Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Otto - climate change challenge 1 Climate change's critical challenge for psychology: Preventing rebound and promoting intrinsic motivation for environmental.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Otto - climate change challenge 1 Climate change's critical challenge for psychology: Preventing rebound and promoting intrinsic motivation for environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 otto - climate change challenge 1 Climate change's critical challenge for psychology: Preventing rebound and promoting intrinsic motivation for environmental engagement Siegmar Otto Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg

2 otto - climate change challenge 2 Climate change mitigation and psychology Climate change mitigation means to reduce energy consumption the prime strategy: technological efficiency increases doesnt work because of rebound reduction of energy consumption is a psychological problem common approaches (incentives) dont work the problem substantially different from other environmental issues What really has to be done?

3 otto - climate change challenge 3 The Climate Change Challenge

4 otto - climate change challenge 4 The Climate Change Challenge common aim of sustainable development (i.e. especially climate change mitigation): reduction of energy and resource consumption

5 otto - climate change challenge 5 The Climate Change Challenge strategies of sustainable devleopment efficiency sufficiency consistency the three strategies of sustainable development according to the Brundtland report (WCED, 1987) sustainable development is possible, if and only if all three strategies are pursued Consistency reintegration of the industrial metabolism into natural processes or separation of the metabolism from the environment Efficiency derived from an inputs ratio to its utility in respect of a certain measure Sufficiency self-limitation, especially with regard to (materialistic) consumption

6 otto - climate change challenge 6 The Climate Change Challenge Consistency use only renewable energy Efficiency increase efficiency of technology (e.g., energy efficient fridges) Sufficiency consume less energy and resources (e.g., travel less) sustainable development in the case of climate change mitigation reduction of energy consumption strategies of sustainable devleopment efficiency sufficiency consistency

7 otto - climate change challenge 7 The Climate Change Challenge Consistency use only renewable energy Efficiency increase efficiency of our technology (e.g., energy efficient fridges) Sufficiency consume less energy and resources (e.g., travel less) strategies of sustainable devleopment efficiency sufficiency consistency yes BUT rebound unimportant in most strategies partially sustainable development in the case of climate change climate change mitigation -> reduction of energy consumption

8 otto - climate change challenge 8 The Climate Change Challenge only marginally relevant the basic strategy of all business efficiency increase cheaper production higher profit green image higher sales economic growth policy support also on the individual level more efficient behavior fulfillment of more goals irrelevant Societal focus on efficiency - Results of a content analysis (business and politics Otto (2007) strategies of sustainable devleopment efficiency sufficiency consistency

9 otto - climate change challenge 9 The Climate Change Challenge Societal focus on efficiency - and its result Example: AIM of the European Union until 2020 Agenda 20-20-20 EU 2008 reduction greenhouse gas emission by 20% share of renewable energies above 20% reduction of primary energy consumption by 20% all strategies depend on efficiency increases REALITY no reduction in primary energy consumption www.worldbank.org

10 otto - climate change challenge 10 How do we support mitigation? Commonly acknowledged contributions to climate change mitigation

11 otto - climate change challenge 11 How do we support mitigation? Commonly acknowledged contributions to climate change mitigation high switch to energy efficient lighting

12 otto - climate change challenge 12 How do we support mitigation? Commonly acknowledged contributions to climate change mitigation high change to energy efficient fridge

13 otto - climate change challenge 13 How do we support mitigation? Problem: Rebound - no real contribution Year Costs and consumption of light per capita cons in Lumen/h Cost per Lumen/h (efficiency of generation) technological efficiency gains are (over)compensated by additional consumption -> rebound Herring & Roy (2007); Umweltbundesamt (2011) increasing per-capita energy consumption despite efficient technology because of rebound

14 otto - climate change challenge 14 How do we support mitigation? OTHER commonly acknowledged contributions to climate change mitigation higher savings use tram or bicycle instead of car shop less

15 otto - climate change challenge 15 How do we support mitigation? Difference to previous environmental problem single behaviors can be changed effectively BUT: what do people do with savings from efficiency gains (and other sufficient behaviors) spend otherwise e.g., for a nice vacation REBOUND

16 otto - climate change challenge 16 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)?

