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園藝學原理 Chapter 6 – 光線 LIGHT

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1 園藝學原理 Chapter 6 – 光線 LIGHT
羅筱鳳 教授 國立臺灣大學 園藝暨景觀學系 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣3.0版授權釋出】

2 Back to the Land Rural poverty and food shortage are forcing nations and scientists to engineer a new Green Revolution. But there’s a lot of lost ground to make up (Time, Oct. 26, 2009)

3 大 綱 光合作用 植物空間配置與光線截取關係 白化作用 色素效用 光週性 光量與植物生長 光源及其用途 光量測系統

4 INTRODUCTION Plants respond to light quality, quantity, & photoperiod(光週) Light is electromagnetic radiation(電磁波輻射)(fig. 7-2) Wave Particles: photons (光子)

5 Fig. 7.2 Electromagnetic spectrum
電磁波長 nm範圍為可視光 Fig Electromagnetic spectrum Fig Electromagnetic spectrum pp4e-fig jpg

6 Fig. 7.1 Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave
光線屬於電磁波輻射 Fig Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave pp4e-fig jpg

7 光合作用過程(附圖5-12, 圖7.10) 光吸收 光能傳遞:激發能(excitation energy) 光化學反應 暗反應
色素:葉綠素、輔助色素(如類胡蘿蔔素) 光能傳遞:激發能(excitation energy) 波長漸長,能量減少 光化學反應 反應中心:PS1, PS2 氧化還原反應 電子傳遞 ATP, NADPH2形成 暗反應 Calvin cycle CO2固定 碳水化合物形成

8 採光天線 (Nobel, P. S. 1999. Physical and Environmental Plant Physiology.)
Physicochemical & environmental plant physiology

9 Fig. 7.10 Basic concept of energy transfer during photosynthesis
pp4e-fig jpg

10 Photosynthesis 12H2O + light + 6CO2 → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
Chloroplasts (fig. 7-15) Process of photosynthesis Light rx Carbon dioxide fixation 3 carbon pathway 4 carbon pathway Crassulacean acid metabolism (景天酸代謝)(CAM) (table 5-1)

11 類囊體 Fig Transmission electron micrograph of a chloroplast from pea (Pisum sativum) pp4e-fig jpg

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14 Ornamental cabbage Corn Jade plant

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17 Spacing & orienting plants for light interception(光截取)
Optimal spacing Frequently planted at the ideal spacing for mature plants Interplanting (間作): plants w/ upright habits & spreading plants w/n or between rows is efficient Programmed dense planting(計畫性密植): dense initially, thinned later Weed control Containerized plants(盆栽植物) Hydroponical growing(水耕) system: automatically adjusting spacing

18 Spacing & orienting plants for light interception
Double, triple or wide rows utilize space more efficiently for backyard gardeners (fig. 7-19) Landscape plants must be properly spaced Other methods for fruit trees Pruning(修剪) Dwarf rootstocks(矮性砧木) Plant growth retardants(植物生長抑制劑) Manipulating difference between night & day temp (DIF)

19 Orientation(方向) East-west above 40°N North-south below 40°N
Often-debated subject Greenhouse orientation East-west above 40°N North-south below 40°N Gutter-connected (連棟) greenhouse North-south Open garden The tallest plants to the north, and the shortest to the south

20 Pruning plants for light interception
Fruit trees Thinning-out pruning ( 疏刪修剪) (fig. 5-8, 5-9, 5-10) Open-center training (開心整枝): peach (fig. 5-9, 5-10) Objective Constant yield Good-quality fruits Ornamentals Hedge (綠籬): wider on the bottom than the top (fig. 5-12, 5-13) Espalier (樹籬)(fig. 5-14) Topiary (裝飾剪)(fig. 5-14) Bonsai (盆景)(fig. 5-15)

21 Thinning-out cuts(5-8)

22

23 Maximize light interception(5-10)

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25 Hedge(5-12)

