PG and PME

22 fruit ripening at molecular level cellulases are enzymes normally functioning in cell walls causing breakdown of cellulose and hemicellulose PME and polygalacturonase (PG) causing pectin degradation above mentioned have led to characterization of genes

23 fruit ripening at molecular level psbA, transcription in the chromoplasts which is at least 20 fold than the transcript level of other photosynthetic genes in ripe fruit PSY-phytoene synthase, 1st enzyme in cartenoid pathway PME-enzyme causes pectin deformation of the middle lamella of plant cell walls –activity of enzyme inc. 2-3 fold during ripening PG, protein accumulates in pericarp first and accounts for 3-5% of soluble proteins –2000 fold inc. in mature ripe fruits

24 current research Use of 1-MCP as a tool to investigate whether exogenous ethylene binds to the receptor to induce the respiratory rise and to affect ripening in strawberry fruit Use of cyclohexamide as protein inhibitor to test whether the ethylene effects are the result of new protein synthesis. Changes in ionic conductivity and peroxidase activity in ethylene treated strawberries were measured as markers

25 conclusions in research Ethylene induced ionic leakage and associated water loss and peroxidase activity Results suggest that non-climateric fruit may have different ethylene receptors and/or ethylene receptors may have different regulatory functions

26 current applications carbon application increasing shelf life of fruit Ethylene controlled environ- ments

27 Thank you & I hope you have a juicy summer


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