Presentation on theme: "Research and Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Research and Development Visual GuidanceResearch and DevelopmentPresented to: 33rd Annual Eastern Region Airport ConferenceBy: Donald Gallagher, Program ManagerDate: March 2010
2Airport Safety Technology R&D Wildlife Hazard Mitigation ProgramHazards Management, Bird Detection RadarAircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Program (ARFF)Agents, VehiclesNew Large Aircraft Program (NLA)Airport Issues Concerning NLAAirport Design ProgramAirport DesignAirport Planning ProgramTerminal Design Guidelines, Multimodal AccessAirport Surface Operations ProgramRunway Friction, Soft Ground Arrestor System, Runway DeicingVisual Guidance ProgramLighting, Marking, Signing
3Phasing out Incandescent Lamps The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007Begins to phases out incandescent and halogen incandescent lamps in 2012Department of Energy (DOE) within five years is mandated to create an LED replacement for the PAR Type 38 halogen lightProbably will not be compatible with MALSR voltage levelsThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 is available at:
5Issues with Implementing LED Technology Claim: LEDs can not be seen as well as Incandescent lights in low visibility?True or False?FALSE!Any source with the same Candela value can be seen the same in a given visibility.Except…
6Perceived BrightnessThere is a quantifiable “Brightness/Luminance” (B/L) conversion factor with LEDs.Conversion to Incandescent:Blue B/L = 1.4White B/L = 1.6Green B/L = 1.4However, light scattered by Fog can desaturate LED signal colors reducing or eliminating the brightness advantage.
7Issues with Implementing LED Technology Incandescent & LED Lights at same intensity observed from 100 feet.Observers noted that the Incandescent lost the GREEN appearance early.
8Issues with Implementing LED Technology Incandescent & LED Lights at same intensity observed from 100 feet.LED light still has GREEN appearance.
9LED Applications Issues Chromaticity Boundary for Aviation WhitePreliminary results for Aviation White Chromaticity Boundary Changes:Yellow boundary could be moved from x=.540 to .440 which will help limit confusion between white and yellow signal colors.Blue boundary could be moved from x=.350 to .320 which will allow a more bluish white (CCT up to 6000 Kelvin) while not contributing to confusion between white and blue signal colors.To match CIE S004 for LED binning:Green boundary y= x to x.Purple boundary y= x to x..
11LED Applications Issues Does the “narrow spectral band” of LED impact pilots with certain types of color deficient vision?CIVIL AEROSPACE MEDICAL INSTITUTE (CAMI) and Airport Safety Technology R&D (AJP-6311) are currently conducting an evaluation on this issue sponsored by the Lighting Systems Office, AJW-46 and Office of Airport Safety and Standards, AAS-1
12Electrical Infrastructure Research Team (EIRT) A team of FAA and Industry experts formed to design an Airport Lighting Infrastructure to take full advantage of new lighting technologies.
13Electrical Infrastructure Research Team (EIRT) GoalsA system that promotes interoperability.Reduced life cycle cost without dependence upon a single source.A standards-based, robust architecture airfield lighting system.
14Electrical Infrastructure Research Team (EIRT) Held 4TH meeting in Atlantic City NovCircuits considered so far:450 V, AC Parallel Circuit1.4 Amp, DC Series Circuit2.8 Amp, AC Series CircuitPWM, DC Series Circuit
16Minimum intensity for Incandescent Runway Guard Lights (RGL) Prior to 1996, the minimum luminous intensity requirement was 600 cdIncreased to 3000 cd based on results from 1996 studyFlash rate was also increased from 30 cycles per minute to cycles per minuteStudy looked at 30, 48 & 60 flashes per minute16
17Elevated Runway Guard Light Evaluation (ERGL) Laboratory study completed 6/08.Scope:Min. intensity for Incandescent Lamps and LEDsRecommendations for flash frequency for LED systemRecommendations for duty cycle for LED systemImpact of waveform profile shape for LED system
18FindingsIt is not recommended that the current incandescent-based ERGL specification be changed.LED ERGL intensities could be reduced.