26 An improperly pruned hedge
The resulting holes impair the desired visual effect.(5-13)

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29 Etiolation (白化) White to yellowish stems & leaves
Plants often become etiolated in response to a blanching (去光、暗化) treatment Symptoms (fig. 5-16) White to yellowish stems & leaves Spindly growth of stems Extreme elongation of internodes Formation of seedling hooks (鉤) Role of hook (fig. 5-19) Use Cauliflower (fig. 5-20), table onion (fig. 5-21) Vegetative propagation: cutting (扦插), layering (壓條)(fig. 5-22)

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32 hook

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34 宜蘭三星青蔥

35 宜蘭三星青蔥─高畦栽培

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37 Effect of pigments-- carotenoids
Accessory(輔助) pigments for photosynthesis Photoprotection (光保護) Impart color to flower, fruits, seeds

38 Cryptochromes (隱藏色素) & Phototropins
Blue-light photoreceptors Cryptochromes Control stem elongation(如附圖18.4;18.6), cotyledon & leaf expansion, daily rhythms, & flowering Phototropins (趨光素): phototropism (向光性)auxin

39 18.4 Phototropism in wild type (A) and mutant (B) Arabidopsis seedlings
pp4e-fig jpg

40 藍光抑制生長

41 Phytochromes (光敏素) General characters
H. A. Bothwick & S. B. Hendricks of USDA Red (R) or far-red (FR) effect on lettuce seed germination (附圖17.2)(table 5-2) Phytochrome interconversions (fig. 5-23) The highest amounts exists in meristematic tissues & their newly formed daughter cells. Seed Dormancy Photoblastic Stimulated: carrot, gloxinia (大岩桐), weeds Inhibited: tomato Unaffected: peas & sweet corn

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46 Phytochromes (Cont. 1) Branching & stem elongation(分支與莖伸長)
R: short internodes, vigorous axillary bud(腋芽) growth (fig. 5-24) Ecological significance (fig. 9.4, 5-25, 5-26) Anthocyanin(花青素) production A typical high irradiance reaction mediated by phytochrome Effect of light on coloring of eggplant (fig. 5-29) apple, peach

47 紅光多於遠紅外線

48 葉片高效率吸收可視光,但吸收較少遠紅外線
Fig Optical properties of a bean leaf pp4e-fig jpg

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52 Photoperiodism (光週性) W. W. Garner & H. A. Allard (1920)
A response to day length Darkness is critical(附圖25.19) Phytochrome is the photoreceptor(光接受器)(附圖25.23) Each species has its own requirement for a minimum number of inductive photoperiods Flowering Formation of storage organs Stem elongation Temperate trees & woody shrubs

53 夜間才是關鍵

54 夜間才是關鍵

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57 Flowering Juvenile → adult 3 distinct classes Day neutral plants (DNP)
Initiate flowers under a wide range of day length Example Cucumber, everbearing (四季開花)strawberry, sweet corn Quantitative long-day plants Petunia(牽牛花), carnation Quantitative short-day plants Tomato, Rieger begonia(秋海棠)

58 Flowering (Cont. 1) Long-day plants (LDP) Summer-flowering plants
Evening primrose (報春花), spinach (fig. 5-31) Short-day plants (SDP) Late summer- or fall-flowering plants Cocklebur (Xanthium pennsylvanicum)(倉耳), chrysanthemum, kalanchoe (厚葉屬), poinsettia (附圖25.18)

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60 dandelion(蒲公英)

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63 Flowering (Cont. 2) Photoperiodic control of flowering
Revolutionize the floriculture industry Chrysanthemum can be programmed to flower at any desired time at any location Critical day length vary among crops & cultivars Manipulate critical day length either by controlling lighting or by providing darkness Lighting Incandescent lamps are commonly used (fig. 5-34, 5-35) Night interruption (暗期中斷)by lighting for 2-4 hr in the middle of night