17 otto - climate change challenge 17 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)? The psychological causes of rebound and unrestrained consumption or Why do we spend the money and time we earn?

18 otto - climate change challenge 18 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)? Why are you listening to this talk? Everybody has and endless number of desires, goals and motives How can you attain more of them? By being more efficient (with technology) Since when? hand axe since at least 2,6 mya

19 otto - climate change challenge 19 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)?

20 otto - climate change challenge 20 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)?

21 otto - climate change challenge 21 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)? efficient technology more effective goal attainment functional, facilitates everyday life attain our goals with less effort and faster more goals can be attained efficiency increase is prime strategy of evolution the same in flora and fauna (biopsychology) Otto, Kaiser, & Arnold (2013)

22 otto - climate change challenge 22 Why do we act and use technology (and produce CO2)? psychological explanation of unrestrained consumption the purpose of cars, fridges, and houses is not to save energy they are means to satisfy personal ends technology serves personal goals (extrinsic) climate change mitigation is no prime goal of most individuals fulfilling more personal desire and motives IS prime goal *intrinsic motivation: motive to reduce environmental burden / mitigate climate change extrinsic motivation: any other motive

23 otto - climate change challenge 23 Common approaches to behavior change

24 otto - climate change challenge 24 Common approaches to behavior change most effective programs: extrinsic behavioral management main focus on enticements / incentives financial social *intrinsic motivation: motive to reduce environmental burden / mitigate climate change extrinsic motivation: any other motive Example: AIM of the European Union until 2020 Agenda 20-20-20 EU 2008 reduction greenhouse gas emission by 20% share of renewable energies above 20% reduction of primary energy consumption by 20% all strategies depend on efficiency increases

25 otto - climate change challenge 25 Common approaches to behavior change common practice -> change behavior difficulty (with extrinsic motives) social enticements / incentives benefits grounded in people's social motives e.g.: status motives social norms (descriptive and injunctive) publicly made promises financial enticements / incentives e.g., providing free access to products or services, fees, rebates, subsidies …

26 otto - climate change challenge 26 Common approaches to behavior change common practice -> change behavior difficulty (with extrinsic motives) financial enticements / incentive example: lamps price (e.g., subsidize energy efficient light bulbs) money savings for the individual solution: change situational costs problem: low acceptance of energy efficient lamps

27 otto - climate change challenge 27 Common approaches to behavior change common practice -> change behavior difficulty (with extrinsic motives) social enticements / incentives example: green products and status motives Schneider, (2004); Griskevicius, Tybur, & van den Bergh (2010)

28 otto - climate change challenge 28 Common approaches to behavior change effective change of single behaviors worked for most previous environmental issues (e.g. ozone layer depletion) BUT: impossible to change all relevant behaviors savings in terms of time and money social and financial enticements / incentives additional consumption (rebound) no reduction in overall energy consumption no climate change mitigation

29 otto - climate change challenge 29 Common approaches to behavior change high low behavior difficulty (Germany 2010, N = 2,317).14.16.23.31.32.49.51.53.60.69.76.89.95 % of people behavior active environmentalism refraining from own car refraining from shopping bags switching off engine refraining from fabric softeners heating reduction (> 4 Std.) commuting by bike refraining from clothes dryers no convenience food refraining from prewashing taking showers not baths recycling paper owning energy efficient car

30 otto - climate change challenge 30 What do we need to reduce overall energy consumption?

