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Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment (chain) of LCD displays 03 May 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment (chain) of LCD displays 03 May 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment (chain) of LCD displays 03 May 2011 Nico Krukenberg Chairman of the LCD Working Group Take Back 2011 – Prague

2 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague EERA - QVKE2

3 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011

4 Table of content: Introduction Estimation of LCD arising and collection volumes Context and condition for the LCD take back chain Studies and test in EERA LCD working group Standard development

5 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Main focus of the working group Where we find LCDs today TV-sets Monitors Laptops Mobiles GPS Tablet-PCs like iPad etc...

6 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Estimated displays arising as waste in ktons EU27* *Environmental analysis of CRT-glass processing options Jaco Huisman,Osevenfortytwo BV, July,10, 2008 Summary for 2011: CRT: tons70% LCD: tons28% PDP: tons 2% Total: tons

7 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collected volumes today: only ~ 1-2% in the general waste flow of category 3 and 4 from public collection points (B2C) Main collections are done in B2B and service centers and warranty returns Total LCD rate only < 1%-2% of the total amount of displays Possible reasons: –Lifetime is larger than expected? –Reuse within the family (living room master bed room)? –To expensive for fast waste process service on return products –Second hand market? –…–… –Storage is easy

8 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Mercury content in LCDs Comparison of FL/CLF/HID and CCFL from LCDs Mercury content in lamps*: *ZVEI Light / Branch Association Lightings in Germany **http://www.saesgetters.com/default.aspx?idPage= inch LCD 16 lamps 16–80 mg of Hg 32 inch LCD 17 lamps 17–85 mg of Hg 16 inch LCD 8 lamps 8–40 mg of Hg Mercury content in LCD back- lights (CCFL): (used in LCD larger than 10 inch) 1-5 mg / lamp** (depending on diameter)

9 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 What says the WEEE Directive?

10 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection imposes high risk of mercury release in the take back chain release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Step 1: October 2008 test by 6 EERA members: Breakage of lamps test (LCD displays dropped in container) Procedure: Conduct the test on 10 LCD displays. 5 displays 17 inch. Drop the LCD displays one by one in an empty 40 foot container (height approximately 2.80 m). Take the displays out and by dismantling determine the following parameters: –If the LCD panel is broken (glass substrate). Yes/No. –If Liquid Crystal Fluid is released. Yes/No. –For each display: How many back lighting tubes are broken. –Note any other interesting observation

11 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Results step 1 Lamps broken: Average:18.9% Min: 8.6% Max:27.5% Liquid crystal fluid leaking: 16% broken 84% unbroken Remark: only a one member site the LCD leaked Glass substrate: 54% broken 46% unbroken Remark: broken glass substrates are normally found when other e-scrap parts hit the LCD

12 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Each member set up its own conditions for the test release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Findings: Decision to make a study with a research centre on the release of mercury vapour during collection No scientific approach … but general findings -Backlighting units are partly broken -More detailed study is necessary

13 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection imposes high risk of mercury release in the take back chain release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Step 2: July 2009 test by the research centre TNO at SRS site in Eindhoven/NL. Main objectives: 1.The determination of the airborne mercury concentration when the backlights of the LCD displays are broken and the displays are being stored for a period of 48 hours. 2.The determination of the amount of broken backlights in each of the LCD displays. 3.Evaluation of the measured airborne mercury concentrations by comparison to the Standard for occupational exposure and non-occupational exposure.

14 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Results step 1 Remark missing knowledge in the exact amounts of mercury in the different types of the backlights To set up a complete mass balance is not possible procedure: Test run: 1 LCD (check installation) and analyse Hg per lamp Worst case 1: 1+2 crates of LCDs Worst case 2: 3 rd crate LCDs preparations: Airtight 35 cbm container Temperature control Ventilation control LCD from waste flow

15 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays

16 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Findings: Graphic representation of the mercury concentration in the air during the first experiment with one LCD display

17 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Graphic representation of the mercury concentration in the air during the second experiment with crates of LCD displays release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Findings: First carte 2 other crates

18 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Graphic representation of the mercury concentration in the air during the second experiment with 3 crates of LCD displays release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Findings: Temperature has an influence to the airborne mercury concentration!

