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GLASS PROCESSING ( DCP 5262 ) By: Abu Bakar bin Aramjat Department of Ceramic Processing Technology Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA Masjid tanah Melaka.

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Presentation on theme: "GLASS PROCESSING ( DCP 5262 ) By: Abu Bakar bin Aramjat Department of Ceramic Processing Technology Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA Masjid tanah Melaka."— Presentation transcript:

1 GLASS PROCESSING ( DCP 5262 ) By: Abu Bakar bin Aramjat Department of Ceramic Processing Technology Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA Masjid tanah Melaka

2 COURSE INFORMATION Code: DCP 5262 Course Name : Glass Processing Learning/Week: 1 hour : Theory ( lecture ) 3 hours: Lab/Practical Assessment Course work: 1.Test 1: 15 % ( UNIT 1 & 2 ) 2.Test 2: 15 % ( UNIT 3 & 4 ) 3.Practical Lab: 30 % ( JOB SHEET – 8 ) Final Exam: 40 %

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students should be able to: i.Identify various types and properties of common glasses. ii.Formulate, and determine glass melting and forming process. iii.Conduct glass testing and identify defects. iv.Differentiate glass decoration and finishing techniques

4 COURSE CONTENT UNIT 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO GLASS 1.1 History of Glass 1.2 Glass Families 1.3Types of Glasses 1.4 Chemical Compositions of Commercial Glasses 1.5 Glass Raw Materials 1.6 General Glass Makings 1.7 Applications of Glasses 1.8 Basic Principles of Glass Processing: Batching, Mixing, Melting, Casting and Annealing.

5 COURSE CONTENT UNIT 2.0 PROPERTIES OF GLASS 2.1 Glass Formation & Structure 2.2 Thermal Expansion 2.3 Micro hardness and Strength 2.4 Viscosity 2.5 Chemical Durability 2.6 Optical Properties UNIT 3.0 GLASS MELTING 3.1 Preparation for Glass Melting 3.2 Glass Melting Furnaces 3.3 Glass Casting and Shaping 3.4 Annealing and Tempering

6 COURSE CONTENT UNIT 4.0 TESTING OF GLASS 4.1 Density and Molar Volume 4.2 Thermal Expansion 4.3 Micro hardness and Strength 4.4 Chemical Durability 4.5 Optical Properties 4.6 Glass Defect UNIT 5.0 GLASS DECORATION AND FINISHING 5.1 Glass Colorants 5.2 Glass Etching 5.3 Sand Blasting 5.4 Stain Glass 5.5 Laser Techniques

7 1.What is Glass 2.Glass from Nature 3.Composition of glass 4.Types of glass 5.Advantages & Disadvantages of glass 6.Glass Products 7.Glass Malaysia Scenario Introduction to Glass

8 What is Glass An inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to rigid condition without crystallising An inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to rigid condition without crystallising - ASTM o A state of matter o A glassy or vitreous surface o A solid with liquid like structure o A non-crystalline solid o An amorphous solid o Short range order

9 What is Glass … a material form by cooling from the normal liquid state which has shown no discontinuous change at any temperature, but has become more or less rigid through a progressive increase in its viscosity.

10 What is Glass o Uniform amorphous solid material. o Produced when the viscous molten material cools rapidly to below its glass transition temperature, without sufficient time for a regular crystal lattice to form.

11 What is Glass - characteristics o Clear /transparent o Brittle o Inert o Durable o Luster

12 Glass from Nature o Magma – molten rock o Fulgurite – lightning o Obsidian – volcanic o Tektites – fire/volcanic

13 Glass from Nature magma fulgurite obsidian tektites

14 Silica Sand Limestone (CaCO2) Sodium Carbonate/soda ash (Na2CO3) Feldspar, Borates Phospate Traditional Glass Composition of Glass

15 Glass Additives 1.Boric oxide: B2O3 2.Barium Carbonate : BaCO3 3.Potassium Carbonate : K2CO3 4.AluminiumOxide : Al2O3 5.Zinc Oxide : ZnO 6.Titanium Oxide : TiO2 7.Zirconium Oxide : ZrO2