64 Cuttings for vegetative propagation
(扦插苗營養繁殖)

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67 Flowering (Cont. 3) Darkening
Black cloth or plastic is pulled over the crop in the late afternoon & again in the early morning (fig. 5-36) Alternating day lengths(變換日長) SD followed by LD Bell flower (吊鐘花), creeping white clover LD followed by SD Kalanchoe & some lilies

68 (fig. 5-36)

69 Formation of storage organs
Stimulated by SD Tubers of potato, Jerusalem artichoke(菊竽), scarlet runner bean (紅花菜豆), Begonia Stimulated by LD Bulbs of onion, early garlic Tuberous root formation of Dahlia occur under any day length, but greater root under SD (fig. 5-38)

70 Potato tubers from in response to short days.

71 Formation of tuberous roots on dahlia is accelerated by short days
Formation of tuberous roots on dahlia is accelerated by short days.(fig. 5-38)

72 Stem elongation Runner (走莖)formation Stimulated by LD: strawberry
Stimulated by SD: spider plant (吊蘭)(fig. 5-19)

73 spider plant (吊蘭)(fig. 5-19)

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75 Temperate trees & woody shrubs
Stimulated by SD Fall coloration of leaves Leaf fall (abscission) Onset of cold hardness Onset of dormancy Phytochrome is involved

76 Light quantity & quality
Light quantity & photosynthesis Light compensation point (光補償點) Light saturation point (光飽和點)(附圖9-7) Vary w/ plant spp. & growing condition (附圖 9-8) Shade tolerance (耐陰性) Sun & shade leaves Leaf area index (葉面積指數) Acclimatization(馴化) of foliage plants

77 陽性與陰性植物在不同光度之光合成速率

78 Shade tolerance (耐陰性) Category (table 5-3)
Nearly all vegetables & fruit crops grow best in full sun Must select the genotype to fit the location (fig. 5-41) Many understory plants(樹冠下層植物) are quite shade-tolerant & intolerant of full sunlight Foliage plants are produced under shading materials (fig. 5-42, 5-43)

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80 Plants that grow well and flower in shaded locations
Impatiens azaleas

81 美國加州家庭庭院陽性植物

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84 海南觀葉植物生產圃

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87 Sun & shade leaves (陽性與陰性葉)
Comparison (table 5-4) Shade leaves under bright sunlight Leaf scorch(焦化)(fig. 5-44) Photoinhibition (光抑制), photodecomposition(光分解)

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89 Leaf scorch(焦化)(fig. 5-44)

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91 Leaf area index (葉面積指數)
Leaf area index (LAI) Ratio of the area occupied by all the leaves to the surface of ground that the plant covers LAI as related to the plant productivity (附圖) Leaf orientation (vertical) as related to yield

92 葉片高效率吸收可視光 Fig. 9.4 Optical properties of a bean leaf
pp4e-fig jpg Fig Optical properties of a bean leaf

93 Fig. Crop growth rate (CGR) of soybean communities as a function of the leaf area index (LAI) (Loomis, R.S., D. J. Connor Crop Ecology, p.42) Loomis, R.S. and Connor, D.J. Crop ecology: productivity and management in agricultural systems. Chinese Translation. China Agricultural Press, Beijing, 487p. (2002).

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95 Acclimatization of foliage plants (觀葉植物馴化)
Foliage plants frequently are raised outdoors in the full sun & must be properly acclimatized to prevent leaf-loss before being used for interior-scaping Manipulate light, temperature, watering, & nutrition Light is the most important Lower light levels to 40%-80% for 5 to more than 10 wk Grown under 40% shade Placed indoors for decoration light is the limiting factor (fig. 5-46)

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97 Light sources & their use
Sunlight Electric lamps High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps Fluorescence Lamps (螢光燈) Incandescent Lamps (鎢絲燈)

98 High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps
Types of lamps Mercury (Hg) Metal halide (MH) Sodium w/ high- or low- pressure Property Spectral quality (fig. 5-34) Big ballasts(基座) & reflectors (fig. 5-47) More expensive but longer life expectancy