19Recommendations LED ERGL Step Current Standard Recommended Value 3000 cdcdStep 1 (10%)300 cdcdThese values can be obtained by a combination of a selecting a square wave signal, flash rate, and on-time percentage.The best flash rates & on-time percentages were:% or %
20Field testing to begin Spring 2010. Moving ForwardPrototype units are be built for field testing with the following features:A square wave signal.Selectable flash rates & on-time percentages of % and %.1,000 candela.Field testing to begin Spring 2010.
22Retro-reflective Media for Marking Materials 3 TasksGround based testing of Type I, III, IV approved beads and 2 new beads:Bead with dry-performing (1.7 IOR) and wet performing (2.3 IOR) microcrystalline ceramic beads embedded on a center core.Bead with Premium (1.9 IOR) glass beads and a solid glass bead core.Completed 12/09.
23Retro-reflective Media for Marking Materials 3 Tasks (con’t)Airborne test to determine the relative conspicuity of Type I and Type III retro-reflective beads. - Completed 12/09.Airborne test of Type I and Type III beads installed side by side for direct comparison of conspicuity. Completed 12/09.
24Retro-reflective Media for Marking Materials Findings – Ground BasedAll retro reflective beads tested proved suitable for use on aged Hot Mix Asphalt and aged Portland Cement Concrete.Proposed new beads A and B proved suitable on aged Hot Mix Asphalt and aged Portland Cement Concrete.Paint marking materials and included beads do not perform well on new Hot Mix Asphalt as airports typically can not afford to wait the appropriate curing time.
25Retro-reflective Media for Marking Materials Findings – AirborneThe majority of subjects involved in the tests at both ACY and SAV stated they do not use runway markings as a visual cue on approach to the runway at night.The predominate visual cues they focus on during the approach to a runway are the runway lights.All but one of the subjects reported no difference in ease of detection between Type I and Type III beaded markings.
26Automatic Switching technologies for Rwy Centerline Lights in a Displaced Threshold The FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/ D “Design and Installation details for Airport Visual Aids” states:“For displaced threshold areas over 700 feet (100m) in length and used for takeoffs, the centerline lights in the displaced area are circuited separately from the centerline lights in the non-displaced runway area to permit turning “off” the centerline lights in the displaced area during landing operations.”Teterboro Airport has this issue on both ends of runway 1/19.Air Traffic Control are indisposed to operating the interlock switch that manually controls the centerline lights.
27Project ObjectivesEvaluate and determine the feasibility of using varied surveillance technologies and safety logic to automate the activation/deactivation of Runway Centerline Lighting in a displaced threshold to support takeoff/landing operations.Install and optimize the preferred technology at Teterboro Airport (TEB)
28Proposed Solution Architecture StateMachineLight ActivationLogicSurveillanceDeviceEvaluationDisplayField LightingSystemSurveillance of the area of interest is derived from a surveillance device. Operational state of the traffic is estimated by the state machine. Light activation logic determines if centerline lights should be activated. Traffic and light states are shown on evaluation display. Light commands are sent to field lighting system.
29General Aviation For non-part 139 airports Lighting small airports that do not qualify for AIP funds.“COMMUNITY SERVICE AIRPORT LIGHTING HANDBOOK” posted on Illuminating Engineering Societies Aviation Lighting Committee's (IESALC) web site.
31Holding Position Signs for Runway Approach Areas ATO is in the process of revising their current procedure, which does not require pilots to obtain a specific clearance to cross these holding positions.In the revised procedures Pilots will now be required to obtain specific clearance to pass any holding position.
32Holding Position Signs for Runway Approach Areas The RSO has identified a potential risk of runway incursions due to pilot confusion at the holding position marking and signs for a runway approach.ATO would like to retain their current practice -therefore a different signage and/or marking may be required.
33Holding Position Signs for Runway Approach Areas
34Standard Mandatory Sign When Hold is Required15 - APCH
35When Hold is Not Required Sign changes ColorWhen Hold is Not Required15 - APCH
36Non-Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) Components on Performance of Certified OEM Lighting SystemsScope of Work:Purchase certified OEM lighting devices and non-OEM replacement components and subject the devices to certification tests.Phase I: Individual components replaced. – Completion 3/10.Phase II: Components replaced in combination. – Completion 7/10.