16 ALUMINA in glass for : improved weathering and less devitrification (crystallisation), BORATES for easier working and lower thermal expansion, ARSENIC OR ANTIMONY OXIDE for fining (removal of bubbles). Function additive in glass

17 Type of Glass The main types of glass are: Commercial Glass also known as Soda-lime-silicate glass Lead Glass Borosilicate Glass Glass Fibre

18 Type of Glass Types of special glass include: Vitreous silica Aluminosilicate glass Alkali-barium silicate glass Technical Glass Glass Ceramics Optical glass Sealing glass

19 Important class of compositions is the BOROSILICATES. lower thermal expansion better thermal shock resistance, improved chemical durability, for such applications as automobile head- lamps, cooking wares and laboratory apparatus Types of Glass

20 ALUMINO SILICATE GLASSES for : chemical durability, resistance to devitrification, higher temperature, and greater strength in cooking wares, glass ceramics, fiber glass and seals. Types of Glass

21 FUSED SILICA is especially valuable for : high-temperature stability, low thermal expansion and high thermal shock resistance, excellent chemical durability, purity and good optical transmission in the ultraviolet. Types of Glass

22 LEAD GLASSES are used for high refractive index, easier working and greater density for lamp envelopes, seals, optical glass CRYSTAL GLASS for art and tableware Types of Glass

23 Advantages of Glass Inert Does not corrode Durable Optical transparency Many forming method Many composition Cheap

24 Disadvantages of Glass Brittle Breakable Heavy

25 Glass Products Window glass Glass containers Fiber glass Optical glass / lens Technical glass / laboratory glass Safety glass / windscreen glass Glass panels / building Tableware / cooking ware Bulb/chandelier/lighthing Laser glass Glass mirrors Glass ceramic

26 Glass Products

27

28 The word glass is derived from a late-Latin term glaesum, used to refer to a lustrous a transparent material Another word often used to refer to glassy substances is vitreous, originating from the Latin word vitrum. Luster or shine and in particular its durability when exposed to the elements of nature, were probably the most significant properties of glass recognised by early civilisations. History of Glass

29 The history of the origin of glass can be categorized by periods according to the methods of the manufacturing process as follows: The First Period: 1700 BC through 100 AD Primitive method of making glass using molds. The Second Period: 100 AD through 400-500 AD Glassblowing technique discovered, and glass manufacture becomes a more practical process. The Third Period: 4-500 AD ~ 1200 AD Middle Ages, characterized by Byzantine glass. History of Glass

30 The Fourth Period: 1200 AD ~ 1900 AD Venetian glass, foundation for modern glass making is set. The Fifth Period: 1900 AD ~ present Glass objects used as everyday goods; large scale manufacturing. The science and engineering of glass as a material was much better understood, and in the late 1950's Sir Alastair Pilkington introduced a new revolutionary production method (float glass production), by which 90% of flat glass is still manufactured today. History of Glass

31 The word glass is derived from a late-Latin term glaesum, used to refer to a lustrous a transparent material Another word often used to refer to glassy substances is vitreous, originating from the Latin word vitrum. Luster or shine and in particular its durability when exposed to the elements of nature, were probably the most significant properties of glass recognised by early civilisations. History of Glass

32 The history of the origin of glass can be categorized by periods according to the methods of the manufacturing process as follows: The First Period: 1700 BC through 100 AD Primitive method of making glass using molds. The Second Period: 100 AD through 400-500 AD Glassblowing technique discovered, and glass manufacture becomes a more practical process. The Third Period: 4-500 AD ~ 1200 AD Middle Ages, characterized by Byzantine glass. History of Glass

33 The Fourth Period: 1200 AD ~ 1900 AD Venetian glass, foundation for modern glass making is set. The Fifth Period: 1900 AD ~ present Glass objects used as everyday goods; large scale manufacturing. The science and engineering of glass as a material was much better understood, and in the late 1950's Sir Alastair Pilkington introduced a new revolutionary production method (float glass production), by which 90% of flat glass is still manufactured today. History of Glass

34 Quick Question Name four of the major technological achievements in glass which have had the most profound impact on mankind