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100 Fluorescence lamps (螢光燈)
Types of lamps Cool white: more common Warm white Spectral property (fig. 5-34) Used for seed germination & tissue culture Lower quantity of light & overcome by extending day length

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102 Incandescent lamps (鎢絲燈)
Used primarily for photoperiodic control Emit too much heat Low in blue end of the spectrum (fig. 5-34) Exhibit tall, succulent growth characters High in red end of the spectrum Use bulbs w/ internal reflectors (fig. 5-35)

103 Systems for measuring light
Terminology Flux: flow of a substance or transfer of energy across a surface; radiant or quantum flux Photon (光子): an individual particle of light Quantum (量子): energy carried by a photon Photometric System Radiometric System Photon (Quantum) Flux

104 Photometric system Light intensity: luminous flux emitted by a point source per unit solid angle (fig. 5-49) Units Foot-candle, lumen/ft2 Lumens Candela Lux Not very useful when describing for plants Deal specifically w/ spectral sensitivity of the “standard human eye” Should not used when describing light for plant growth

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106 Radiometric system Irradiance
Light (radiant flux) intercepted per unit of area Unit Joules/ sec. m2 = watt/ m2 Peak solar radiation level at sea level is about 1000 W. m2 The wavelength region must be specified From 400 to 700 nm: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) Instruments Radiometers Spectroradiometers

107 Photon (quantum) flux μmole/ m2. sec Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)
The primary photochemical act in photosynthesis depends on the number of photons that are trapped. Photon flux Unit μmole/ m2. sec Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) Referred to 400 to 700 nm

108 版權聲明 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 2 Rural poverty and food shortage ……lost ground to make up TIME Magazine, October 26, Vol. 174, No.16 (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/asia/0,9263, ,00.html), 瀏覽日期:2013/05/17,依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 5 P126. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 6 8 Plant Physiology (1999) 第2版 / Park S. Nobel (Physicochemical & environmental plant physiology), 9 P131. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。

109 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 11 P134. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 12 P100. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 13 揚州大學醫學院植物生理教研室 表4.2 C3、C4、CAM植物的光合和生理生态特性的比较 (http://jpkc.yzu.edu.cn/course/zhwshl/stjj/dyzc/dyzc04.htm), 瀏覽日期:2013/05/17,依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 14 Flickr / TommyHAGA ハボタン ornamental cabbage (http://www.flickr.com/photos/tommyhaga/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 Flickr / Michael Davie Corn (http://www.flickr.com/photos/michaeldavie/ /),

110 14 15 16 21 22 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 Flickr / Traveling Mermaid
Jade plant (http://www.flickr.com/photos/travelingmermaid/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 15 P103. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、5265條合理使用。 16 P104. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 21 Wikimedia commons / SB_Johnny (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magnolia_after_corrective_pruning.JPG), 瀏覽日期:2012/9/27。 22 P108. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey,

111 23 24 25 26 27 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 Flickr / Vironevaeh
Peach orchard in bloom 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 24 P108. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 25 Wikimedia commons / Brian Shaw (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Conifer_Hedges_-_geograph.org.uk_-_ jpg),瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 26 Flickr / Moochy Hedge at Montacute House, Sommerset (http://www.flickr.com/photos/moochy/ /), 27 Flickr / Sam Howzit Winnie the Pooh Topiary (http://www.flickr.com/photos/aloha75/ /),

112 27 28 30 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 Flickr / jpmatth
Espalier (http://www.flickr.com/photos/jpmatth/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 Flickr / edenpictures (http://www.flickr.com/photos/edenpictures/ /), 28 Flickr / Carol Browne Espalier (http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolbrowne/ /), Bonsai! (http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolbrowne/ /), 30 P110. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。

113 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 31 P418. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 32 P111. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 33 Flickr / Fluffymuppet Cauliflower leaves (http://www.flickr.com/photos/fluffymuppet/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 Flickr / Linda N. Cauliflower 34 國立臺灣大學園藝暨景觀學系 羅筱鳳 教授。

