Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations: Athens & Sparta Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Lesson 9: Athens and Olive Oil."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Civilizations: Athens & Sparta Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Lesson 9: Athens and Olive Oil
This powerpoint was used in a workshop at ESC 16 in Amarillo on June 26, 2012. It includes Lessons 8 and 9 from the Focus: Middle School World History publication from CEE. Many slides are procedural directions for teachers. Any teacher can use the powerpoint as a springboard for teaching the lessons with some modifications.
Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Imagine the Possibilities Athens and Sparta were both Greek city- states*. If they were similar in so many ways, why did they develop such different economic systems? * A city-state is a city and surrounding region that is also an independent nation with its own army, currency, laws, and elected leaders.
Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Imagine the Possibilities Pair students and have one in each pair read Athens Choices (p. 118) and one read Spartas Choices (p. 119). Give each pair a copy of the Venn diagram on page 122 and the list on page 120. Have them work together to put each of the 15 statements (statement numbers) into the Venn diagram.
Lesson 8: Athens Choices (p. 118) Athens was located in one of the least fertile areas in ancient Greece. It could not grow the grain necessary to feed the growing city-state. It grew olives and grapes, which it used to produce olive oil and wine. Athens traded olive oil and wine for grain. Their dependence on trade led to the building of the Athenian fleet, which sailed the Mediterranean from Spain in the west to the Black Sea in the East.
Lesson 8: Athens Choices (p. 118) Athenians built magnificent temples, such as the Parthenon, but lived in simple sun-dried brick homes. Houses had no plumbing and used olive oil lamps. Marriage and family were important; marriages were arranged by families. Girls at the age of 14 were married to older men twice their age. Women didnt have much freedom in Athens. Although women were citizens, they could not own or inherit property. Women remained at home and managed the household and slaves, appearing in public only with permission from their husbands. Girls did not receive a formal education; most stayed home and learned how to manage a household.
Lesson 8: Athens Choices (p. 118) Men did much of the shopping at the market. Boys usually went to school at the age of 7 and learned reading, writing and grammar, music, and gymnastics. They wrote on wax- covered wooden tablets. At age 18, a boy received a year of military training. Most families of the citizen class owned at least one slave, who commonly farmed, the main industry in Athens. Slaves also worked in the home and cleaned, cooked, and made clothing. Slaves also worked in the silver mines, the worst job. The arts were celebrated and great works of art, literature, and drama set a standard for today. Some of historys greatest thinkers and philosophersSocrates, Plato, Aristotle- - walked the streets. Athens was the birthplace of democracy.
Lesson 8: Spartas Choices (p. 119) Sparta conquered Messenia around 725 B.C., taking over Messenian land and enslaving the Messenians to serve as agricultural slaves called helots. Why? Sparta could not feed a growing population. They forced the helots to grow crops for Sparta. The helot population grew, outnumbering the Spartans by 8 to 1. In 600 B.C., the helots revolted and were almost successful. Sparta responded by focusing on military strength, and their government exerted total control.
Lesson 8: Spartas Choices (p. 119) Every newborn baby had to be presented to rulers who decided whether the baby had the potential to be a great soldier or the mother of strong children. Those who failed the test were abandoned to die. Daily life for men focused on the military. At age 7, boys left home and moved into military barracks. Their schooling involved marching and training during the day and sleeping on hard benches at night. To encourage stealthiness, boys were fed poorly and encouraged to steal foodbut were warned they would be beaten if caught. That made tough soldiers who were ready to fight. Spartan mothers told their sons to come back from war carrying their shields (victorious) or upon them (dead).
Lesson 8: Spartas Choices (p. 119) Spartan women had freedom compared to women living in other Greek city-states, taking on responsibilities such as managing the family estate. Spartan women could inherit property. Girls were encouraged to be fit and strongthey ran, wrestled, and played sports because strong Spartan women would produce strong Spartan men for military service. Their government included two kings, a council of elders, and an assembly who ran the day-to-day affairs. People were not permitted to travel except for wars, and trade was discouraged. Money was made of iron bars. Free expression was discouraged and the arts and philosophy that flourished in Athens did not occur. Spartan society valued strength, duty, and discipline over individual worth and freedom. From this society we get the English word Spartan, which means simple, frugal, or austere. Other Greeks were amazed at Spartas military power.
Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Imagine the Possibilities Why could neither city-state produce enough food for their citizens? How did Athens solve the problem? How did Sparta solve the problem?
Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Imagine the Possibilities You could stop here just to teach the history, but the following slides extend the economic content by reviewing basic concepts and applying them to Athens and Sparta.
Lesson 8: Athens and Sparta Imagine the Possibilities Explain that economists have developed theories and tools that help explain human behavior, both by individual people and entire societies. Economists use economic concepts and a key economic tool to explain how Athens and Sparta developed differently. If students already know the difference between and command economy and a market economy, they could also apply that to Athens (market) and Sparta (command).
Lesson 9: Athens and Olive Oil This is a good follow-up to the lesson on Athens and Sparta. This lesson delves deeper into the trading that Athens did to obtain grains. Discuss trade: –Why do people trade? (to get goods and services they cant efficiently produce themselves) –Are people better off or worse off when they trade? (Students should recognize that specializing and trading is more efficient than trying to be self-sufficient.) –You hear Americans complain that very little is manufactured in the United States. Why do they see this and the resulting trade as a negative? (answers could vary including making U.S. dependent on other countries) Ask student what they know about olive oil and its many uses, then have then read Activity 9.1.
Activity 9.1: Agriculture in Athens The 630,000 acres of land in Attica, the region in which Athens was located, were rocky and unproductive. In fact, 1/3 was not suitable for any kind of farming. Even with careful land management and irrigation, the region only produced 675,000 bushels of grain per yearhardly enough to supply a quarter of its population. Without imported food, Athens would have starved.
Activity 9.1: Agriculture in Athens The terrain of Attica was well suited for growing olives but not grain. An olive tree takes 16 years of growing to produce usable olives and 40 years to reach full productivity. Olive trees were so valuable in Athens that cutting one down was a crime punishable by exile or death. The olive tree and its leaves became symbols of peace, wisdom, and victory, but olive oil was the liquid gold that was the source of Athens wealth. Greek olive oil was considered the finest in the ancient world.
Activity 9.1: Agriculture in Athens Olive oil is used as a food and in cooking, in religious ceremonies, as lamp fuel for lighting homes, as a skin conditioner and a cleanser instead of soap, and as a medicine. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, referred to it as the great therapeutic with more than 60 uses as a medicine. Olive oil was applied to the skin of Olympic athletes before competitions. Olive oil was as valuable to the ancient world as petroleum oil is to the modern world. In Greek mythology, olives and olive oil were considered gifts from the goddess Athena, who was selected as Athens patron saint over Poseidon.
Activities 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4: Athens and Olive Oil When students have read Activity 9.1, debrief enough to assess their understanding of olive oil and its importance to Athens.. (Activity can be done without going on to Activity 9.2) Then tell students they will travel back in time to visit the Athenian assembly and listen to a discussion that might have taken place. Activity 9.2 on page 138 needs 17 characters and a narrator. Give the 4 students who play the part of Athenian slaves copies of Activity 9.3. Give the 4 students who play the part of Egyptian slaves copies of Activity 9.4. Give each student a pebble or paper clip; the teacher will need two cups. Read Activity 9.2. Each of the 8 slaves has a flip card.
Activities 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4: Athens and Olive Oil As students read Activity 9.2, you can debrief along the way, or you can do it at the end. –Why doesnt Pericles grow his own food? It is more beneficial; the time to grow food would take away from his blacksmithing. –Why does Themistocles grow food but not make his own tools and weapons? It is more beneficial to farm and use the profit to buy tools. –Compared to Pericles, is Themistocles better at farming or blacksmithing? He does both well. –If he is better at both, why doesnt he do both? He would give up too much farm production by blacksmithing. Use the next 3 vocabulary slides to discuss voluntary exchange, absolute advantage, and comparative advantage.