35 Quick Question - Answer 1.Glass window – which enables sunlight to come into dwelling unit 2.Lenses – opthamics for improved vision,microscope,telescope optics 3.Light bulb envelope - lighting 4.Semiconducting glasses – for computer memory, solar cell, photocopiers

36 The word glass is derived from a late-Latin term GLAESUM, used to refer to a lustrous a transparent material Another word often used to refer to glassy substances is vitreous, originating from the Latin word vitrum. Luster or shine and in particular its durability when exposed to the elements of nature, were probably the most significant properties of glass recognised by early civilisations. History of Glass

37 The history of the origin of glass can be categorized by periods according to the methods of the manufacturing process as follows: The First Period: 1700 BC through 100 AD Primitive method of making glass using molds. The Second Period: 100 AD through 400-500 AD Glassblowing technique discovered, and glass manufacture becomes a more practical process. The Third Period: 4-500 AD ~ 1200 AD Middle Ages, characterized by Byzantine glass. History of Glass

38 The Fourth Period: 1200 AD ~ 1900 AD Venetian glass, foundation for modern glass making is set. The Fifth Period: 1900 AD ~ present Glass objects used as everyday goods; large scale manufacturing. The science and engineering of glass as a material was much better understood, and in the late 1950's Sir Alastair Pilkington introduced a new revolutionary production method (float glass production), by which 90% of flat glass is still manufactured today. History of Glass

39 Byzantine GlassVenetian Glass Blowing Glass Float Glass

40 Glass Industry in Malaysia: present Industry Scenario The present production capacity of the flat and container glass industry is capable of supporting the domestic market demand and subsequently a substantial amount of output is exported. The output is currently in the rgion of 650 tonnes of glass containers and 500000 tonnes of flat glass annually

41 Glass Malaysia Scenario Glass CategoriesProducts Silica-based chemicalSodium silicate Construction –related productstempered & laminated glass Industrial glassFiberglass, float glass, panel & funnel, cullet Advanced & specialty glassSilicon wafer, optical & pharmaceutical glass, glass substrate, handphone screen Household glass productTableware, container/bottles, microwave turntable

42 Glass Malaysia Scenario Glass CategoriesProduction Qty Silica-based chemical5000-70000 tonnes Construction –related products3500 -22000 tonnes Industrial glass3 – 54m tonnes Advanced & specialty glass10m – 20m pcs Household glass product30000 – 71000 tonnes Source: Mineral &Geoscience Department Industry Survey 2007

43 Existing Local manufacturers based on product Grouping Product GroupsManufacturrers Clear Flat glassMalaysian Sheet Glass Bhd (MSG) Malaysia n Mirrors Sdn Bhd Colourless & Coloured Container Glass KIG Glass Industrial Sdn Bhd JG Container Sdn Bhd KL Glass Mfr Co Sdn Bhd Tableware GlassMalaya Glass Bhd Asia Glass Sdn Bhd Hamay Glass Sdn Bhd Clear Flat Glass (laminated)MSG Safety Glass Sdn Bhd MCIS Safety Glass Sdn Bhd

44 Existing Local manufacturers based on product Grouping Product GroupsManufacturrers Clear Flat Glass (tempered)Malaysian Sheet Glass sdn bhd MCIS Safety Glass sdn bhd Funnels & Panels for CRTSamsung Corning sdn bhd Nippon Electric Glass sdn bhd Matsushita Electric Corp sdn bhd Chemical/Lab glasswareSri K.K Industry sdn bhd Insulating glass wool and fibreglassJohore fiberglass sdn bhd Polyglass Fibre sdn bhd Foster Insulation sdn bhd Art Fiber Industry sdn bhd B.I.T Fiber Glass sdn bhd

45 Existing Local manufacturers based on product Grouping Product GroupsManufacturrers Optical GlassPolicore Optical sdn bhd Schott Glass sdn bhd Ohara Optical Sdn Bhd Glass Substrate/ electronic glassKonica Minolta Glass Tech Sdn Bhd Crystal GlassRembau Crystal SB Faizy Crystal Glass Blowing SB PL Crystal Village SB

46 Thank you… End of lecture


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