114 35 36 39 40 42 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 國立臺灣大學園藝暨景觀學系 羅筱鳳 教授。
P113. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 39 P447. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 40 P449. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 42 P419. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。

115 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 43 P115. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 44 45 P420. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 47 P117. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 48 P201. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。

116 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 49 P117. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 50 P118. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 51 P119. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 53 P651. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 54

117 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 55 P651. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 56 P655. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 59 P650. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 60 Flickr / Nemo's great uncle #5591 dandelions (タンポポ) (http://www.flickr.com/photos/maynard/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 61 Flickr / Vietnam Plants & America plants Leaves and flowers of Celosia Argentea (http://www.flickr.com/photos/phuonglovejesus / /),

118 62 64 65 66 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 Flickr / seven twenty five
poinsettia (http://www.flickr.com/photos/725/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 64 Flickr / sassycrafter Cuttings (http://www.flickr.com/photos/sassycrafter/ /), Flickr / peganum Rooted cuttings (http://www.flickr.com/photos/peganum/ /), 65 P124. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 66 Flickr / geefour907 Geo-thermal-powered greenhouses in FAI (http://www.flickr.com/photos/alaskatravelgram/ /),

119 68 70 71 73 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 Flickr / scott.zona
Aroid shade house 2 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/scottzona/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 70 Flickr / Beau B White Potatoes (http://www.flickr.com/photos/beaub/ /), 71 Flickr / Satrina0 Mascot Maya tuber trimming (http://www.flickr.com/photos/satrina0/ /in/photostream/), 73 Flickr / Peter Baer Spider Plant (http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjbaer/ /), Wikipedia / Wildfeuer (http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: Chlorophytum02.jpg), 瀏覽日期:2012/9/27。

120 74 77 79 80 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 Flickr / yellowcloud
Windowsill clone warrior leaf (http://www.flickr.com/photos/yellowcloud/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 77 生態學 第四章植物的交互作用/屏東科技大學熱帶農業暨國際合作系 周昌弘 (http://www.medie.com.tw/book/c/c04.htm), 瀏覽日期:2013/05/17,依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 79 P129. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 80 Flickr / Steve Guttman NYC Impatiens under the lilac (http://www.flickr.com/photos/steveguttman/ /), Flickr / ukgardenphotos Leonardslee Gardens, West Sussex (http://www.flickr.com/photos/ukgardenphotos/ /),

121 81 82 83 84 85 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 國立臺灣大學園藝暨景觀學系 羅筱鳳 教授。
P130. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 83 84 85

122 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 86 P130. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 88 P131. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 89 Wikimedia commons / Hardyplants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hosta33.jpg), 瀏覽日期:2012/09/27。 Flickr / jonathanjonl (http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonathanjo/ /), 瀏覽日期:2012/12/26。 90 Flickr / ukgardenphotos Container gardening at Great Dixter Gardens, Sussex (http://www.flickr.com/photos/ukgardenphotos/ /),

123 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 92 P201. Taiz L. and Zeiger E Plant Physiology, Fourth Edition. Sinauer Associates,Inc. U.S.A.依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 93 Loomis, R.S. and Connor, D.J. Crop ecology: productivity and management in agricultural systems. Chinese Translation. China Agricultural Press, Beijing, 487p. (2002).依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 94 Adelana, B. O. & Milbourn, G. M Relationship between leaf area and crop growth rate in maize. Ghana Jnl agric. Sci. 9, (http://gains.org.gh/articles/gjas_v9_p175_178.pdf), 瀏覽日期:2013/05/17,依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 96 P133. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 99 P134. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey,

124 101 105 頁碼 作品 版權標示 作者 / 來源 1-124 國立臺灣大學園藝暨景觀學系 羅筱鳳 教授。
P137. Preece, J. E., P. E. Read The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, 2nd Edition. John Wiley&Sons, Inc., New Jersey, 依據著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。 1-124 轉載自Microsoft Office 2010 PowerPoint 設計主題範本, 依據Microsoft 服務合約及著作權法第46、52、65條合理使用。


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