19 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague In approximately 30% of the LCD displays one or more backlights were broken, so 70% of the displays remained intact during the experiments release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Findings: 2.The average amount of backlights per LCD display is approximately 5 and the number of broken backlights per LCD display is 1. The percentage of broken backlights is approximately 20%. 3.All the worst case experiments the airborne mercury concentration reaches a maximum after approximately 1 – 1.5 hours. The maximum concentration is 10 μg/m3. It takes approximately 16 hours to reduce the concentration to a level below 1 µg/m3 4.In all experiments the airborne mercury concentrations never exceed the indicative occupational exposure limit of 20 μg/m3 (8 hour time weighted average)

20 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Further findings: 5.The evaporation of mercury from the backlights is a slow process and will increase with the number of fracture surfaces 6.Approximately 50% of the mercury originally in the backlights could be accounted for. Most likely, the missing part is still inside the broken backlights

21 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 release of mercury vapour during collection of LCD displays Findings: Weak points of the study: Are the LCDs used representative? (age, time/hours of usage are unknown, numbers of lamps per LCD) Is the sampled backlight representative for other (all?) LCD devices? Usually no crates are put in container for collection, only device by device but mixed (heavy e-scrap like CRT TV on top of LCD-TV?) … further knowledge & information is necessary. Also form the other Stakeholders, e. g. producer and take-back-schemes!

22 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 collection transport Treatment Collection, transport and treatment chain: through LCD in container … … more heavy products broker LCDs dedicated handling potential risks... Bulk handling potential risks... increase collection cost for separate collection and/or special collection in appropriated receptacles increase transport cost … … lower volume in transport … special handling necessary reloading in bulk … increase transport volume … no special handling necessary skip container in bulk for unloading … decrease recycling rate Increase dismantling cost Increase risk of material pollution Increase cost for heath & safety for worker unloading … increase recycling rate decrease dismantling cost decrease risk of material pollution decrease cost for heath & safety for worker Advantages for depollution and recycling vs. Disadvantages for cost and economies of scale Conclusion: Whatever is released during collection and transport can not be utilized in appropriated treatment and recycling operations! Potential release of mercury vapours in the complete take back chain … but usually the tendency is only give certain focus on the recycler and disregard the other links of the chain Everything at the beginning of the chain has consequences for the next steps

23 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain: Summary collectiontransport treatment Breakages in the test of 20% of the backlight lamps in bulk collection processes. Measured mercury vapours of 8-10 µg per cbm That is: 80% of the unbroken lamps Does this mean: mercury emissions of 40 to 50 µg per cbm are still in the LCDs? Put container in warm recycling plant can double the within the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average) 100% to 150% more than the the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average)

24 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain: Summary collectiontransport treatment Breakages in the test of 20% of the backlight lamps in bulk collection processes. Measured mercury vapours of 8-10 µg per cbm That is: 80% of the unbroken lamps Does this mean: mercury emissions of 40 to 50 µg per cbm are still in the LCDs? Put container in warm recycling plant can double the within the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average) 100% to 150% more than the the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average)

25 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain: Summary collectiontransport treatment Breakages in the test of 20% of the backlight lamps in bulk collection processes. Measured mercury vapours of 8-10 µg per cbm That is: 80% of the unbroken lamps Does this mean: mercury emissions of 40 to 50 µg per cbm are still in the LCDs? Put container in warm recycling plant can double the within the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average) 100% to 150% more than the the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average)

26 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain: Summary collectiontransport treatment Breakages in the test of 20% of the backlight lamps in bulk collection processes. Measured mercury vapours of 8-10 µg per cbm That is: 80% of the unbroken lamps Does this mean: mercury emissions of 40 to 50 µg / cbm are still in the LCDs? Put container in warm recycling plant can double the Hg-emissions within the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average) 100% to 150% more than the the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average)

27 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain: Summary collectiontransport treatment Breakages in the test of 20% of the backlight lamps in bulk collection processes. Measured mercury vapours of 8-10 µg per cbm That is: 80% of the unbroken lamps Does this mean: mercury emissions of 40 to 50 µg / cbm are still in the LCDs? Put container in warm recycling plant can double the Hg-emissions within the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average) 100% to 150% more than the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average)

28 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain: Summary collectiontransport treatment Breakages in the test of 20% of the backlight lamps in bulk collection processes. Measured mercury vapours of 8-10 µg per cbm That is: 80% of the unbroken lamps Does this mean: mercury emissions of 40 to 50 µg / cbm are still in the LCDs? Put container in warm recycling plant can double the Hg-emissions within the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average) 100% to 150% more than the indicative exposure limit of 20 µg per cbm (8 hour time weighted average)

29 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Collection, transport and treatment chain Not treatment as main focus, since –LCDs are fragile products –Today even display waste products (CRT) are handled to rough (breakage of the tubes) Necessary to make standards on the complete return chain for LCD displays Not only to focus on treatment & recycling of LCD C2C – Cradle to Cradle – is the approach we need! –LCDs have a significant mercury content

30 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Outlook …. PDP remain as site technology … market share approx. 10% Is CCDL-LCD only a bridge technology but there is no marking of either CCFL or LED on the LCDs What´s next: Display technologies for recycling remain the most challenging product area for the recycling industry –LED – available today –OLED –FED –…–…

31 Nico Krukenberg – Chairman of the EERA LCD Working Group Take Back Prague 2011 Thanks for your attention Nico Krukenberg Phone


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