37Low-Cost Ground Surveillance Specification Development
38and improving capacity and resource utilization MissionTo enhance airport operations by improving safety, shared situational awareness & environmental impact, reducing airport operating costsand improving capacity and resource utilizationThe LCGS Project ScopeDevelop FAA functional and operational standards for LCGS implementation that would support AIP eligibility for this system.Provide the foundational capability to support other runway safety improvements (e.g. RWSL, dynamic stop bar automation, …).Develop a cost-benefits case for the use of Low Cost Ground Surveillance Systems for airport operations.
39LCGS ChallengeOf over 460 towered airports in the NAS only 35 of the larger airports have or are slated to receive comprehensive surface surveillance systems (i.e. ASDE-X).Many of the excluded small to mid-sized airports have considerable surveillance needs that are not being met.Surveillance capacity is limited to voice reporting and field of viewMany of today’s airports struggle with the challenge of improving operational efficiency and maximizing revenue growth opportunities.
40LCGS High Level Concept The currently developed LCGS solution is centered on the use of a Surface Movement Radar (SMR) to monitor ground traffic movements.SMR inherently presents some deficiencies (loss of target due to masking, plot clutter due to rain or grass reflection, flight label overlap, etc.) which renders the surveillance function less effective and could result in a lack of confidence in the system.SMR technology is characterized by high maintenance and lifecycle costs.
41LCGS High Level Concept Researching existing technology the framework recommended for an LCGS system is the coupling of a network of non-cooperative (i.e. optical and thermal devices) sensors and a Mode S multilateration system.This will provide the most flexible and modular framework for the smaller airports as multilateration systems can be easily adapted to smaller coverage areas with complex layouts and no vertical extension.This network design would provide several levels of redundancy which would translate into continuous operational availability and coverage.
42StatusConcluded final preliminary study on strengths, limitations and cost effectiveness of prospective systems.Conducting site visits to deployment locations of prospective systems.Work in concert with the Advanced Technologies Development & Prototyping Group (AJP-67) at the three approved test sites of San Jose Airport (SJC), Long Beach Airport (LGB) and Manchester-Boston Regional Airport (MHT).- Test candidate systems against predefined functional requirements.- Evaluate operational feasibility of candidate systems.
43Ground Vehicle Navigation System Specification Development
44BackgroundScopeEvaluate current technology, including by not necessarily limited to, GPS navigation devices for use in preventing runway incursions.
45ObjectivesProvide recommendations for criteria for the design and operation of airport vehicle navigation systems defining both mandatory and optional features.Provide cost estimates for the procurement of equipment.
49Group Brainstorm Session System CAN NOT… Give directionsATCPersonal Airport FamiliarizationSituational Awareness Tool
50Vertical Flight Current Facility Final Approach & TakeOff (FATO) area Touchdown & Lift Off (TLOF) areaFinal Approach & TakeOff (FATO) areaHeliport Approach Lighting System (HALS) for IMCHeliport Instrument Landing System (HILS) for IMCHeliport Approach Path Indicator (CHAPI)Current Facility
51Vertical FlightConducting photometric tests on products being sold as heliport perimeter lights.IntensityBeam spreadChromaticityCurrently conducting flight testTo determine if a suitable candidate exists.
52Site Selected Delaware River Bay Authority Cape May County Airport Cape May County Airport( KWWD)Cape May County AirportDelaware River Bay Authority
53Site Selected Runway 10/28 - 4,998 x 150 ft. Cape May County Airport( KWWD)Cape May County Airport( KWWD)
54New Visual Guidance Technology Test Bed Will be conducted in three phases funded over a three year period.Phase 1:To be Completed:Layout plan.Schedule of installation.Begin refurbishment of unused runway pavement.Begin electrical infrastructure installation.Currently developing an MOA with the Delaware River and Bay Authority (DRBA) for the use of Cape May Airport.
55Questions or Comments? www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov - Program Manager- Project Manager- Project Manager- Project ManagerFAA Technical CenterAirport Safety Technology R&D SectionAJP-6311, AAR-411, Building 296Atlantic City International Airport, NJ 08405