31 otto - climate change challenge 31 What do we need to reduce overall energy consumption? high low intrinsic motivation behavior difficulty intrinsic motivation behavior difficulty (Germany 2010, N = 2,317).14.16.23.31.32.49.51.53.60.69.76.89.95 % of people behavior active environmentalism refraining from own car refraining from shopping bags switching off engine owning energy efficient car refraining from fabric softeners heating reduction (> 4 Std.) commuting by bike refraining from clothes dryers no convenience food refraining from prewashing taking showers not baths recycling paper persons

32 otto - climate change challenge 32 What do we need to reduce overall energy consumption? promotion of intrinsic environmental motivation high low environmental motivation THE CHALLENGE behavior change 29% 34% 35% 36% 38% 36% 35% 34% 30% 23% 18% 9% 4% 2010.14.16.23.31.43.49.51.53.60.69.76.89.95 Germany.43.50.58.67.81.85.86.87.90.92.94.98.99 active environmentalism refraining from own car refraining from shopping bags switching off engine refraining from car use refraining from fabric softeners heating reduction (> 4 Std.) commuting by bike refraining from clothes dryers no convenience food refraining from prewashing taking showers not baths recycling paper 2010

33 otto - climate change challenge 33 What do we need to reduce overall energy consumption? affects personal overall consumption no costly regulation necessary internally motivated high low intrinsic motivation behavior difficulty intrinsic motivation behavior difficulty persons

34 otto - climate change challenge 34 Finally some good news

35 otto - climate change challenge 35 Finally some good news we know how to measure intrinsic environmental motivation environmental behavior (i.e. intrinsic motivation) is learned intrinsic environmental motivation is related to environmental knowledge use of nature prosociality

36 otto - climate change challenge 36 Finally some good news measurement of intrinsic environmental motivation with the General Ecological Behavior Scale NuncaRaras veces Ocasiona lmente Frecuen temente SiempreNA Me voy en bicicleta o uso transporte público para ir al trabajo o a la Universidad. Compro carne producida y productos con etiquetas ecológicas. Me ducho en lugar de bañarme. Compro muebles de madera de árboles sembrados domésticamente. Espero a tener una carga completa de ropa antes de poner la lavadora. ….

37 otto - climate change challenge 37 Finally some good news intrinsic environmental motivation is learned correlation (r) age and env motivation/behavior 2001 r =.25 (p <.001; N = 779) 2010 r =.18,.17, and.16, respectively (each p <.001; each N = 779). env motivation/behavior significantly higher in 2010 (M =.08, SD =.85) than in 2001 (M = -.08, SD =.76). environmental motivation/behavior

38 otto - climate change challenge 38 Kaiser & Frick (2002) ENVIRONMENTAL KNOWLEDGE environmental sciences faculty electrical engineering forestry environmental sciences students Finally some good news environmental education

39 otto - climate change challenge 39.43 Finally some good news environmental education Kaiser & Frick (2002) increasingly relevant for lifestyle environmental motivation 19% ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOR / MOTIVATION ENVIRONMENTAL KNOWLEDGE environmental sciences faculty electrical engineering forestry environmental sciences students environmental knowledge

40 otto - climate change challenge 40 Kaiser, Hartig, Brügger & Duvier (2011).51 N = 1336; age: 36.6 Finally some good news Relation between attitude towards nature and intrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation attitude towards nature

41 otto - climate change challenge 41 Otto, S., Kaiser, F. G., & Arnold, O. (in press). The critical challenge of climate change for psychology: Preventing rebound and promoting more individual irrationality. European Psychologist. Siegmar Otto Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg siegmar.otto@ovgu.de ¡Gracias!

42 otto - climate change challenge 42 Siegmar Otto Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Institut für Psychologie Postfach 4120 D-39016 Magdeburg siegmar.otto@ovgu.de Siegmar Otto Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg siegmar.otto@ovgu.de Enjoy nature


Download ppt "Otto - climate change challenge 1 Climate change's critical challenge for psychology: Preventing rebound and promoting intrinsic motivation for environmental."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google